Multiple-Choice Questions



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Multiple-Choice Questions



1.

A person's average body mass index (BMI) is the lowest between the ages of:

A)

1 to 2.

B)

5 to 6.

C)

9 to 10.

D)

13 to 14.



2.

Between the ages of 2 and 6, a well-nourished child will gain about _____ pounds and grow about _____ inches per year.

A)

5; 6

B)

2; 3

C)

; 3

D)

;



3.

Today's children could become the first generation in more than 100 years to have a shorter lifespan than their parents as a result of:

A)

their propensity to overeat and underexercise.

B)

an increase in the number of accidents involving teenagers.

C)

new, deadly diseases for which there are no cures.

D)

a lack of access to quality medical care.



4.

The average 6-year-old child from a developed nation weighs _____ pounds.

A)

20 to 30

B)

30 to 40

C)

40 to 50

D)

50 to 60



5.

Over the past three decades in Brazil, what has been the trend in children's health and body growth?

A)

Children have gone from suffering malnutrition to being healthy.

B)

Children have become more impoverished, leading to malnutrition.

C)

Children have become less impoverished, which has led to malnutrition.

D)

Children no longer suffer from undernutrition, but now face overnutrition.



6.

Parents of a typical 5-year-old girl in America are MOST likely to say:

A)

“She isn't eating enough.”

B)

“She eats too much.”

C)

“She has no control over her appetite.”

D)

“She is suffering from malnutrition.”



7.

A child's appetite _____ between the ages of 2 and 6.

A)

increases slightly

B)

increases dramatically

C)

stays the same

D)

decreases



8.

In developed nations, which nutrients are MOST apt to be lacking in a child's diet?

A)

calcium, iron, and zinc

B)

B vitamins

C)

magnesium, vitamin A, and vitamin D

D)

vitamin C and vitamin E



9.

To ensure adequate nutrition and vitamin intake, what is recommended?

A)

Eat six to eight times a day.

B)

Take vitamin and mineral supplements.

C)

Eat breakfast cereals that contain 100 percent of the day's nutrients and vitamins.

D)

Eat well-balanced meals with a variety of foods.



10.

A common allergy for young children is:

A)

soy.

B)

rice.

C)

oats.

D)

bananas.



11.

Kindra, age 4, is very particular about her daily routines, especially at mealtime. She will only eat from a certain plate, drink from one certain cup, and must have a folded napkin next to her plate. She is exhibiting the phenomenon called:

A)

all's well.

B)

just right.

C)

bipolar disorder.

D)

depression.



12.

Jodee, age 3, insists on having all of the different foods on her plate separated, and if, for example, the vegetables touch the meat, she insists on a new plate. Jodee's parents are concerned about this behavior. What advice would you offer them?

A)

Jodee is showing signs of obsessive-compulsive disorder and needs to see a child psychiatrist as soon as possible.

B)

Don't worry; Jodee will grow out of this “just-right” stage around the age of 6.

C)

Use positive reinforcement to teach Jodee that it's okay if her foods touch each other.

D)

Punish Jodee by taking her food away from her when she refuses to eat.



13.

A child's passion for continuity and sameness is normal at about _____ year(s) of age.

A)

1

B)

2

C)

3

D)

7



14.

One of the most common problems of young children in developed nations is:

A)

anemia.

B)

lead poisoning.

C)

insomnia.

D)

tooth decay.



15.

Which of these 4-year-old children is MOST likely to be taken to the dentist?

A)

Annie, whose parents are very poor

B)

Tuan, whose parents are Somalian refugees

C)

Jessie, whose parents are both 21 years old

D)

Hailey, whose parents are middle class



16.

Which statement about oral health is true?

A)

It is not necessary to brush until children start to lose their baby teeth.

B)

Almost all young children in the United States have been to the dentist.

C)

Diet soda is a good option to help prevent tooth decay in children.

D)

It is vital for children in early childhood to brush their teeth every day.



17.

What proportion of all children under the age of 6 in the United States suffer from tooth decay?

A)

1/8

B)

1/4

C)

1/3

D)

1/2



18.

Sylvia wants to keep her son from getting cavities, so she lets him drink diet soda instead of regular soda. Her dentist tells her that her strategy won't work because diet soda:

A)

also contains sugar.

B)

has as much acid as regular soda.

C)

contains the calcium needed for strong teeth.

D)

will keep the fluoride in drinking water from being ingested.



19.

