Myers’ psychology (7th Ed) Chapter 4 The Developing Person



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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)

  • Chapter 4
  • The Developing Person
  • James A. McCubbin, PhD
  • Clemson University
  • Worth Publishers

Developmental Psychology:

  • Developmental Psychology:
  • Branch of psych. that studies physical, cognitive & social change throughout the life span
  • Considers the 3 big developmental ?’s:
  • A) nature/nurture? B) stability/change?
  • C) continuity/stages?

Prenatal Development and the Newborn: Conception: As sperm enters, a barrier forms

  • Life is sexually transmitted

Prenatal Development & the Newborn

  • Zygote: fertilized egg; less than ½ survive!
    • enters a 2 wk period of rapid cell division
    • = embryo after it attaches
  • Embryo: the developing human organism from 2 weeks thru 2nd month
  • Fetus: developing human organism from 9 wks after conception  birth

Prenatal Devel. & Newborns

  • 40 days 45 days 2 months 4 months

Prenatal Devel. & the Newborn

  • Teratogens (“monsters??): agents, such as chemicals & viruses:
  • reaches embryo or fetus during prenatal devel. & cause harm
  • Sci. still trying to determine how much harm… …smoking in preg. & male violent crimes?
  • Can be drugs, diseases, radioactivity, or chemicals
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): physical & cognitive abnormalities in kids caused by heavy drinking during pregnancy (1/750)
  • (See t-138, Judges quote)
    • symptoms include mis-proportioned head
    • The leading cause of retardation 

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Prenatal Development and the Newborn

  • Rooting Reflex
    • tendency to open mouth, & search for nipple when touched on the cheek; aids survival
    • Requires “tongue, swallow, breathe…” coordination
    • In Notes: Explain each reflexes as we go over it…
  • a) grasping :
  • b) Moro (startle):
  • c) Babinski:
  • (Digi. Med. Arch. #1 )

Newborn Preferences:

  • Newborn Preferences:
    • human voices & faces
      • face-like images *Which below do they prefer?
    • smell & sound of mother (see 138)

Prenatal Development & the Newborn

  • Habituation (boredom?)
    • Decreasing responsiveness w/ repeated stimulation
    • Novel (new) stimulus gets more attention, stronger response
    • Indicates memory & familiarity…using senses to gain knowledge & experience
    • (Note: Stimulus: something that causes a reaction

Prenatal Development and the Newborn

  • Once habituated to old stimulus, newborns preferred gazing at a new one
  • (New experience…)

Infancy & Childhood: Physical Devel.

  • Maturation
    • biological growth processes that enable orderly (in particular order) changes in behavior
    • Programmed: is like a genetic blueprint
    • relatively uninfluenced by experience…just happens b/c it is time…”wired in”
  • At birth
  • 3 months
  • 15 months
  • Cortical Neurons

Infancy & Childhood: Physical Development

  • 3 month-old baby learns kicking moves a mobile--& can retain that learning for a month (Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1997). EFFICACY! I can have effect!
  • This helps them to learn that they can affect their world

Neural sequence of develop.:

  • Neural sequence of develop.:
  • Birth: have most brain cells you’ll ever have
  • 0 – 2: growth spurt (wiring) allowing us to walk, talk, & remember stuff
  • 3-6: networks sprout rapidly in frontal lobe: allows rational planning (If I do this, this will happen…)
  • Into puberty: pathways for language & agility developing, “polishing up”
  • After puberty: “pruning” process: trims out unused, strengthen those being used
  • **Prior to 3yrs., can’t remember much at all b/c haven’t connections for it
  • Known as “Infantile amnesia”

Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Development

  • Schema: Jean Piaget’s word for a concept or framework we use to organize & interpret info
  • -“mental molds into which we pour our experiences” (neural netwks.?)
  • EX: cats…vs. dogs; love; motherhood, etc.
  • Piaget said 2 ways we deal w/ new experiences:
  • Assimilation vs. Accommodation:
  • Assimilation: interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas
  • --we have a set of ideas about 1 thing EX: a doggie
  • -dogs have 4 legs, are furry, & have a tail
  • -so a cat = a “doggie”…pony = BIG doggie…
  • Accommodation 

Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Development

  • Accommodation: adapting (adjusting) our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new info
  • EX: we learn the cat is not a doggie…but a new category—or schema—a “cat” or kitty
  • Cognition: All the mental activities associated w/ thinking, knowing, remembering, & communicating
  • -as kids have more experiences in their world, they adjust existing schemas & accommodate to bring in new schemas…& they use these to develop
  • Meta-cognition: What we know about HOW we know
  • Piaget: Cognition goes thru 4 major developmental stages…

Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Develop.: (see p. 144) KNOW these!!

