Muscle contraction



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Muscle contraction

  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • Muscle contraction
  • Requires energy
  • This is produced by chemical breakdown of ATP
  • ATP ADP + P

There is a limited supply of ATP in muscle cells

  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • There is a limited supply of ATP in muscle cells
  • (it’s usually used up after 3 – 5 seconds of exercise)
  • Note: ATP: Adenosine triphosphate
  • ADP: Adenosine diphosphate
  • P: Phosphate
  • For exercise to continue, ATP has to be re-generated from ADP using energy obtained from other sources.
  • ADP + P ATP
  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • There are 3 sources (energy systems) that the
  • body can use:
  • 1.ATP/ PC or CP System
  • 2. Lactic Acid System
  • 3. Aerobic System
  • Anaerobic Pathway
  • Aerobic Pathway

CP – Stored in Muscles

  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • CP – Stored in Muscles
  • Combines with ADP to re-build ATP
  • Immediate source of energy
  • Limited source – lasts up to 10/15 seconds
  • Very important for bursts of explosive speed
  • Suitable for short duration events: 100m, throwing/ jumping athletic events. Phases of team game play.
  • Replenishing stores of CP takes up to 6 minutes of recovery after end of exercise
  • ADP + CP = ATP + C
  • The CP (Creatine Phosphate) System
  • CP: Creatine Phosphate
  • C - Creatine
  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • LACTIC ACID SYSTEM
  • Glycogen made from glucose obtained from digested food present in all
  • cells of the body – muscles, liver
  • When glycogen breaks down it releases pyruvic acid and energy.
  • This energy is used to re-build ATP from ADP and P
  • This system is anaerobic – no O2
  • Pyruvic acid is easily removed when O2 is available
  • Where there is little O2 it is changed into lactic acid
  • Muscles fail to contract fully - fatigue
  • Energy from this source lasts longer – up to three minutes before build up
  • of lactic acid prevents further energy production
  • Suitable for athletes – 200m – 800m. Games players who need to
  • keep up continuous short bursts of activity
  • Takes about 20 – 60 minutes to remove accumulated lactic acid
  • after maximal exercise
  • ADP + glycogen = ATP + Pyruvic acid (or pyruvic acid without O2)
  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • AEROBIC SYSTEM
  • For longer events – muscles must work aerobically. O2 present
  • This system can take the pyruvic acid produced when glycogen
  • breaks down and turns it into more energy rather than lactic acid
  • Supplies energy to athletes who are working sub-maximally
  • at 60 – 80% of maximum effort and can take in
  • a constant supply of O2
  • This system provides most of the energy required
  • for physical activity lasting longer than about 3 minutes
  • – long distance activity – runners/ cyclists – Games Players
  • ADP + Glycogen = ATP + Pyruvic acid
  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • Graph to Show – Energy Released over Time
  • AEROBIC SYSTEM
  • ATP Store
  • ATP-PC System
  • Lactic Acid System
  • Aerobic System
  • time
  • 2sec
  • 10sec
  • 1min
  • 2hrs
  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • Characteristics of the 3 Energy Systems
  • Energy System
  • Fuel/ Energy Source
  • By-product
  • Exercise intensity
  • Duration
  • Sporting Examples
  • NOTES
  • ATP/ PC
  • Anaerobic
  • ATP/ PC
  • Creatine
  • High
  • (Flat Out)
  • 10 – 15 Seconds
  • Sprinting, athletic field events, weight-lifting.
  • Small muscular stores of ATP and PC are exhausted quickly leading to a rapid decline in immediate energy.
  • Lactic Acid
  • Anaerobic
  • Glycogen
  • Glucose
  • Pyruvic Acid/ Lactic Acid
  • High Intensity
  • Up to 3 minutes
  • 400m
  • 800m
  • Racket sports.
  • Lactic acid is a by-product and can cause rapid fatigue.
  • Aerobic
  • Aerobic
  • Water/ CO2
  • Low
  • 3 minutes onwards
  • Long distance running/ cycling.
  • This system is limited by availability of O2
  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • The importance of each source of energy for physical activity
  • depends on:
      • Type of physical activity.
      • Intensity of physical activity.
      • Duration of physical activity.
  • In many aspects of physical activity the 3 energy systems work
  • together at different times to supply the particular type of energy
  • needed.
  • Characteristics of the 3 Energy Systems
  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • When all the ATP required for muscular contraction cannot be
  • supplied AEROBICALLY, the lactic acid system takes over.
  • The side-effect of the body using this system is that there is a
  • build-up of lactic acid in the muscles and CP stores are depleted
  • – causing fatigue.
  • After strenuous exercise the following have to be completed:
      • O2 stores replaced.
      • ATP replenished.
      • Lactic acid removed.
  • The need for extra O2 after strenuous exercise is known as the
  • O2 DEBT.
  • The body pays off this O2 debt by gulping air into the lungs and
  • panting. As a result, the lactic acid is turned into CO2 and water.
  • Oxygen Debt
  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • Individuals, teachers, coaches need to have a knowledge of
  • energy systems to:
  • Different methods:
  • Fartlek
  • Weight training
  • Circuit training
  • Flexibility training
  • Plyometrics
  • To help in training effectively we should be able to use MHR (MAXIMUM
  • HEART RATE) ) and VO2 MAX to establish the identified Training Zones
  • and Training Thresholds.
  • Training Energy Systems
  • Identify needs / demands of the physical activity.
  • Aerobic
  • Anaerobic
  • Act upon those needs
  • train correctly
  • Continuous training
  • Interval training
  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • Training Energy Systems
  • To establish TRAINING ZONES the MHR has to be decided:
  • MHR Males = 220 – AGE
  • To gain AEROBIC fitness the exercise should be maintained between 60 and 80% of the established MHR.
  • e.g. 20 year old man
  • 220 – 20 = 200
