National Adult Education College and Career Readiness Training Design Initiative Integrating Reading and Writing



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Session Objectives

  • Review college and career readiness standards for English Language Arts content and practices
  • Explore research-based strategies for integrating reading and writing skills
  • Review evidence-based scoring rubric and sample anchor papers
  • Explore resources for leaders to use to enhance learning with different audiences

What Are Standards?

  • Standards for CCR ELA/Literacy Content
    • Reading Anchor Standards
    • Writing Anchor Standards

Standards-Driven Curriculum

  • Standards/
  • Practices
  • Classroom Instruction
  • Student Achievement

Key Shifts in the Standards

  • Shift 1: Complexity
  • Regular practice with complex text and its academic language
  • Shift 2: Evidence
  • Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational
  • Shift 3: Knowledge
  • Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction

Complexity

  • Shift 1 – Complexity: Regular practice with complex text and its academic language
    • Complexity of text that students can read is the greatest predictor of success
    • There is a four grade level gap between secondary and college/career level text
    • Shift from how students read to complexity of texts that are read
    • Focus needed on addressing academic vocabulary of students

Evidence

  • Shift 2 – Evidence: Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational
    • Priority placed on textual evidence based on national assessment data
    • Focus is on students’ ability to cite evidence from text in order to present
      • Careful analyses
      • Well-defended claims
      • Clear information

Knowledge

  • Shift 3 – Knowledge: Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction
    • Focus not limited to English language arts, but also literacy across the disciplines of
      • Science
      • Social studies
      • Technical subjects
    • Focus shifts to nonfiction text that constitutes the majority of what people read in college and the workplace

Manageable and Essential

  • CCR Standards for Adult Education consists of a manageable set of standards essential for college and career readiness
  • Consistency between K-12 and adult education systems
  • Opportunity to create common tools and materials to support implementation
  • Opportunity to prepare students for new assessment models (e.g., GED® test, PARC, and Smarter Balance)
  • CCR Standards for Adult Education, 2013

English Language Arts/Literacy New Realities

Overview of Content

  • 2014 GED® test
  • Integrated reading and writing assessment
  • 75% - nonfiction
  • 25% - fiction
  • Constructed responses
  • Reasoning through Language Arts
  • Social Studies
  • Science
  • Enhanced technology items

What’s new in the Reading content domain?

  • Analyze how individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact.
  • Analyze the structure of texts.
  • Determine the author’s purpose or point of view.
  • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text.
  • Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics.

What’s new in the Language content domain?

  • Complete item types that simulate real-life editing tasks
  • Edit to eliminate non-standard or informal usage
  • Develop an argument and support ideas with text-based evidence
  • Strategically apply awareness of audience and purpose of the task

What’s new in the Writing domain?

  • Constructed Responses
  • Provide real-world opportunity for test-takers to develop an argument and support ideas with text-based evidence
  • Integrate reading and writing skills
  • Scored using a multi-dimensional rubric
  • Can be an extended response or a short answer

Then

  • 2002 GED® Essay Prompt
  • What is one important goal you would like to achieve in the next few years?
  • In your essay, identify that one goal and explain how you plan to achieve it. Use your personal observations, experience, and knowledge to support your essay.

Now – 2014 GED® test

Holistic Scoring

Begin With THE END IN Mind!

CCR Writing Standards

  • CCR Anchor 1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
  • Introduce a claim
  • Supply evidence of each claim
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to link sections Create cohesion
  • Establish and maintain formal style and objective tone
  • Attend to the conventions
  • Provide a concluding statement that supports argument presented

Trait 1 Rubric Overview

  • Argument
    • Creation of argument
    • Evidence – use of text citations to support created argument of source text(s)
  • Validity
    • Assessment of the argument in source text(s)
    • Analysis of the issue
  • Integration
    • Integration of claims, explanations and textual evidence
    • Connection of purpose to prompt

Trait 2 Rubric Overview

  • Ideas
    • Development (reasoning)
    • Elaboration of ideas
  • Progression
    • Progression (flow) of ideas
    • Connection of details to main ideas
  • Organization
    • Structured to convey message
    • Transitional devices
  • Words
    • Appropriate word choice
    • Advanced vocabulary application
  • Awareness

Trait 3 Rubric Overview

  • Conventions – Application of standard English (e.g., homonyms/contractions, subject-verb agreement, pronoun usage, placement of modifiers, capitalization, punctuation)
  • Sentence Structure
    • Variety
    • Clarity
    • Fluency (e.g., correct subordination, avoidance of wordiness, run-on sentences, awkwardness, usage of transition words, appropriate usage for formal structure
  • Errors
    • Mechanics and conventions
    • Comprehension based on errors