  • Typical Age
  • Range
  • Description
  • of Stage
  • Developmental
  • Phenomena
  • Birth to nearly 2 years
  • Sensorimotor
  • Experiencing the world through
  • senses and actions (looking,
  • touching, mouthing)
  • Object permanence
  • Stranger anxiety
  • About 2 to 6 years
  • About 7 to 11 years
  • About 12 thru
  • adulthood
  • Preoperational
  • Representing things
  • with words and images
  • but lacking logical reasoning
  • Pretend play
  • Egocentrism
  • Language development
  • Concrete operational
  • Thinking logically about concrete
  • events; grasping concrete analogies
  • and performing arithmetical operations
  • Has Conservation
  • Mathematical transformations
  • Formal operational
  • Abstract reasoning
  • Abstract logic
  • Potential for moral reasoning

Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Devel.

  • Sensori-motor stage: (birth- 2 yrs.) Object Permanence: Awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived (able to see, hear, etc.)
  • Games: Peek-a-boo? Where’s the bunny?
  • Develop this during Piaget’s sensorimotor stage: what ages do not? Most are getting by what age? (start p. 144)
  • Difference betwn. Piaget’s view & present day view?
  • -How does this show “continuity vs. stages?” (top 145)

Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Devel.

  • “Baby Math”: Shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare longer (Wynn, ‘92)
  • --Explain the 2 EX’s of “baby logic” on p. 145
  • -How do psy. measure how kids notice something different or odd? (i.e., what is the operational definition?)
  • 1. Objects placed
  • in case.
  • 2. Screen comes
  • up.
  • 3. Object is removed.
  • 4. Impossible outcome:
  • Screen drops, revealing
  • two objects.
  • 4. Possible outcome:
  • Screen drops, revealing
  • one object.

Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Devel.

  • Preoperational stage (2-6):
  • Conservation: the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite
  • changes in the forms of objects…
  • EX: Tall thin glass vs. short fat glass= same amt.? Pla-doh
  • They don’t have at beginning…get toward end of stage…
  • Egocentrism: the inability of the preoperational child to
  • take another’s point of view EX: TV viewing? My brother?
  • Abusive parents often don’t realize this & they tend to see this as “ornery” behavior

Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Devel.

  • Theory of Mind: “A not B”
  • (Note: still in pre-operational stage)
  • Just beginning to form this
  • People’s ideas about their own &
  • others’ mental states..
  • …about their feelings, perceptions
  • Also thoughts & the behavior
  • these might predict
  •  Still tend to be egocentric, but improving on this
  •  Gaining empathy; learning thoughts = feelings
  • When you show the kid these pictures &
  • tell the story, how will they respond? 

Theory of Mind & Autism

  • Autism: Disorder that appears in childhood & marked by deficiencies in communication, social interaction & understanding of others’ states of mind
  • Extremely egocentric; little
  • or no “theory of mind” formed
  • Can’t read emotions in others
  • Can’t see that others do not know what they know
    • EX: fig. 4.10 + text (147)
    • B/C of communication
    • limits, deaf kids may have
    • problems w/ theory of mind also

Asperger’s Syndrome is a specific form of “high-functioning” autism Syndrome

“ME!”

  • “ME!”
  • A
  • B

Cognitive Development: Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory

  • Influential theory
  • Development is more continuity rather than stages as Piaget believed
  • Larger emphasis on social factors
  • Vygotsky

Work of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as Social Development Theory.

  • Work of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as Social Development Theory.
  • Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition Vygotsky, 1978), as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning."

Vygotsky:

  • Vygotsky:

Pre-op: learning to think in symbols: EX’s?

  • Pre-op: learning to think in symbols: EX’s?
  • -Again: a steady, continuous process (continuity)
  • -Private speech: Pre-op kids talking to themselves to “think things out”
  • -allows them to process cognition…
  • How can this help w/ math? (c-148)
  • Concrete operations stage (7-11): now understand conservation (see “joke”)
  • -Understand things we have experience w/
  • -Beginning to understand math transformations:
  • 8+4=12…so what is 12 – 4? Then…4 x 6 = 24, 24 div.by 6 = ?
  • Formal operations stage (12 +): beginning abstract thought…
  • -can theorize & plan various possibilities
  • (If this is true, then …)
  • BUT…again, Piaget underestimated abilities (t-149)

Piaget: Father of cognitive psych.”