  • AEROBIC TRAINING THRESHOLD = 60% OF 200 = 120 HR
  • ANAEROBIC TRAINING THRESHOLD = 80% OF 200 = 160 HR
  • AEROBIC THRESHOLD is the level of exercise where the intensity is sufficient to produce a training effect.
  • ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD is the point where the Aerobic Mechanisms become overloaded and anaerobic metabolism begins to play a major role.
  • The thresholds do vary (marginally).
  • The training zone between 60 and 80% MHR is known as the AEROBIC TRAINING ZONE.
  • Exercising in the zone above the Anaerobic Training Threshold – 80% MHR, means you are in the ANAEROBIC TRAINING ZONE.
  • UNIT 1 - Information
  • Graph to show how the heart rate can be used to establish training zones and thresholds (For a 16 year old boy)
  • B
  • D
  • F
  • A
  • C
  • E
  • G
  • (Resting heart rate)
  • A - MHR
  • C – Anaerobic Training Threshold
  • E – Aerobic Training Threshold
  • G – Resting Heart Rate
  • B – Anaerobic Training Zone
  • D – Aerobic Training Zone
  • F – No Improvement Zone
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  • The energy continuum:
  • Small group/ larger group activity likely to involve different energy
  • systems e.g. a game situation.
  • Discussion in advance to consider different systems and their uses.
  • Recording of performances for analysis and discussion.
  • Partner and group recording of activity and uses being made of the energy systems during the game.
  • Data analysis of findings linked to training methods and sport specific demands.
  • Heart Rate Monitoring:
    • Pupils lead a warm up for a specific activity.
    • Pupils introduce and develop a skill micro session.
    • Heart rate monitoring taking place during each phase of the session.
    • Observation, analysis and discussion of the visible effects/ changes taking place.
  • Netball Energy Systems:
  • Consider the type of preparation required for netball.
  • Pupil led warm up and pupil led skill micro session.
  • Review of the energy systems and their effects on performance.
  • Consider sport specific energy requirements linked to nutrition and hydration strategies.
  • Record netball game and analyse in relation to quality of performances, positional responsibilities and the different energy demands being made.
  • Consider the effects of intensity and duration of the activity e.g. sprinting, feint dodge, walking back to the restarting of play, and link to energy systems/ positional responsibilities.
  • Any physical activity could be used.
  • UNIT 1 – Practical Application
  • Example of energy systems used in a team game:
  • Pupils establishing a training programme based on:
  • Identified needs
  • Aerobic / anaerobic pathways
  • Principles of training
  • Monitoring the programme
  • Using heart rate to establish training zones and thresholds
  • Healthy lifestyles Performance
  • Correct Training Methods
  • UNIT 1 – Practical Application
  • How Heart Rate can Illustrate the Effect of Physical Activity
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  • Recovery Period
  • Start of swim
  • End of swim
  • 5mins
  • Heart Rate (beats per minute)
  • 50
  • Normal heart rate
  • Study the graph and answer the questions that follow.
  • UNIT 1 – Practical Application
  • How Heart Rate can Illustrate the Effect of Physical Activity
  • The graph above illustrates the hear rate of a swimmer during a 100 metre race at the following stages:
  • (i) normal; (ii) start; (iii) halfway; (iv) end of swim; (v) recovery.
  • Press to see graph again
  • Use the graph to answer the following questions.
  • By how many beats had the heart rate risen from normal to the end of the swim?
  • By how many beats had the heart rate increased from start to the halfway stage?
  • For how many minutes from the end of the swim did the heart rate
  • continue to rise?
  • During which minute was the biggest rise in heart rate?
  • What was the heart rate at the end of the swim?
  • Explain why the heart rate increased before the start of the race.
  • Select one test which measures a component of physical fitness.
  • Explain its purpose and conclusions that can be drawn from the results.
  • UNIT 1 – Practical Application
  • Training Zones / Thresholds
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  • Pulse Rate
  • (beats per minute)
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  • 200
  • TRAINING ZONE
  • NO IMPROVEMENT ZONE
  • Exercise Heart Rate Upper and Lower Limits Of Training Heart Rate Target
  • Look at this graph of the recommended minimum and maximum
  • training heart rates in beats per minute and answer the questions which
  • follow.
  • UNIT 1 – Practical Application
  • Training Zones / Thresholds
  • Press to see graph again
  • By working on this graph, pupils can use their own MHR to understand the importance of training correctly.
  • What is the safe maximum training heart rate for a 20-year old?
  • What is the difference between maximum training and minimum training heart rate for a 35 year old?
  • What is the difference between the maximum training heart rate for a 50 year old and a 30 year old?
  • What is the difference between the maximum training heart rate for a 60 year old and a 25 year old?
  • What is the minimum training heart rate for a 40 year old?
  • Why is it important to work within the training zone for a given group?
  • UNIT 1 – Practical Application
  • Look at this graph and answer the questions which follow.
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  • Time (min)
  • Lactic Acid concentration
  • (per mg per 100cm3 blood)
  • 100
  • The effects of strenuous exercise on lactic acid concentration in the blood
  • 60
  • How much did the lactic acid concentration increase during the period of exercise?
  • What was the level of concentration of lactic acid at the 30 minute point?
  • What time after the start of the exercise did the level of concentration of lactic acid read 44 mg per 100cm3?
  • Was the concentration of lactic acid cleared at the 60 minute point?
  • What was the level of concentration of lactic acid at the15 minute point?
  • What causes the increase of concentration of lactic acid in the blood?
  • UNIT 1 – Practical Application

