Mssw program Orientation, Fall 2014 apa-style Writing Workshop Presenter



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MSSW Program Orientation, Fall 2014 APA-Style Writing Workshop Presenter: Dr. Stan L. Bowie The University of Tennessee College of Social Work Knoxville, Tennessee

Welcome to the University of Tennessee

  • College of Social Work

Workshop Objectives

  • To provide instruction on the elements of APA writing style (6th Edition) that are most important to writing college level term papers.
  • To provide instructions and examples regarding APA rules, answer questions, and assess the learning outcomes of the workshop.

What is APA Style?

  • APA style is a style of writing used by journals published by the American Psychological Association. The style is fully documented in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition, 2010).
  • APA style is a widely recognized standard for scientific writing in many different disciplines.

Why is APA Style Needed?

  • APA Style is needed by writers to maintain consistency in writing style and formatting, especially when writing for publication or graduate school level term papers.

Part I: The Logic of APA and Other “Writing Styles”

  • It’s fundamentally about
  • Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism, defined:

  • Writing words, phrases, or sentences from another source without proper documentation.
  • Summarizing other’s ideas and thoughts without proper documentation.
  • Using facts, statistics, graphs, or phrases without acknowledging the source of information.

Consequences of Plagiarism

  • Violates the UTK academic code and can result in a student being dismissed from the University of Tennessee (See Hilltopics, 2013-2014)

Examples of Different “Writing Style” Manuals

  • MLA
  • Child Welfare League
  • Harvard Style
  • University of Chicago Style
  • Kate Turabian Manual

Key APA Concepts and Issues

  • Text (body of term paper)
  • In-Text Citations (author-date format)
  • References (1-to-1 match with citations)
  • Quotations (direct quotes)
  • Block quotes (40 words or more)
  • Paraphrase (say it in your own words)
  • Margins (1 inch on all four sides)
  • Personal communication citations (in-text)

Key APA Concepts and Issues, cont.

  • Indentation
  • Line spacing (double space entire paper)
  • Punctuation spacing
  • Pagination
  • Latin abbreviations (e.g., i.e., et al., etc.)
  • Punctuation with proper nouns
  • Book references

Key APA Concepts and Issues, cont.

  • Journal references (scholarly journals)
  • Edited book references
  • Book chapter references
  • Electronic references
  • “Runningheader”
  • “Overcitation”

In-Text Citations

  • In the text of your paper, you must cite any material or information that you borrow from another source. APA style requires you to use the “author-date” method of in-text citation.
  • This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point, and enclosed in parentheses.

In-Text Citations (Cont.)

  • The underlying principle is that the ideas and words of other people must be formally acknowledged.
  • The reader can obtain the full source citation from the list of references that follows the body of the paper.

In-Text Citations (Cont.)

  • When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors. Consider the following example:
  • Wirth and Mitchell (1994) found that although there was a reduction in insulin dosage over a period of two weeks in the treatment condition compared to the control condition, the difference was not statistically significant.     

In-Text Citations (Cont.)

  • Another example:
  • Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Gartner, Larson, & Allen, 1991; Koenig, 1990; Levin & Vanderpool, 1991).     

In-Text Citations (Cont.)

  • When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors are included every time the source is cited.          
  • When a source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are included the first time the source is cited. When that source is cited again, the first author's surname and "et al." are used.
  • Consider the following example: Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991).  Payne et al. (1991) showed that ... 
  •  

In-Text Citations (Cont.)

  • When a source that has six or more authors is cited, the first author's surname and "et al." are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). 

In-Text Citations (Cont.)

  • Every effort should be made to cite only sources that you have actually read. When it is necessary to cite a source that you have not read that is cited in a source that you have read, use the following format for the text citation and list only the source you have read in the References list:
  • Grayson (as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 1996) identified four components of body language that were related to judgments of vulnerability. 

Other In-Text Citation Rules

  • When using quotations in text, you must use the citation, and list the page number.
  • Example #1: “Mary had a little lamb” (Jones, 1989, p. 3).
  • Example #2: Jones (1989) found that “Mary had a little lamb” (p. 311).

Other In-Text Citation Rules

  • “Block quotes”
  • A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence.
  • Example:
  • Patients receiving prayer had "less congestive heart failure, required less diuretic and antibiotic therapy, had fewer episodes of pneumonia, and were less frequently intubated and ventilated" (Byrd, 1988, p. 829). 

Other In-Text Citation Rules

  • “Block quotes”
  • A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation marks) apart from the surrounding text, in block format, with each line indented five spaces from the left margin. 

Other In-Text Citation Rules

  • Example of a block quote:
  • Bowie & Dabbs (2003) made the following observation regarding primary care to poor workers:
      • Another important barrier to accessing and utilizing primary health care is lack of insurance. As the numbers of uninsured have grown, employment-related health insurance coverage for workers continues to decline. Only 29% of poor workers were covered by employer-related insurance in 1993. (p. 233)

Other In-Text Citation Rules

  • Example of the same block quote, stated another way:
  • Previous observations were made in the literature regarding primary care to poor workers:
      • Another important barrier to accessing and utilizing primary health care is lack of insurance. As the numbers of uninsured have grown, employment-related health insurance coverage for workers continues to decline. Only 29% of poor workers were covered by employer-related insurance in 1993. (Bowie & Dabbs, 2003, p. 233)

Other In-Text Citation Rules

  • Reproduce a quote exactly. If there are errors, introduce the word sic italicized and bracketed--for example [sic]--immediately after the error to indicate it was part of the original source.
  • Use three dots with a space before, between, and after each (ellipsis points) when omitting material, four if the omitted material includes the end of a sentence (with no space before the first). Do not use dots at the beginning or end of a quotation unless it is important to indicate the quotation begins or ends in mid-sentence.