  • Piaget: Father of cognitive psych.”
  •  What he got right & wrong: (p.149…Reflecting…)
  • What he…got right:
  • “ “ ..missed…
  • Who can use this info?
  • How can they use this today?

Inf. & Ch-hd.: Social Develop. (150)

  • Stranger Anxiety
    • fear of strangers infants commonly display
    • begins about 8 mos.
    • Purpose: keep child close to care-giver…why could this be important at this age?
    • is cross-cultural, so…what does that indicate?
  • Attachment
    • Strong emotional tie w/ another person
    • We attach to ppl w/ which we are comfortable, familiar…& who are responsive to needs
    • young kids show by seeking closeness to the caregiver & showing distress on separation
    • “home-base:” a secure base (safe haven)
    • is it just those who give food? Or is it more?

Social Development

  • H. Harlow’s Surrogate
  • Mother Experiments
  • (Harlow vid.)
    • Preferred contact w/ comfortable cloth mother, even though feed from the nourishing wire mother
    • Humans tend to attach to those soft, warm, who rock, pat, feed… (contact comfort)
    • a secure base
    • As we grow, attachment changes from parents to peers to partners

Social Development

  • Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken when
  • placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers.
  • Note: ethics no longer allow such studies
  • ATTACHMENT: secure attachment is important for later relationships
  • Involves trust & expecting responsiveness… (t-153)

Social Development

  • Critical Period
    • best period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development (EX: lang. & Genie)
    • “window of opportunity”…if this is missed, will not develop that aspect…either at all…or not completely
  • Imprinting
    • process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
    • Konrad Lorenz: studies w/ ducklings & 1st moments after hatching…he was 1st creature they saw; they attached to him
    • will also attach to other things that move…bouncing ball, etc.

Attachment:

  • Attachment:
  • Deep, caring, close, & enduring (long-lasting) emotional bond between infant &
  • care-giver; forms in humans at about 6 mos.
  • --used Harlow’s “wire-mom” study for this info
  • Stranger anxiety: fear of stranger--even if mom there
  • --is this normal?
  • Separation anxiety: upset if mom goes away suddenly
  • ”Strange situation” experiment: Mary Ainsworth
  • 1st : mom & kid in room w/ stranger & mom
  • leaves
  • 2nd: no stranger in room when she leaves
  • -measures levels of attachment in kids: 

Psychologists have ID’ed 4 attachment patterns:

  • Psychologists have ID’ed 4 attachment patterns:
  • a) secure b) avoidant c) resistant d) disorganized
  • 1. Secure: need to explore, but have mom close; mom leaves, they cry, but OK when she returns; no anger; most kids (at least 70-80%) are securely attached
  • 2. Avoidant : cry when mom leaves; but avoid or ignore mom when she returns
  • 3. Resistant: not upset when she leaves, but angry & reject her when she returns
  • 4. Disorganized: often confused or act different ways; don’t always act the same, but often not angry if leaves, but avoid her when she returns; this is the least “secure” type
  • **Most sensitive, responsive moms have securely attached kids (well over 70% of all kids)

Fathers & children: Just a “mobile sperm banks?”

  • Fathers & children: Just a “mobile sperm banks?”
  • ?: Elian Gonzales…Would the situation been the same if it were reversed as to mom/dad?
  • Read & note the 3 studies on 153:
  • a) “pregnant dads”?
  • b) kids health & well-being & mom + dad love
  • c) non-married parents, separation, divorce: increases risk for social & psychological pathologies (“diseases”)
  • ”Separation from parents”: home-care vs. day-care?
  • No major difference RE: stranger anxiety
  • -starts 6-8 mos., peaks (+ -) 13 mos. …then declines
  • -at that point it eases (especially if we are
  • securely attached) & we can open to other
  • people…especially peers…

Here is the link to log onto the Companion Website for Myers Psychology, 8th edition:

  • Here is the link to log onto the Companion Website for Myers Psychology, 8th edition:
  • http://bcs.worthpublishers.com/hspsych8e/default.asp?s=&n=&i=&v=&o=&ns=0&uid=0&rau=0
  • Log on as "Students".   Give yourself your own Password & User ID and include MY email so that I can view quizzes if I decide to do for Ex Cr. or something....