An example of a gross motor skill is:

A)

painting a picture.

B)

dialing a phone.

C)

picking up a bug.

D)

hopping on one foot.



20.

Writing your name is a ______, whereas kicking a ball is a(n) ______.

A)

sensorimotor skill; preoperational skill

B)

physical skill; cognitive skill

C)

coordination skill; inter-coordination skill

D)

fine motor skill; gross motor skill



21.

An example of a fine motor skill is:

A)

using scissors to cut paper.

B)

swimming across a pool.

C)

roller-skating around the block.

D)

playing catch with a football.



22.

An activity that requires fine motor skills is:

A)

buttoning a coat.

B)

kicking a ball.

C)

climbing a tree.

D)

playing tag.



23.

Preschoolers often have trouble tying their shoelaces because they have inadequate:

A)

finger strength.

B)

fine motor skills.

C)

coordination and balance.

D)

gross motor skills.



24.

Gross motor skills such as riding a tricycle are acquired:

A)

through practice only.

B)

due to brain maturation only.

C)

through brain maturation and practice.

D)

only if the parents teach the skills.



25.

Kailonte is a child who lives in western Canada. He was part of a 2010 study on the impact of air pollution on the developing brains of children. The study found that _____ was/were NOT harmful for children to breathe.

A)

wood smoke

B)

car exhaust fumes

C)

secondhand smoke

D)

bus exhaust fumes



26.

At what age does any specific disease overtake accidents as a cause for human mortality?

A)

20

B)

40

C)

50

D)

60



27.

Instead of accident prevention, health workers prefer the term:

A)

injury control.

B)

perceptual oversight.

C)

federal laws.

D)

CPR.



28.

What is a leading cause of death among children between the ages of 1 and 4 years old?

A)

drowning

B)

poisoning

C)

falling

D)

cancer



29.

Which type of injury prevention begins after an injury and is done to limit the damage caused by the injury?

A)

primary

B)

tertiary

C)

quaternary

D)

secondary



30.

Which of these is an example of secondary prevention?

A)

immunizing a child against measles

B)

rushing a child to the emergency department

C)

passing a law to make bike helmets necessary for children

D)

pushing a child out of the way of a falling ladder



31.

In the past 20 years, the incidence of plumbism has declined due to:

A)

an increase in the amount of calcium in children's vitamins.

B)

improved sensitivity in the blood tests used for diagnosis.

C)

children having better nutrition at an earlier age.

D)

the removal of lead from paint and gasoline.



32.

Which environmental substance has been shown to reduce intelligence and increase behavior problems in young children?

A)

PVC

B)

lead

C)

latex paint

D)

asbestos



33.

Many researchers believe that a preschooler with plumbism is prone to:

A)

having a higher IQ as an adult.

B)

becoming obese.

C)

committing violent acts as a teenager.

D)

having an infant born with brain as an adult.



34.

Opinions surrounding the issues of children's freedom on playgrounds and their supervision in public places are often affected by a person's:

A)

culture.

B)

education level.

C)

income.

D)

religion.



35.

A 2-year-old human's brain is _____ percent of the adult brain's weight.

A)

55

B)

65

C)

75

D)

80



36.

A 6-year-old human's brain is _____ percent of the adult brain's weight.

A)

55

B)

65

C)

75

D)

90



37.

The part of the brain where planning, language, and advanced thought occur is the:

A)

hippocampus.

B)

amygdala.

C)

cortex.

D)

hypothalamus.



38.

The ability to plan and prioritize appears to be directly related to the development of the _____ cortex.

A)

parietal

B)

prefrontal

C)

striate

D)

posterior



39.

The process through which axons become coated with a fatty substance that speeds up the transmission of nerve impulses is called:

A)

myelination.

B)

action potential.

C)

transmission.

D)

mylarization.



40.

Myelination is important because it:

A)

connects the two halves of the brain.

B)

compensates for loss of brain function due to injury.

C)

promotes regular childhood sleep patterns.

D)

speeds up the transmission of neural impulses.



41.

The ability to generate several thoughts in rapid succession is most specifically related to:

A)

eating healthy foods.

B)

myelination.

C)

frontal cortex maturation.

D)

development of new axons.



42.

During a long car trip, Anna and Robert asked “Are we there yet?” so many times that their mother began covering her ears. Her children were exhibiting:

A)

impulsiveness.

B)

emotional regulation.

C)

perseveration.

D)

habituation.



43.