Let’s Take a Closer Look

  • An Analysis of Daylight Savings Time
  • The article presents arguments from both supporters and critics of Daylight Saving Time who disagree about the practice’s impact on energy consumption and safety.
  • In your response, analyze both positions presented in the article to determine which one is best supported. Use relevant and specific evidence from the article to support your response.
    • Materials from GED Testing Service®

Reviewing the Anchor Papers

  • Read each of the anchor papers
  • Identify the following:
    • Claim or stance
    • Evidence to support claim or stance
    • Strengths and weaknesses of each writing sample
      • Development of ideas and organization
      • Use of the conventions of standard English
      • Sentence structure
      • Errors in mechanics and conventions

Trait 1 Rubric Overview

  • Argument
    • Creation of argument
    • Evidence – use of text citations to support created argument of source text(s)
  • Validity
    • Assessment of the argument in source text(s)
    • Analysis of the issue
  • Integration
    • Integration of claims, explanations and textual evidence
    • Connection of purpose to prompt

Trait 1: Creating Arguments and Using Evidence

  • “In the argument for daylight savings time, it seems that the pro daylight savings time position has won. The first article brings up several improvements in the daily lives of Americans which daylight savings time brings about. The article then uses studies and large scale research to support it’s position. In the second article, only smaller scale studies are used, and the writer uses arguments with no factual basis to support an anti-daylight savings position.
  • In the first article, historical facts are supplied to explain why daylight savings time was created – to save energy during the first world war – and the way it has evolved over the years from a state decision to a national one. . .”
  • Argument
  • Supporting Evidence

Trait 2 Rubric Overview

  • Ideas
    • Development (reasoning)
    • Elaboration of ideas
  • Progression
    • Progression (flow) of ideas
    • Connection of details to main ideas
  • Organization
    • Structured to convey message
    • Transitional devices
  • Words
    • Appropriate word choice
    • Advanced vocabulary application
  • Awareness
    • Demonstrated to audience and purpose
    • Form of writing – objective rhetoric and persuasive

Trait 2: Development of Ideas and Organizational Structure

  • “. . . In the first article, historical facts are supplied to explain why . . .”
  • “. . . The second article cites this technology, which is much more prevalent now than in the 1970s and certainly more than during the inception of DST . . .”
  • “. . . The next topic, which is cited by both arguments, is driver and pedestrian safety . . .”
  • “. . . The second article, however, did not read the facts carefully, because the facts they cite . . .”

Trait 3 Rubric Overview

  • Conventions – Application of standard English (e.g., homonyms/contractions, subject-verb agreement, pronoun usage, placement of modifiers, capitalization, punctuation)
  • Sentence Structure
    • Variety
    • Clarity
    • Fluency (e.g., correct subordination, avoidance of wordiness, run-on sentences, awkwardness, usage of transition words, appropriate usage for formal structure
  • Errors
    • Mechanics and conventions
    • Comprehension based on errors

Trait 3: Clarity and Command of Standard English Conventions

  • “. . . Opponents counter this claim, stating other results from different studies nullify this finding. According to the article, “a study in California indicated that DST had little or no effect on energy consumption that year.” In another study done in Indiana, it showed that “residents of that state spend $8.6 million more each year for energy, and air pollution increased aft he state switched to DST.” It is hypothesized that these jumps in energy and pollution are due to “increased use of air conditioning as a result of maximizing daylight hours.” Clearly this counters the argument that Daylight Savings Time is a cost effective measure. Energy efficiency isn’t the only aspect of DST that can be disproven. . .”
  • Use of standard English
  • Sentence variety
  • Clarity of thoughts
  • Few errors

2014 GED® SS Extended Response Rubric

Sample Social Studies Prompt

  • In your response, develop an argument about how the author's position in her letter reflects the enduring issue expressed in the excerpt from Thomas Jefferson. Incorporate relevant and specific evidence from the excerpt and the letter as well as your own knowledge of the enduring issue and the circumstances surrounding the case to support your analysis.

Short Answers in Science

  • Science Test MC Item
  • Science Test SA Item
  • Identify which step (out of four listed) would produce a particular outcome in a scientific process?
  • Design an experiment to test the hypothesis (given in the stimulus). Be sure to include descriptions of your data collection process and data analysis in your response.
  • Advantages: SA items allow assessment of a higher level of cognitive complexity because they require test-takers to express a response in their own words.
  • Tasks that appear in short answer items more like problems test-takers encounter in their daily lives.