Social Development

  • Groups of
  • infants left by their mothers in a unfamiliar room
  • (from Kagan, 1976)
  • 0
  • 20
  • 40
  • 60
  • 80
  • 100
  • 3.5
  • 5.5
  • 7.5
  • 9.5
  • 11.5
  • 13.5
  • 20
  • 29
  • Percentage
  • of infants
  • who cried
  • when their
  • mothers left
  • Age in months
  • Day care
  • Home

Soc. Devel.

  • Basic Trust (Erik Erikson): a sense that the world is predictable & trustworthy
    • formed in 1st yr. by good experiences w/ responsive caregivers
    • Debated, but most psy. say later has effect on success in relationships
    • Deprived of attachment: -withdrawal
    • -easily frightened -or v. aggressive (?)
    • -permanent emotional scars
    • - “unloved become unloving”--abused can be abusers
    • -BUT…most abused do not b/c of resiliency…(tough)
    • Disruption of attachment: v. upset, even despairing
    • --most recover…foster kids?
    • Day-care & attachment? If quality day-care, should be no difference ”It takes a village…”
    • …But kids alone? NO

“Quality day-care”: What is this? & How

    • “Quality day-care”: What is this? & How
    • can you ID it?
    • Discussion topic:
    • Briefly discuss w/ a partner…
    • Think about kids’ different temperaments, etc.
    • -How could this allow a parent to do well w/ 1 kid…& not as well w/ another?

Self-Concept (pp.156-7): Into notes…

  • Self-Concept (pp.156-7): Into notes…
    • A sense of one’s identity & personal worth
    • According to Charles Darwin, when does self-awareness begin?
    • How psych’s test when kids can do this…
    • Happens about when___ (age)?
    • Fairly stable by _____ (age)
    • Kids view of themselves affects what?
    • So how can parents help? 
    • Soc. Devel.: Child rearing practices…

Parenting styles: 1st 3: too hard, too soft …& just right

  • Parenting styles: 1st 3: too hard, too soft …& just right
  • 1) Authoritarian (aka dictatorial): parents impose rules & expect obedience
    • EX: “My way or hi-way!!” “Because I said so!!”
  • 2) Permissive (aka laissez faire): give in to kids, make few demands, use little punishment
  • -No structure, no consistent rules, which kids NEED
  • EX: “I said NO!....Well, OK…ummm, just this once…”
  • 3) Authoritative: Both demanding but responsive
    • set rules, but explain reasons & encourage discussion
    • Allow kids to make some (limited) choices to give practice… Best way…
    • 4) Newer type… Unresponsive = the worst: no attention, no caring, no involvement = resentment, anger, & often social problems

Idea that loving, authoritative parenting style = best is confirmed by many correlational studies in more than 200 cultures worldwide …BEST chances for kids….Below

Adolescence (p. 159)

  • Adolescence: transition from childhood  adulthood…
  • begins w/puberty…goes to independent adult status
  • RITES of PASSAGE: Ceremony for a step into adulthood
  • How is it differ. now than say 1850 or so?
  • G. Stanley Hall: “strum und drung” ...& are some stresses, but _ out of _ HS seniors checked “on the whole, I am satisfied w/ myself.” See Dave Barry  p. 160
  • Puberty: period of sexual maturation when capable of reproduction
  • --avg. ages? (b-159—some F earlier…possibly “whys”?)
  • Primary Sex Characteristics: Body structures allowing for sexual reproduction:
      • Gonads: ovaries—female testes--male
      • external genitalia in both

Secondary Sex Characteristics:

  • Secondary Sex Characteristics:
  • Non-reproductive sexual characteristic
  • F: breast & hips M: voice quality & body hair
  • F: Menarche (meh-NAR-key): 1st menstrual period
  • M: “spermarche”: 1st ejaculation
  • Avg. ages for these: F: 11-13 M: 13
  • --Know problems & advantages for…
  • -early maturing M’s? -early maturing F’s?
  • How does this shows interaction of heredity &
  • environment?
  • Adoles. brain development: Childhood: brain cells are __?__
  • ...In adoles. they begin to __?__ Use it or lose it!
  • Frontal lobe devel. vs. emotional limbic system:
  • How does this affect behavior…& how/when does it change?

