Name: Period: Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life multiple choice



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Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The three particles that make up atoms are



a.

protons, neutrons, and isotopes.

c.

positives, negatives, and electrons.

b.

neutrons, isotopes, and electrons.

d.

protons, neutrons, and electrons.

2. The nucleus is made up of



a.

protons and electrons.

c.

protons and neutrons.

b.

electrons and neutrons.

d.

protons, neutrons, and electrons.

3. Which of the following terms describes a substance formed by the combination of two or more elements?



a.

compound

c.

nucleus

b.

isotope

d.

enzyme

4. Which of the following makes up a molecule of water?



a.

one atom of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen

b.

one atom of sodium and one atom of chlorine

c.

one atom of hydrogen and two atoms of oxygen

d.

two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen

5. A covalent bond is formed as the result of



a.

transferring electrons.

c.

transferring protons.

b.

sharing an electron pair.

d.

sharing a proton pair.

6. What type of ion forms when an atom loses electrons?



a.

neutral

c.

negative

b.

positive

d.

possibly positive or negative

7. Ice floats on water because



a.

of cohesion.

c.

water shrinks when it freezes.

b.

ice has a higher density than water.

d.

water expands when it freezes.

8. The most abundant compound in most living things is



a.

carbon dioxide.

c.

sodium chloride.

b.

water.

d.

sugar.

9. Water molecules are polar, with the



a.

oxygen side being slightly positive and the hydrogen side being slightly negative.

b.

oxygen and hydrogen sides being slightly positive.

c.

oxygen and hydrogen sides being slightly negative.

d.

oxygen side being slightly negative and the hydrogen side being slightly positive.

10. Which of the following lists the different types of chemical bonds in order of increasing attraction?



a.

ionic, covalent, hydrogen

c.

hydrogen, covalent, ionic

b.

covalent, ionic, hydrogen

d.

hydrogen, ionic, covalent

11. A solution is a(an)



a.

breaking of a chemical bond.

b.

chemical reaction.

c.

evenly distributed mixture of two or more substances.

d.

combination of two or more liquids.

12. When salt is dissolved in water, water is the



a.

reactant.

c.

solute.

b.

solution.

d.

solvent.

13. If the pH of stomach acid was measured,



a.

it would be below 7.

b.

it would be above 7.

c.

it would be 7.

d.

it would be basic.

14. A substance with a pH of 12 is called



a.

an acid.

c.

both an acid and a base.

b.

a base.

d.

neither an acid nor a base.

15. Solutions that contain high concentrations of H+ ions



a.

have pH values above 7.

c.

are bases.

b.

are acids.

d.

are enzymes.

16. Amino acid is to protein as



a.

fat is to lipid.

c.

nucleotide is to nucleic acid.

b.

DNA is to RNA.

d.

simple sugar is to monosaccharide.

17. A monosaccharide is a



a.

carbohydrate.

c.

nucleic acid.

b.

lipid.

d.

protein.

18. Which of the following organic compounds is the main source of energy for living things?



a.

carbohydrates

c.

nucleic acids

b.

lipids

d.

proteins

19. Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins?



a.

store and transmit heredity

b.

help to fight disease

c.

control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes

d.

build tissues such as bone and muscle

20. Which statement is true?



a.

Simple sugars are made of polysaccharides.

b.

Glycerol is made of fatty acids.

c.

RNA molecules are made of nucleic acids.

d.

Proteins are made of amino acids.

21. In chemical reactions, atoms are



a.

created.

c.

rearranged.

b.

destroyed.

d.

neutralized.

22. When hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water, water is



a.

a product.

c.

both a product and a reactant.

b.

a reactant.

d.

neither a product nor a reactant.

23. Identify the reactant(s) in the chemical reaction, CO2 + H2O ® H2CO3.



a.

CO2, H2O, and H2CO3

c.

H2CO3

b.

CO2 and H2O

d.

CO2

24. What is the process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals?



a.

cohesion

c.

chemical reaction

b.

adhesion

d.

dissolving

25. What is the term used to describe the energy needed to get a reaction started?



a.

adhesion energy

c.

cohesion energy

b.

activation energy

d.

chemical energy

26. Chemical reactions that absorb energy



a.

will not occur.

c.

will always explode.

b.

will never explode.

d.

are usually colder than the environment.

27. Which of the following is a form of energy that may be released during a chemical reaction?



a.

heat

c.

light

b.

sound

d.

all of the above

28. Which of the following statements about enzymes is true for all enzymes?



a.

Enzymes work best at a pH of 7.

b.

All enzymes work inside cells.

c.

Enzymes are proteins.

d.

Enzymes slow down a reaction.

29. A substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction is called a(an)



a.

catalyst.

c.

molecule.

b.

lipid.

d.

element.

30. Enzymes affect the reactions in living cells by changing the



a.

products of the reaction.

c.

temperature of the reaction.

b.

speed of the reaction.

d.

pH of the reaction.



Name: Period:
SCIENCE SKILLS



Figure 6 Formation of calcium floride and hydrogen chloride.
1. Which compound in Figure 6 is covalently bonded?

2. Based on Figure 6, how many electrons does the fourth energy level of an atom of calcium contain?

3. According to Figure 6, which ion is formed by the gaining of electrons?

4. Based on your observation of Figure 6, how many atoms of chlorine would combine with one atom of calcium?

5. Based on Figure 6, how does calcium fluoride achieve a stable structure?
SHORT ANSWER

1. Why are atoms considered neutral?


2. What is a molecule?

3. What type of bond accounts for water’s properties of adhesion and cohesion?

4. On which atom would you most likely find shared electrons in a water molecule?

5. Use the terms solvent and solute to describe how to prepare a salt solution.

6. What are the four groups of organic compounds found in living things?

7. Name two essential roles that enzymes play in cells.



ESSAY

1. Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonding.

2. Compare and contrast adhesion and cohesion, using capillary action as an example.

3. Explain how carbon is uniquely suited to form biological molecules.



4. Compare enzyme activity to a lock and key.


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