Short Answer Scoring Rubric

  • “Because each item will have its own rules for scoring, scoring guides will be developed alongside the item itself.”
  • GEDTS® Assessment Guide for Educators 3.3.

A Review of the Research Evidence-based practices for teaching writing include . . .

A Review of the Research

  • Strategy Instruction
  • Summarization
  • Peer Assistance/Collaboration
  • Setting Product Goals
  • Word Processing
  • Sentence Combining
    • Adapted from the research of Steve Graham and Amy Gillespie, Vanderbilt University (2011)

A Review of the Research

  • Process Approach
  • Inquiry
  • Pre-Writing Activities
  • Writing as a Tool for Learning
  • Study of Models
    • Adapted from the research of Steve Graham and Amy Gillespie, Vanderbilt University (2011)

Don’t Forget That Once Is Not Enough!

  • When teaching a new strategy
  • Activate background knowledge
  • Discuss the strategy
  • Model the strategy
  • Have students memorize the steps for the strategy
  • Support students learning to implement (scaffolding)
  • Establish independent practice to gain mastery (practice makes perfect)

Think, pair, share

What is sentence combining?

  • It is the act of making one smoother, more detailed sentence out of two or more short, choppy sentences.
  • It starts with a “kernel” – an irreducible sentence.
  • For example:
    • The dog ran.
    • The story is boring.

Benefits of Sentence Combining

  • Increases an awareness of writer motivations and reader responses
  • Helps convey different ideas
  • Assists in the use of the grammar in context
  • Fosters revision skills

A Few Ways to Combine Sentences

  • Use a series of words or phrases
  • Use compound subjects and/or verbs
  • Use a key word (move a word between sentences)
    • I am going to meet the president.
    • I will meet him tomorrow.
    • Tomorrow, I am going to meet the president.
  • Use phrases (prepositional, participle, infinitive, and appositive phrases)
  • Use compound or complex sentences

Let’s Combine!

  • Meditation can help you relax.
  • Meditation is a technique.
  • The technique can be learned.

Let’s Combine! How about . . .

  • Meditation can help you relax.
  • Meditation is a technique.
  • The technique can be learned.
  • Meditation, a relaxation technique, can be learned.

Let’s Combine!

  • Nina applied for a job.
  • Nina needed to earn money.
  • Nina is a hard worker.

Let’s Combine! How about . . .

  • Nina applied for a job.
  • Nina needed to earn money.
  • Nina is a hard worker.
  • A diligent employee, Nina applied for a job to earn additional money.

Let’s Combine!

  • A sports car screamed around the corner.
  • The sports car was red.
  • It screeched to a stop in front of the doors.
  • The doors led into the hospital.

Let’s Combine! How about . . .

  • A sports car screamed around the corner.
  • The sports car was red.
  • It screeched to a stop in front of the doors.
  • The doors led into the hospital.
  • The fire-red sports car screamed around the corner and screeched to a stop in front of the hospital emergency room.
  • Screaming around the corner, the fire-red sports car screeched to a stop in front of the hospital’s emergency room door.

How to Incorporate Sentence Combining

  • Introduce alongside the writing process
  • Provide short, frequent sessions
  • Organize lessons into
    • Teacher modeling
    • Support/guided practice
    • Independent practice
  • Develop evaluative questions
  • Use content as exercises
  • Make it fun!

Effective readers use text structure to . . .

  • Predict what is to be read
  • Comprehend/understand text
  • Observe the way the author has organized the text
  • Look for key words and concepts
  • Note the different headings and subheadings
  • Notice and interpret graphics

Types of Text Structure

  • Description
  • Sequence and Order
  • Compare and Contrast
  • Cause and Effect
  • Problem and Solution

Rules of Summarizing

  • Attribute sources
    • Cite the original source
  • Use topic sentences
      • Give your audience an idea of main points you want to make
  • Omit excess detail
    • Leave out minuscule details; focus on what’s relevant
  • Collapse lists

Summarizing

  • British Pass Stamp Act – March 22,1765
  • Hoping to raise sufficient funds to defend the vast new American territories won from the French in the Seven Years' War, the British government passes the notorious Stamp Act in 1765. The legislation levied a direct tax on all materials printed for commercial and legal use in the colonies, including everything from broadsides and insurance policies to playing cards and dice.
  • Though the Stamp Act employed a strategy that was common in England, it stirred a storm of protest in the colonies. The colonists argued that Parliament could not impose taxes upon them without their consent. Believing this right to be in peril, the colonists rioted and intimidated all the stamp agents responsible for enforcing the act into resignation.
  • Not ready to put down the rioters with military force, Parliament eventually repealed the legislation. However, the fracas over the Stamp Act helped plant seeds for a far larger movement against the British government and the eventual battle for independence.