Adolescence

  • 1890’s:
  • Average interval between a woman’s menarche & marriage: just over 7 years
  • Now: Over 12 years!
  • Why is this significant?
  • 10
  • 20
  • 7.2 Year Interval
  • 10
  • 20
  • 12.5 Year Interval
  • Age
  • Age
  • 1890, Women
  • 1995, Women

Adolescence

  • Thru childhood, M & F are similar in height.
  • At puberty, F surge ahead briefly (11-13), but then M overtake them at about 14.
  • Sequence (1st 2nd…) of changes is more predictable than the timing…
  • Onset time varies w/ kids
  • Height in
  • centimeters
  • 190
  • 170
  • 150
  • 130
  • 110
  • 90
  • 70
  • 50
  • 0
  • 2
  • 4
  • 6
  • 8
  • 10
  • 12
  • 14
  • 16
  • 18
  • Age in years
  • Boys
  • Girls

Body Changes at Puberty

Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder

  • As moral
  • development progresses, focus of concern moves from the “how it affects ME” to the wider social world.
  • Piaget’s formal operations allows this
  • “Heinz’s Dilemma” 164
  • - 2 ?’s
  • Results vary cross-culturally
  • -Depends on collectiv.
  • vs. individualistic
  • societies
  • Morality of abstract
  • principles: to affirm
  • agreed-upon rights and
  • personal ethical principles
  • Morality of law and
  • social rules: to gain
  • approval or avoid
  • disapproval
  • Morality of self-interest:
  • to avoid punishment
  • or gain concrete rewards
  • Postconventional
  • Level 3rd
  • Conventional
  • Level 2nd
  • Preconventional
  • Level 1st

Emerging Adulthood

  • Emerging adulthood

Social intuition? J. Haidt, 2001: A newer theory:

  • Social intuition? J. Haidt, 2001: A newer theory:
  • (Moral feeling: Read p.165)
  • -Our mind makes “aesthetic judgments”….
  • …pleasing, not pleasing
  • See ppl do a really rotten thing? feel disgust
  • …See a really nice thing, feel “warm & fuzzy”
  • ? = which comes 1st?
  • -Do moral emotions cause us to have moral feelings?
  • -Do “gut-level” feelings cause us to establish moral
  • ideas of right vs. wrong?
  • *See social intuitionalist’s dilemma: Which is OK? Both?
  • Neither?
  • -“Emotion areas” lit up on brain scans only w/ the
  • “pushing” situation
  • This is new psych research, so it hasn’t been examined much yet…

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development (Stages 1–4, p. 166)

  • Approximate
  • age Stage Description of Task
  • Infancy Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants
  • (1st year) develop a sense of basic trust.
  • Toddler Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and
  • (2nd year) and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities.
  • Preschooler Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks
  • (3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feel
  • guilty about efforts to be independent.
  • Elementary Competence (industry)
  • (6 years- vs. inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying puberty) themselves to tasks, or they feel
  • inferior.

Gender and Identity (go back to pp 126-130)

  • Self-concept = our understanding & evaluation of who we are.
  • Gender = in psychology, the biologically & socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
  • Aggression = physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
  • X Chromosome = the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
  • Y Chromosome =the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.

Gender and Identity…continued…

  • Testosterone = the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
  • Role = a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
  • Gender Role = a set of unexpected behaviors for males or for females.
  • Gender Identity = our sense of being male or female.
  • Gender Typing = the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
  • Social Learning Theory = the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Devel. (Stages 5-8) Adoles.  Late Adulthood:

  • Approximate
  • age Stage Description of Task
  • Adolescence Identity vs. role Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by
  • (teens into confusion testing roles and then integrating them to
  • 20’s) form a single identity, or they become
  • confused about who they are.
  • Young Adult Intimacy vs. Young adults struggle to form close relation-
  • (20’s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate
  • 40’s) love, or they feel socially isolated.
  • Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri-
  • (40’s to 60’s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through family
  • and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose.
  • Late Adult Integrity vs. When reflecting on his/her life, the older adult
  • (late 60’s & up) despair may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.

Identity: one’s sense of self

  • Identity: one’s sense of self
    • the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing, “trying on,” & integrating various roles--peer groups affect this (HS? college?) (survey, b-167, t-168)
    • Eventually form a consistent, stable sense of self, but does change w/ situations
  • Intimacy: the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adoles. & early adulthood
    • Separating from parents: In US, compare early vs. late adolescence: Consider conflicts: length? intensity? frequency?
    • Compare parent vs. peer influence: EX: “drug talk”?
    • & what is influenced mostly by peers? by parents?