Researchers had children sort picture cards by shape. Then they asked the same children to sort the same cards by color. They found that children under the age of 4:

A)

could easily switch their original sorting pattern.

B)

could switch to sorting by shape but not by color.

C)

could switch to sorting by color but not by shape.

D)

had difficulty changing to a new sorting pattern.



44.

The long band of nerve fibers that connects the brain's hemispheres is:

A)

myelination.

B)

the corpus callosum.

C)

the prefrontal cortex.

D)

the axon cord.



45.

Kayla is 4 years old and has recently begun coordinating the two sides of her body more efficiently. This improvement can be attributed to:

A)

the growth of her corpus callosum.

B)

her arms and legs growing longer.

C)

her brain's lateralization.

D)

adequate calcium in her diet.



46.

A disorder that research has suggested may result from abnormal development of the corpus callosum is:

A)

hearing impairment.

B)

nearsightedness.

C)

extreme impulsivity.

D)

autism.



47.

The specialization of the functioning of the two halves of the brain is called:

A)

lateralization.

B)

linearization.

C)

equalization.

D)

disequilibrium.



48.

The left side of the brain notices _____, while the right side grasps _____.

A)

the big picture; the details

B)

the details; emotions

C)

emotions; language

D)

creative impulses; detailed analysis



49.

About _____ percent of people in Great Britain and the United States are left-handed.

A)

5

B)

10

C)

20

D)

50



50.

Which statement about left-handed people is true?

A)

Myelination takes longer for them than it does for right-handed people.

B)

They are less likely to succeed in sports.

C)

Their corpus callosa tend to be thicker than those of right-handed people.

D)

The language areas of their brains are on the right side of the brain.



51.

Ryan suffered a brain injury as a result of an automobile accident. His abilities to speak and to process language were severely affected. His injury was to the:

A)

right side of his brain.

B)

left side of his brain.

C)

corpus collosum.

D)

prefrontal cortex.



52.

The area of the brain that is crucial in expressing and regulating emotions is the:

A)

limbic system.

B)

prefrontal cortex.

C)

fusiform face area.

D)

corpus callosum.



53.

The amygdala is a brain structure that registers:

A)

body temperature.

B)

emotions.

C)

speech perception.

D)

memories.



54.

The increased activity of the amygdala is a reason that young children experience:

A)

a language explosion.

B)

the ability to write.

C)

frightening nightmares.

D)

an increased susceptibility to disease.



55.

The hippocampus is a structure in the brain that processes:

A)

language.

B)

coordination.

C)

memories.

D)

emotions.



56.

Stress can lead to weight gain since having too much cortisol in one's bloodstream has been associated with increased abdominal fat. Cortisol is the hormone released by the _____ when a person is stressed.

A)

hippocampus

B)

hypothalamus

C)

amygdala

D)

thyroid



57.

Preoperational intelligence:

A)

allows children to think in symbols.

B)

includes logical reasoning.

C)

is characterized by reversibility of thought.

D)

relies on children's motor skills and senses.



58.

Piaget called the stage of human cognitive development between the ages of 2 and 6 _____ intelligence.

A)

operational

B)

egocentric

C)

preoperational

D)

sensorimotor



59.

Piaget believed that until about age 6, it is difficult for children to think:

A)

subjectively.

B)

egocentrically.

C)

logically.

D)

about animism.



60.

Ivan was playing under the kitchen table when he stood up suddenly and bumped his head. He pointed at the table and sternly said, “Naughty table!” This is an example of:

A)

egocentrism.

B)

operational thinking.

C)

centration.

D)

animism.



61.

To focus on one aspect of a situation and simultaneously exclude all other aspects is called:

A)

magical thinking.

B)

static reasoning.

C)

centration.

D)

animism.



62.

A magician's goal is to get the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he manipulates another. This is easy to do with preoperational children, as they are fooled by their tendency to:

A)

be logical thinkers.

B)

reverse things in their minds.

C)

demonstrate centration.

D)

equilibrate.



63.

Nine-year-old Bobby has no problem understanding that the 20-year-old woman who sometimes stays with him is both a student and a babysitter. According to Piaget, this is because Bobby's thinking has moved beyond:

A)

conservation.

B)

object permanence.

C)

overregularization.

D)

centration.



64.

The Piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which a child thinks about the world only from his or her personal perspective is:

A)

static reasoning.

B)

egocentrism.

C)

irreversibility.

D)

conservatism.