Somebody-Wanted-But-So

  • Somebody
  • Wanted
  • But
  • So
  • Christopher Columbus
  • To sail to India to buy spices
  • He ran into the Caribbean Islands
  • He claimed the area for Spain.
  • Anne Frank
  • To hide from the Nazis
  • Someone turned her in
  • She died in a concentration camp.
  • Adolf Hitler
  • To control all of Europe
  • The Allies fought against him
  • He killed himself when Germany was defeated.
  • Thomas Edison
  • To invent the incandescent light bulb
  • His light bulb blackened (the Edison effect)
  • It later led to the electron tube, the basis of the electronics industry
  • British
  • ?
  • ?
  • ?

Important Ideas

Getting the GIST

Brainstorm Time!

  • Constructed response is . . .

What is constructed response?

  • Assessment items that ask students to apply knowledge, skills, and critical thinking abilities
  • Requires students to “construct” answers without the benefit of any suggestions or choices.
  • Requires students to generate and intertwine ideas into a response that is directly related to the text(s)
  • Short or extended

RLA Extended Response

Science Short Answer

Social Studies Extended Response

Steps for Drafting Constructed Responses

  • Read the passage and question
  • Unpack the prompt (identify key words)
  • Rewrite the question in your own words and turn the question into a topic sentence/ thesis statement
  • Collect relevant details from passage
  • Organize details into a logical order
  • Draft your answer
  • Re-read and edit/revise your answer making sure all parts of the question are answered

Use a Process

  • Use a step-by-step approach, including how to:
  • unpack a prompt
  • set up a claim (thesis statement)
  • identify evidence in the to support the claim

Unpacking a Prompt – Do/What?

  • Explain a key similarity between Truman’s speech and Roosevelt’s speech. Use evidence from both articles to support your response.
  • Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 25 minutes to complete.
  • Copyright © 2013 GED Testing Service
  • Do
  • What
  • Explain
  • Key similarity between the two speeches
  • Use
  • Type
  • Your response
  • Take
  • Approximately 25 minutes

Unpacking a Prompt – Do/What?

  • Do
  • What
  • Select
  • Someone you’ve read about – a natural leader
  • Write
  • Essay
  • Describe
  • The person and accomplishments
  • A person who seems in charge of every situation is sometimes called a “natural leader.” People often look to such a person to lead them in projects both great and small.
  • Select someone you have read about who seems to be a natural leader. Write an essay in which you describe the person and his or her accomplishments so vividly that your readers will feel they know the person.

It’s Your Turn - Unpack a GED® Prompt

  • While Dr. Silverton’s speech outlines the benefits of cloud seeding, the editorial identifies drawbacks of this process.
  •  
  • In your response, analyze both the speech and the editorial to determine which position is best supported. Use relevant and specific evidence from both sources to support your response.
  •  
  • Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 45 minutes to complete.

It’s Your Turn - Unpack a GED® Prompt

  • While Dr. Silverton’s speech outlines the benefits of cloud seeding, the editorial identifies drawbacks of this process.
  •  
  • In your response, analyze both the speech and the editorial to determine which position is best supported. Use relevant and specific evidence from both sources to support your response.
  •  
  • Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 45 minutes to complete.
  • Copyright © 2013 GED Testing Service
  • Do
  • What
  • Analyze
  • Speech and editorial
  • Determine
  • Best supported position
  • Use
  • Relevant/specific evidence from both
  • Type
  • Response
  • Take
  • 45 minutes

Unpacking a Prompt – Do/What?

  • In the two autobiographies, the authors describe the challenges they must overcome to learn essential skills. Compare and contrast the challenges that each author faces and describe how each addresses those challenges. Use specific details from the two passages, Type your answer. This task may require approximately 45 minutes.
  • Do
  • What
  • Compare and contrast
  • Challenges each author faces
  • Describe
  • How each addressed the challenges
  • Use
  • Evidence from both passages
  • Type
  • Answer
  • Take
  • About 45 minutes

Quick Review

  • An Analysis of Daylight Savings Time
  • The article presents arguments from both supporters and critics of Daylight Saving Time who disagree about the practice’s impact on energy consumption and safety.
  • In your response, analyze both positions presented in the article to determine which one is best supported. Use relevant and specific evidence from the article to support your response.
    • Materials from GED Testing Service®

Let’s Develop a Thesis Statement

  • Thesis Statement = The main idea or main point of a written assignment.
    • Clearly identifies a topic
    • Contains an claim or stance on the topic
    • Creates a roadmap for the writing
    • Answers the question: “What am I trying to prove?”
    • Usually located in the introduction

Thesis Statement – What is the claim?