The changing parent-child relationship:

  • The changing parent-child relationship:
  • 100%
  • 80
  • 60
  • 40
  • 20
  • 0
  • 2 to 4 5 to 8 9 to 11
  • Ages of child in years
  • Percent w/
  • positive, warm
  • interaction
  • with parents

How Developmental Psy’s study Human Development: Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Studies

  • Cross-sectional studies: test & compare grps of differing ages at the same time…
  • EX’s:
  • Longitudinal studies: retest same grp of ppl over long period of time… at 2yrs., later at 6, at 10, etc.
  • Ex’s:
  • Cohort groups: grp of ppl you share time, culture, etc., with

Adulthood: Physical Development

  • Menopause:
  • the time of natural cessation of menstruation in women
  • Also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as ability to reproduce declines
  • Men: gradual (continuity) lessening of sperm production, then some prostate concerns
  • F: gradual decline in fertility: 35-39 ½ as likely to become pregn. w/ 1 act of intercourse than F 19-26
  • Usually around 50; hot flashes common
  • Most F do not have intense emotional reactions
  • Expectations & attitude influence effects
  • Most experience positive effects…few (2%) = “regret”
  • Sex after 60: 78% either said satisfied w/ amt., or wished for more

Physical changes in later life: Ans. T/F quiz? (174)

  • Physical changes in later life: Ans. T/F quiz? (174)
  • Worldwide life expectancy:
  • 1950: 49 1995: 67
  • But in developed countries: 75+
  • Sensory ability: vision: diminishes
  • --pupil shrinks, lens less transparent, reduced amt. of light to retina, so need more light…& don’t understand when others don’t
  • Hearing: weakens--can be heredity or experience-why?
  • Sense of smell (which strongly affects taste) weakens, which = using more flavorings like salt, etc
  • -Muscle strength down, reaction time down, stamina down, distance perception affected

Health:

  • Health:
  • Immune system does weaken, so more susceptible to more severe illnesses like cancer, pneumonia, etc
  • But…have built up more antibodies thru life so resist more minor illnesses like colds, etc.
  • Those over 65 are ____ as likely as 20-yr. olds & ____ as likely as preschoolers to suffer from respiratory flu each yr. = 1 reason older workers miss less work
  • “Nursing homes”, etc.: only ___% of those over 65

2 Theories of aging:

  • 2 Theories of aging:
  • “Biological clock” theory of aging: if other factors eliminated, ppl still deteriorate at 85+ & die by about 110…b/c cells stop reproducing
  • “Wear & tear” theory: We age b/c we use & misuse bodies
  • *Dementia: substantial loss of brain cells, generally late adulthood…
  • Up to 95, rate of mental disintegration doubles every __?_ years
  • Possible causes:
  • -series of “mini-strokes”
  • -tumors -alcoholism,
  • -arteriosclerosis -Alzheimer’s
  • These bring on dementia:
  • loss of usual mental ability (not same as senile)

Alzheimer’s Disease:

  • Alzheimer’s Disease:
  • At 75 what % has Alz.?
    • progressive, irreversible brain disorder
    • gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language….& finally, physical functioning
    • Majority of elderly do NOT have this…
    • What % ?
    • Causes: ACh loss, plaques (globs of degenerating tissue), shriveled protein filaments…brain actually shrinks
    • p.178 Who’s at risk?? …who’s less likely?

Normal Brain

  • Normal Brain
  • vs.
  • Alzheimer’s
  • Brain:
  • PET scans 

Adulthood: Physical Development: Aging Senses

  • Vision
  • 10
  • 30
  • 50
  • 70
  • 90
  • 0
  • 0.25
  • 0.50
  • 0.75
  • 1.00
  • Proportion of normal
  • (20/20) vision when
  • identifying letters on
  • an eye chart
  • Age in years

Adulthood: Physical Development

  • The Aging Senses: Smell (olfactory)
  • 10
  • 30
  • 50
  • 70
  • 90
  • 50
  • 70
  • 90
  • Percent correct when
  • Identifying smells
  • Age in years

Adulthood: Physical Develop.

  • The Aging Senses: Hearing
  • 10
  • 30
  • 50
  • 70
  • 90
  • 50
  • 70
  • 90
  • Percent correct when
  • identifying spoken
  • words
  • Age in years

Adulthood: Phys. Devel. Reaction Time:

  • Slowing reactions contribute to increased accident risks among those 75 and older.
  • 12
  • 10
  • 8
  • 6
  • 4
  • 2
  • 0
  • 16
  • 20
  • 25
  • 30
  • 35
  • 40
  • 45
  • 50
  • 55
  • 60
  • 65
  • 70
  • 75 and
  • over
  • Fatal
  • accident
  • rate
  • Age
  • Fatal accidents
  • per 10,000 drivers
  • Fatal accidents
  • per 100 million miles

Adulthood: Phys. Devel.