Cardiovascular system

  • UNIT 1 - Links
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Cardio-respiratory system
  • Intensity/ duration of exercise
  • Short term effects of exercise on the systems of the body
  • Long term effects of exercise on the systems if the body
  • Principles of training
  • Methods of training
  • Heart rate/ VO2
  • Information/Discussion
  • Practical Application
  • Below is a table showing some characteristics of three energy systems used in sporting activity.
  • Tick () the energy system which is appropriate for each characteristic.
  • During the course of a team game, players would use all three energy systems.
  • Name a team and describe specific situations in which each of the energy systems would be used.
  • Characteristics of energy systems
  • ATP-PC
  • Lactic Acid
  • Aerobic
  • Used mainly in very high intensity, short duration activities of up to 10 seconds and in the very early stages of exercise.
  • Used mainly in very high intensity exercise
  • of between 10 seconds and 3 minutes in duration.
  • Used mainly during prolonged, low intensity of exercise.
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • Complete the table summarising the energy systems below:
  • Identify one factor which can determine the main energy system used in any sporting activity.
  • Energy system
  • Aerobic or Anaerobic
  • Write the chemical equation summarising this process
  • Any by-products
  • How long can we use it for?
  • Creatine Phosphate (CP)
  • Lactic Acid
  • Aerobic
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • Select one energy system and explain how ATP is recreated using this system. You may choose to use a diagram to assist your explanation.
  • Study the images below. Suggest which energy system each athlete would predominantly use during performance and why.
  • Long Jumper
  • Marathon Runner
  • 400m Sprinter
  • Diagram
  • Energy system
  • Reason
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • The energy system used for any sporting activity depends on which two factors?
  • The table below shows a number of activities that are common to many games. For each activity identify the main energy system that would be used.
  • ACTIVITY
  • Jogging
  • Kicking
  • Sprinting
  • Counter attacking
  • How could an understanding of the energy systems help a teacher/ coach of a sports team train his/ her players?
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • Practical Application
  • Explain the term oxygen debt?
  • “During maximum effort, such as sprinting, muscles need a lot of energy quickly but oxygen (O2) cannot reach the muscles fast enough”.
  • Which energy system is best used to provide the necessary fuel for such an activity?
  • The following table lists a number of activities that a hockey player may perform in a game. Decide which energy system would be used to provide energy for them.
  • Activity
  • Energy System used
  • Taking on a defender over 10 metres.
  • Jogging back after an attack.
  • Counter attacking immediately after sprinting back 60m to defend.
  • A keeper diving for the ball then returning to their feet.
  • An attacker waiting on the half way line while his team defends a short corner.
  • A defender holding a defensive position when his team are attacking.
  • Closing down an attacker and tackling.
  • Losing a defender with a change of pace.
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • Explain why many sporting activities can be described as both Aerobic and Anaerobic.
  • “During maximum effort, such as sprinting, muscles need a lot of energy quickly but oxygen (O2) cannot reach the muscles fast enough”.
  • Which energy system is best used to provide the necessary fuel for such an activity?
  • What is the advantage to a team game player of having a high VO2 Max?
  • Activity
  • Aerobic / Anaerobic
  • Long distance running
  • Marathon running
  • Long jump
  • A gymnastics vault
  • A 50m sprint swim
  • Javelin throw
  • Anaerobic
  • Aerobic
  • Anaerobic
  • Aerobic
  • Anaerobic
  • Aerobic
  • Anaerobic
  • Aerobic
  • Anaerobic
  • Aerobic
  • Anaerobic
  • Aerobic
  • Click box once for Anaerobic, twice for Aerobic
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • Which energy systems would be the main provider of energy in a:
  • smash in Tennis,
  • 60 second rally in Tennis.
  • Explain what is meant by anaerobic threshold.
  • (i) Explain the meaning of the term VO2 Max.
    • (ii) Give two benefits for a sportsperson of having a high VO2 max.