  • Looking at the arguments regarding this issue, it is clear that DST is beneficial to society in many ways.
  • Between the two positions in this article, the one against Daylight Saving Time is better supported through recent research and specific evidence.
  • Even though the studies used in the article date back to the 1970s, the positive effect of daylight savings time in reducing energy costs and improving pedestrian safety is well documented.

Start with Thesis Frames

  • Although _____________________ (believes, demonstrates, argues) that ____________________________________, _________________ supports/provides the clearest evidence _________________________.
  • Looking at the arguments regarding ____________, it is clear that _____________________________________________.
  • When comparing the two positions in this article, ____________ provides the clearest evidence that _________________________________________.

What supports the claim? - It’s the evidence!

  • Evidence - that which tends to prove or disprove something
  • Reasons and explanations
  • Facts, examples, statements, details
  • Key words – for example, however, because of this reason

What supports the claim? - It’s the evidence!

  • Sample evidence from the text(s)
  • “Research in the 1970s found that Daylight Savings Time saved about 1% per day in energy costs.”
  • “For example, it provides the results of a much more recent (2007) study in California.”
  • “…the points listed in the counter-argument are more relevant…the data is 37 years more relevant!”
  • Reasons, evidence, and explanation

Explaining the Evidence

Extended Response Structure

Don’t Forget to Revise and Edit

  • Structure and content
  • Make changes to the substance of the writing from one draft to another
  • Make corrections
  • Ensure adherence to standard English conventions
  • Use editing checklist
  • A dd
  • R emove
  • M ove
  • S ubstitute
  • L ists
  • I ntroductory
  • E xtra information
  • S entences

Unpack the Prompt – Do/What?

  • Do
  • What
  • In your response, develop an argument about how Senator Kennedy’s position in his speech reflects the enduring issue expressed in the quotation from the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780. Incorporate relevant and specific evidence from the quotation, the speech, and your own knowledge of the enduring issue and the circumstances surrounding Kennedy’s run for the presidency to support your analysis.
  • Type your response in the box. This task may require 25 minutes to complete.

What’s Your Claim

  •  ____________ position on _________________ is clearly supported by _______________ and _____________________.
  • _____________________ argues that ____________________________, which is supported by _____________________.
  • A key issue raised in both _________________________ and __________________ is that ______________________.
  • The long-standing position of ______________ is supported by __________ and _______________________.
  • In discussion of ______________________, one controversial issue has been ___________________. ________________ believes that _______________________ as supported by _________________________________.
  •  

What’s the Evidence?

  • What are key words, phrases, ideas that support the claim from the excerpts and from your personal background knowledge?
  • Text 1
  • Quotation
  • Text 2
  • Speech Excerpt
  • Background Knowledge

Extended Response Structure

  • Step 1: Analyze/Plan
  • Know
  • Do
  • Facts/Content
  • Support
  • What is the question about?
  • Underline or highlight important information
  • Identify and circle the performance verbs
  • What specific tasks is the question asking me to do?
  • What are the facts I need to provide to answer each part of the question
  • What are the supporting details that will help make my answer clear to the reader?
  • Step 2: Write your answer – Be sure to use the “RAS” Method for Written Response.
  • R: Restate the question
  • A: Answer the question using your notes
  • S: Support your answer with evidence (supporting details)
  • Step 3: Go back and review, revise, and edit your answer.
  • Prompt/Questions:
  •  
  • Restatement of question in own words
  •  
  • Sample answer
  •  
  • Detailed body of evidence that supports answer be sure to include enough details to answer the question. Make sure that all details address the questions and are not off-topic.
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Restated question
  • Concluding thoughts
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Next Step:
  • Select and Apply an Integrated Reading and Writing Strategy

Practices that Make a Difference

  • Dedicate time to writing and writing instruction across the curriculum.
  • Involve students in various forms of writing.
  • Treat writing as a process.
  • Keep students engaged.
  • Be enthusiastic about writing.

Practices that Make a Difference

  • Teach often to the whole class, in small groups, and with individual students.
  • Model, explain, and provide guided assistance.
  • Provide support, but move towards self-regulation.
  • Adapt writing assignments and instruction to meet student needs.
  • Set high expectations.

Questions, Insights, Suggestions

  • “High achievement always occurs in the framework of high expectation.”
  • Charles F. Kettering (1876-1958)
  • Thom Suddreth
  • Trainer/Consultant
  • tsuddreth@tcsg.edu
  • Margaret Roberson
  • Trainer/Consultant
  • mrobersom@aol.com


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