  • Incidence of Dementia by Age
  • What is % at...65? 75? 85? 95?
  • Risk of dementia
  • increases in later
  • years
  • 60-64 70-74 80-84 90-95
  • 65-69 75-79 85-89
  • Age Group
  • 40%
  • 30
  • 20
  • 10
  • 0
  • Percentage
  • with dementia

Adulthood: Cognitive Development:

  • Adulthood: Cognitive Development:
  • Aging & memory: Recall (greater decline) vs. Recognition (minimal decline)
  • --Type of info matters: meaningful (means a lot to you & can use) = lot less decline:
  • Can you relate this to biological psy?
  • Aging & Intelligence: how psy. study:
  • Cross-sectional studies: test & compare grps of differing ages at the same time…
  • -showed great declines in intelligence in aging
  • -for a long time this was prevailing idea…
  • ….so old were out, young were in
  • Longitudinal studies: retest same grp of ppl over long period of time… at 2yrs., later at 6, at 10, etc.
  • -findings: until late in life, IQ & mem. fairly stable
  • …..& that those losses were fairly slow
  • KNOW! Why the difference?? (b-180 – 181)…also IQ tests?

Adult Cognitive Devel.

  • Recalling new names introduced once, twice, or three times is easier for younger adults than for older ones
  • (Crook & West, 1990).
  • (What kind of study does this look like—Longitudinal or Cross-sectional?)
  • 18
  • 40
  • 50
  • 60
  • 70
  • Age group
  • Percent
  • of names
  • recalled
  • 0
  • 10
  • 20
  • 30
  • 40
  • 50
  • 60
  • 70
  • 80
  • 90
  • 100
  • After one
  • introductions
  • After two
  • introductions
  • Older age groups have
  • poorer performance
  • After three
  • introductions

Adult Cog. Devel.: Recall vs. recognition:

  • In a study by Schonfield & Robertson (1966), the ability to recall (EX: essays) new information declined during early & middle adulthood
  • But the ability to recognize (M-C, matching, etc.) new information did not.
  • BUT...other factors can influence memory at other times..... 
  • Number
  • Of words
  • remembered
  • 20
  • 30
  • 40
  • 50
  • 60
  • 70
  • 0
  • 4
  • 8
  • 12
  • 16
  • 20
  • 24
  • Age in years
  • Number of words
  • recalled declines
  • with age
  • Number of words
  • recognized is
  • stable with age

Cognition in Adolescence... 

  • Cognition in Adolescence... 

Adulthood: Cognitive Development

  • Cross-Sectional Study
    • a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
    • Suggests more change b/c of grp. differences
  • Longitudinal Study
    • a study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
    • Suggests more stability
  • 25
  • 32
  • 39
  • 46
  • 53
  • 60
  • 74
  • 67
  • 81
  • 35
  • 40
  • 45
  • 50
  • 55
  • 60
  • Age in years
  • Reasoning
  • ability
  • score
  • Cross-sectional method
  • Longitudinal method
  • Cross-sectional method
  • suggests decline
  • Longitudinal method
  • suggests more stability

Adulthood: Cognitive Development

  • Type of info learned: vocab., knowledge, & ability
  • to integrate info = little decline
  • But non-verbal & quick responses: don’t do as well
  • ?: What confounding variable could longitudinal studies not have taken into account (c-181)?
  • (& it did affect data a little when taken in to acct.,)
  • -------------------------------------------------------------
  • Crystallized Intelligence (181): accumulated knowledge & verbal skills
    • tends to increase with age
  • Fluid Intelligence: ability to reason speedily & abstractly
    • tends to decrease …slowly to 75, then faster… ..esp. after 85

Adulthood- Cognitive Development (t-182)

  • Verbal intelligence scores hold steady with age, while nonverbal intelligence scores decline (adapted from Kaufman & others, 1989).
  • 20
  • 35
  • 55
  • 70
  • 25
  • 45
  • 65
  • 75
  • 80
  • 85
  • 90
  • 95
  • 100
  • 105
  • Intelligence
  • (IQ) score
  • Age group
  • Nonverbal scores
  • decline with age
  • Verbal scores are
  • stable with age
  • Verbal scores
  • Nonverbal scores

Adult social development: In predictable stages?