65.

A preschool child thinks a tall 20-year-old man is older than a short 40-year-old man. This is an example of:

A)

egocentrism.

B)

static thinking.

C)

focus on appearance.

D)

symbolic thinking.



66.

When Jennie sees her third-grade teacher in the grocery store, she is shocked to see her outside of school. This is likely due to Jennie's:

A)

static reasoning.

B)

abstract reasoning.

C)

concrete thinking.

D)

irreversibility.



67.

When children assume that the world is unchanging, they engage in:

A)

magical thinking.

B)

static reasoning.

C)

centration.

D)

a focus on appearances.



68.

The characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child thinks that nothing changes is called:

A)

animism.

B)

conservation.

C)

static reasoning.

D)

centration.



69.

Evelyn dropped a tiny spot of ketchup on her pants during lunch. Even though her teacher was able to totally remove the spot, Evelyn is crying hysterically and says that she wants to go home because her outfit is ruined. Her behavior demonstrates the characteristic of preoperational thought known as:

A)

irreversibility.

B)

centration.

C)

egocentrism.

D)

conservation.



70.

Irreversibility refers to the preoperational child's tendency to:

A)

focus on something other than appearances.

B)

use deductive reasoning to solve a problem.

C)

believe that what has been done cannot be undone.

D)

engage in centration when another solution is needed.



71.

Jake's father takes him to the barber for his first real haircut. At first, Jake is excited, but as soon as the barber makes the first cut in his hair he becomes very upset and tells his father to make the barber stop. In spite of his father's efforts to assure Jake that his hair will grow back, Jake is exhibiting the characteristic known as:

A)

animism.

B)

centration.

C)

egocentrism.

D)

irreversibility.



72.

A child's inability to understand that undoing a sequence of events will bring about the original situation is called:

A)

concrete operations.

B)

conservation.

C)

irreversibility.

D)

symbolic thought.



73.

Four-year-old Jonathan is sitting at the lunch counter next to his sister Erin. They are having hot dogs for lunch. When his mom cuts Jonathan's hot dog into five pieces and Erin's into six pieces. Jonathan protests, “Erin has more than me!” Which ability does Jonathan not yet demonstrate?

A)

animism

B)

centration

C)

egocentrism

D)

conservation



74.

Daryl has a ball of Silly Putty. His 6-year-old son, Mason, watches as Daryl flattens the Silly Putty into a thin “pancake.” When Daryl asks Mason if there is now more Silly Putty, Mason replies “Yes” because he has:

A)

an understanding of scaffolding.

B)

not mastered the concept of conservation.

C)

an understanding of object permanence.

D)

demonstrated fast-mapping.



75.

A child is shown two identical tall containers, both half-filled with water. The contents of one container are then poured into a short, wide container. If the child states that both containers still have the same amount, then the child understands the concept of:

A)

classification.

B)

conservation.

C)

centration.

D)

transformation.



76.

Researchers now believe that Piaget _____ cognition in infancy and _____ cognition in early childhood.

A)

overestimated; overestimated

B)

underestimated; underestimated

C)

overestimated; underestimated

D)

underestimated; overestimated



77.

According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child:

A)

interacts with a mentor to accomplish a task.

B)

is told instructions for a task only once.

C)

discovers the solution to a task on his or her own.

D)

be taught new skills by other children.



78.

According to Vygotsky, a child's first mentor is a(n):

A)

classmate.

B)

teacher.

C)

parent.

D)

older sibling.



79.

Each time Juan puts a puzzle together, his father gives him a little less help. Which theorist would be MOST pleased with Juan's father?

A)

Piaget

B)

Vygotsky

C)

Skinner

D)

Freud



80.

Skills that the child can accomplish with assistance but can't yet perform independently are part of:

A)

private speech.

B)

the gap between heredity and learning.

C)

distal development.

D)

the zone of proximal development.



81.

A child who is unable to read a picture book independently gets help from an adult to accomplish the task. This assistance will only be effective if the:

A)

assistance is offered in a warm and gentle manner.

B)

child is at least 6 years old.

C)

child is in the period of preoperations.

D)

skill is within the child's zone of proximal development.



82.

One of Vygotsky's most famous concepts was the zone of proximal development, which asserts that:

A)

there is a certain place in a school where most learning occurs.

B)

children can only reach a certain level of intelligence.

C)

children can master some tasks with the help of others.

D)

certain parts of the brain need to be activated.



83.