  • (i) Give a sporting example of anaerobic activity.
    • (ii) Why is lactic acid produced during anaerobic activity?
  • What happens to an athlete’s performance as lactic acid builds up?
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • The graph shows the rate of lactic acid removal after exercise.
  • (i) Which athlete recovered first?
  • (ii) How long did it take the other athlete to remove all lactic acid from his body?
  • (iii) How much lactic acid had been removed by A after 1 hour’s recovery?
  • (iv) How much lactic acid had been removed by B after 1 hour’s recovery?
  • (v) What is the difference in full recovery time between the two athletes?
  • (vi) There is evidence on the graph to suggest why one athlete recovered quicker
  • than the other during recovery time. Explain the evidence.
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  • Recovery Time (minutes)
  • A
  • B
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • The graph below shows the heart rate of a 15 year old athlete during a training session.
  • What heart rate is indicated at 205 bpm?
  • What threshold is identified at Z?
  • What is the name given to training zone A?
  • What type of sporting activity could the athlete be training for?
  • What physical fitness component is being developed in this session?
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  • 164
  • 205
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  • Warm up 5 minutes
  • Heart rate (bpm)
  • A
  • Exercise – 30 minutes
  • Cool down 5 minutes
  • X
  • Y
  • Z
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • The graph below shows the heart rates (X,Y and Z) for three different performers.
  • Which heart rate would be appropriate for
  • (i) a 100 metre sprinter and
  • (ii) a games player?
  • Give reasons for your answers.
  • 50
  • 100
  • 150
  • 200
  • 250
  • Time
  • Heart rate (bpm)
  • X
  • Y
  • Z
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • Which athlete is the fitter, A or B?
  • Using information from the graph to help you, give two reasons for your answer.
  • 60
  • 120
  • 180
  • Heart rate (bpm)
  • 90
  • Time (minutes)
  • 0
  • 30
  • The graph below shows the heart rate of two 16 year old athletes when training at the same intensity.
  • Athlete A
  • Athlete B
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • What happens to the sportsperson’s heart rate during the training session?
  • What causes the heart rate to change in this way?
  • What type of sporting activity do you think the sportsperson is training for?
  • Explain your answer.
  • The graph below shows the heart rate of a sportsperson recorded during a training session.
  • Heart rate
  • 0
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  • Heart rate
  • MHR
  • Training Session
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • Give two pieces if evidence to suggest that this player is a fit competitor.
  • Calculate the player’s maximum heart rate (MHR).
  • What evidence is there to suggest that this player worked both aerobically and anaerobically during the game?
  • The graph below shows the heart rate of an eighteen-year-old badminton player during a game.
  • 5
  • 10
  • 15
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 150
  • 200
  • Time (min)
  • Heart Rate
  • Beats per minute
  • (BPM)
  • 250
  • UNIT 1 - Activity
  • Heart rate and training of a sixteen-year-old sportsperson:
  • What heart rate is indicated at 204 bpm (A)?
  • What threshold is indicated at 163 bpm (C)?
  • What threshold is indicated at 122 bpm (E)?
  • The graph below shows how a sixteen-year-old sportsperson can use heart rate to work out how hard to train.
  • In which training zone does lactic acid build up quickly? Is it B, D or F?
  • How does lactic acid build up affect training time and recovery time?
  • Which training zone is important for improving aerobic fitness? Is it B, D or F?
  • Explain why training zone F has little effect on aerobic fitness?
  • UNIT 1 – Key Facts/Glossary
  • Muscle contraction
  • ATP
  • Energy Needed
  • Needs of individual – physical activity – health/ competitive?
  • Intensity/ duration of physical activity
  • Oxygen debt – lactic acid – fatigue – performance
  • Training correctly to meet identified needs/ demands
  • Heart rate – links with VO2 – establishing – training zones and thresholds
  • (CP System – Lactic Acid System) – Aerobic System
  • Anaerobic Pathway
  • Aerobic Pathway


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