  • Adult social development: In predictable stages?
  • Ages & stages: 40’s = transition to middle adulthood
  • Do NOT MOST have “mid-life crisis” —regret—struggle..
  • Divorce: More likely when? Suicide when?
  • -------------------------------------------------------
  • Social Clock: culturally preferred timing of social events…
      • Marriage: (see EX’s t-183)
      • Parenthood
      • Retirement
  • B/c these vary so by cultures & eras, not much evidence for “stages”
  • Life events & chance encounters: More important than “social clock” idea b/c these can happen at varying times for varying people…w/ some limitations
  • -chance plays a part—b/c deflect us from 1 road to another EX: ID twins & romantic partners?

Adulthood: Social Development

  • Do ppl in early-forties mostly have a midlife crisis?
  • NO for great majority
  • Females
  • Males
  • No early 40s
  • emotional crisis
  • 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54
  • Age in Years
  • 24%
  • 16
  • 8
  • 0
  • Emotional
  • instability

Adulthood: Social Changes

  • Commitments: Erikson’s 2 main adulthood tasks
  • intimacy & generativity (called different things by different researchers)…basically love & work
  • Love: cross-cultural strong tendency toward “pair-bonding”…flirting, falling in love & marrying
  • Evolutionary psy. see this as necessary for species
  • -When is love strongest & more likely to last?
  • Similar interests & values, sharing emotional & material support, “intimate self-disclosure” (?), marry after 20, well-educated…but….
  • -in Western countries have those last 2…but 2X as likely to divorce…why might this be?
  • --Canada & US = 1 divorce for each 2 marriages
  • -Might living together 1st help? Actually no…(184)
  • -but 9 out of 10 marry…& married report being happier

Commitment (cont’d.)

  • Commitment (cont’d.)
  • Which marriages last? What factors affect this?
  • -“5-to-1-ratio” (?) b-184… EX: of what to do & not to do?
  • -sharing household duties if both work?
  • -Kids: can bring joy, but lots of stress…and they leave, so need more for a marriage to last
  • Work: This is what often defines us in much of adulthood
  • -How does the Western idea of work for women differ from many other places?
  • Well-being across the life-span: positive vs. negative feelings…regret? If anything, positive feelings increase w/ age for most…highs not as high, but lows not as low
  • -moods more stable, not as extreme, but more enduring
  • -more contentment & more spirituality

Adulthood: Social Changes

  • Multinational surveys show age differences in life satisfaction are trivial
  • (Inglehart, 1990).
  • When are they the highest? Lowest?
  • What might affect these small changes…which occur in small %’s?
  • 0
  • 20
  • 40
  • 60
  • 80
  • 15
  • 25
  • 35
  • 45
  • 55
  • 65+
  • Percentage
  • “satisfied”
  • with life
  • as a whole
  • Age group

Death & dying: usually the worst is death of a spouse (F--5X more than M), especially if sudden

  • Death & dying: usually the worst is death of a spouse (F--5X more than M), especially if sudden
  • Can last for 1+yr. intensely, & mild depression years after
  • -way we grieve varies w/ culture, but grief is cross-cultural…and AIDS is wiping out resources of all kinds in many places, esp. Africa
  • 3 common misconceptions RE: best way to deal w/ grief:
  • - get it out -talk it out -stages (p. 187)
  • Last of Erikson’s stages: Integrity vs. despair:
  • We don’t deny death as we used to...we see it more as a cycle... even if we are not thrilled
  • -but integrity allows more of a feeling that life was meaningful & worthwhile

Adulthood: Social Changes: -loss of spouse & friends/family can affect life satisfaction…Why might it go down before the death?

The

  • The
  • Rolling
  • Stones’
  • 2030
  • Tour!!

When the “Boomers” Age...

  • When the “Boomers” Age...

QK Review!

  • QK Review!
  • =====================
  • 1. T/F: By the time you are about 20, your personality is set and there is not much that will change it.
  • 2. In order: How are the 3 stages of prenatal growth referred to?
  • 3. Explain the following terms:
  • habituation maturation
  • secure attachment stranger anxiety
  • 4. Which psychologist studied the following?
  • Social intuition/morality moral development
  • Cognitive Development psychosocial development
  • 5. Difference betwn. The following:
  • accommodation assimilation
  • 6. The following are related to WHICH stage of cogn. devel. & HOW?
  • conservation obj. permanence abstract thought 
  • egocentrism theory of mind separation anxiety

QK Review! (continued...)

  • QK Review! (continued...)
  • 7. Explain how the following relate to beliefs about intelligence as we age.
  • --recall vs. recognition
  • --crystallized vs. fluid
  • --memory of new info vs. memory of older info
  • 8. Autism and theory of mind/socialization?


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