Sydney helps her 2-year-old daughter to make hot chocolate. She helps the child to measure teaspoons of cocoa into a cup, add water, stir the contents, and then microwave the cup. Sydney is providing:

A)

scaffolding.

B)

overstimulation.

C)

conservation skills.

D)

the zone of proximal development.



84.

According to Vygotsky, a teacher who carefully plans each child's participation in the learning process within the zone of proximal development uses:

A)

reinforcements for good behavior.

B)

scaffolding.

C)

peer mentoring.

D)

skill construction.



85.

Which is an example of scaffolding?

A)

David helps his son build a model airplane by assembling it while his son watches.

B)

Howard and Priscilla buy a Wii game system for their 5-year-old daughter Rebecca. They set it up for her and then allow her to figure out how to turn it on and use it.

C)

Richard buys a do-it-yourself kite kit for his 6-year-old daughter Angela. He lays all of the pieces out for her and then allows her to read the instructions and follow them herself.

D)

Miriam helps her son Ben to make cookies. She measures all of the ingredients out and places them on the counter in small bowls. She reads the recipe aloud as Ben places the ingredients in the bowl and mixes them together with a spoon.



86.

According to Vygotsky, which capability is demonstrated when young children imitate adult actions that are irrelevant, time-consuming, and inefficient?

A)

observing

B)

scaffolding

C)

modeling

D)

overimitation



87.

Benjy is a preschooler. He can put a dish into the microwave and press the "2" button to cook for 2 minutes. One day he sees his mother wipe the front of the microwave with a damp paper towel before she presses a number button. After that, Benjy rubs the front of the microwave with a napkin before he presses the number button. Why?

A)

He is overimitating his mom.

B)

He has forgotten how the microwave works.

C)

He is providing scaffolding for his mom.

D)

He is engaging in guided participation.



88.

Preschoolers try to make up a reason for the things that they see and hear. This tendency is known as:

A)

reversibility.

B)

focus on appearances.

C)

theory-theory.

D)

logical reasoning.



89.

Humans seek reasons, causes, and underlying principles to explain the world around them. The research term for this tendency is:

A)

deductive reasoning.

B)

conservation.

C)

scaffolding.

D)

theory-theory.



90.

Which statement about Kelemen's study exploring theory-theory with Mexican-American mothers and their children is true?

A)

Older children usually ask more questions than younger children do.

B)

Mothers with more years of education recorded fewer questions asked by their children.

C)

Mothers and children of lower SES asked the most questions overall.

D)

Children are more likely to ask about human behavior than non-living things.



91.

According to theory-theory, what kind of information are young children seeking when they ask “Why?”

A)

They are asking for a scientific reason for why and how things happen.

B)

They want to know how the situation or behavior affects them.

C)

They are attempting to increase their vocabulary.

D)

They are looking for an in-depth explanation.



92.

A person's understanding of the thoughts of other people is called:

A)

intuitive psychology.

B)

psychological schemata.

C)

theory of mind.

D)

self-schemes.



93.

At what age do MOST children without older siblings develop theory of mind?

A)

1 year

B)

2 years

C)

3 years

D)

4 years



94.

Only after a child has developed theory of mind can he or she:

A)

offer comfort to a crying playmate.

B)

tell a lie.

C)

feel anger.

D)

take turns sharing.



95.

Britney understands that her father is crying because his best friend died. This shows that Britney has developed:

A)

egocentricism.

B)

a script for crying.

C)

theory of mind.

D)

conservation.



96.

Researchers have discovered that _____ helps a child to develop theory of mind months ahead of a child who does not.

A)

learning the alphabet

B)

going to day care

C)

having a religious faith

D)

living with older siblings



97.

The underlying factor allowing the development of theory of mind is:

A)

the simultaneous development of magical thinking.

B)

maturation of the prefrontal cortex.

C)

static reasoning.

D)

centration.



98.

According to Vygotsky, within the context of cognition, language is a tool:

A)

to make oneself understood.

B)

to regulate behavior.

C)

to advance thought.

D)

of self-expression.



99.

According to Vygotsky, the internal dialogue that people have with themselves either silently or aloud is referred to as:

A)

theory of mind.

B)

guided participation.

C)

private speech.

D)

apprenticeship.



100.

A key factor that strengthens a preschooler's cognition is:

A)

having an older sibling.

B)

whether or not the child is adopted.

C)

body weight.

D)

knowledge of the alphabet.
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