Other In-Text Citation Rules

  • Example of the previous block quote, using ellipsis points to omit material:
  • Previous observations were made in the literature regarding primary care to poor workers:
      • Another important barrier to accessing and utilizing primary health care is lack of insurance. As the numbers of uninsured have grown, employment-related health insurance coverage for workers continues to decline. Only 29% of poor workers were covered… [with health] insurance in 1993. (Bowie & Dabbs, 2003, p. 233) Note: “by employer related” was omitted and replaced with different words in required brackets.
  • In a recent study of reaction times, Walker (2000) found no interaction amongst variables in the cross-sectional data. Walker's research supports the work of others tudying similar variables (James & King, 2004; Salinger, 1999). However, interactions among variables were identified in the longitudinal data.

Other In-Text Citation Rules (Cont.)

  • Acronyms: When spelling out the name of an organization or group, spell it out entirely the first time, then afterward, use the acronym.
  • Example: In a government study (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1998), it was found that…
  • Thereafter: The previously cited study (NIMH, 1998) found that…

Other In-Text Citation Rules (Cont.)

  • Multiple works by the same author:
  • If citing multiple works by the same author at the same time, arrange dates in order. Use letters to distinguish multiple publications by the same author in the same year.
  • Example: Several studies reached the same conclusion (Johnson, 1988, 1990a, 1990b, 1999) about breast self examination among African American women.

Other In-Text Citation Rules (Cont.)

  • Personal Communications:
  • For “unrecoverable data” such as emails, conversations, and interviews, use personal communication citations.
  • Example: The best strategy for parent training is to use experienced parents for trainers (J.B. Smith, personal communication, November 27, 2012).
  • Note: Personal communication citations DO NOT appear on the reference page.

Reference Formats

General Reference Rules:

  • All references cited in the text must appear in the reference list.
  • Each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text.
  • There are different reference formats for journals, books, edited books, newspapers, and so forth. The differences are important!

Abbreviations used in References

  • Chap. Chapter
  • ed. Edition
  • rev. ed. Revised edition
  • 2nd ed. Second edition
  • Ed. Edited by
  • (Eds.) Multiple editors
  • Trans. Translated by
  • p. Page number, with space after period

Abbreviations used in References

  • pp. Page numbers (plural)
  • Vol. A specific Volume
  • vols. A work with multiple volumes
  • No. Number
  • Pt. Part
  • Suppl. Supplement
  • Tech. Rep. Technical Report

An important note regarding the use of “pp.” for page numbers

  • Use the abbreviation "pp." for page numbers in encyclopedia entries, multi-page newspaper articles, chapters or articles in edited books, but not in journal or magazine article citations, where numbers alone should be used (see examples of reference formats).

Rules for Italics (Underlining)

  • Do not italicize or underline common foreign abbreviations (vice versa, et al., vis-a-vis).
  • Do not italicize or underline for mere emphasis.
  • Italicize or underline the titles of books and articles, letters used as statistical symbols, and volume numbers in reference lists.
  • A reference list should be provided at the end of all papers to assist readers in identifying and retrieving sources.
  • Only include references for material cited in your paper. Note that this is what differentiates a reference list from a bibliography.
  • Items in your reference list should be listed alphabetically by the first author's surname. The list is double spaced and formatted using a hanging indent (i.e., the second line of each item is indented five spaces).
  • There are five core elements to each listing:
  • Element One = author
  • Element Two = year
  • Element Three = title of article/ chapter
  • Element Four = name of journal/ book (Vol/Issue # if scholarly journal)
  • Element Five = publisher location and name (page #s if scholarly journal)

Other Reference Considerations: -Publisher’s City -Different works by same author -Capitalization -Italics versus underlining

Reference Examples:

  • Book:
  • Pope, R. L., Reynolds, A. L., & Mueller, J. A. (2004). Multicultural competence in student affairs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Edited Book:
  • Gilligan, C, Lyons, N. P., & Hammer, T. J. (Eds.). (1989). Making connections: The relational worlds of adolescent girls at Emma Willard School. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • * NOTE THAT THE NAME OF THE SCHOOL RETAINS ITS CAPITALIZATION SINCE IT IS A PROPER NOUN *

Reference Examples:

  • Chapter in an Edited Book:
  • McEwen, M. E. (2003). The nature and uses of theory. In S. R. Komives, D. B. Woodard, Jr. CA: Jossey-Bass.

Reference Examples:

  • Journal Article:
  • Boatwright, K. J., & Egidio, R. K. (2003). Psychological predictors of college women's leadership aspirations. Journal of College Student Development, 44, 653-669.

Reference Examples:

  • Komives, S. K., Owen Casper, J., Longerbeam, S. D., Mainella, F., & Osteen, L. (2004). Leadership and dentity development. Concepts & Connections, 72(3), 1-6. *
  • *NOTE issue # next to Vol #

Reference Examples:

  • Newspaper Article:
  • Coughlin, E. K. (1993, March 24). Sociologists examine the complexities of racial and ethnic identity in America. The Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. A7-A8.

Reference Examples:

  • Magazine Article:
  • Henry, W. A. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.

Reference Examples:

  • Websites:
  • Avolio, B. J., & Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the roots of positive forms of leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 315-338. Retrieved from http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescripti on.c ws_home/620221/description
  • * NOTE THAT YOU DO NOT END THIS TYPE OF REFERENCE WITH A PERIOD.

Major Reference Formats for Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations

Books, single author

  • Miller, G. (1981). City by contract. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • Mulroy, E.A. (1995). The new uprooted: Single mothers in urban life. Westport, CT: Auburn House.

Books, No Author or Editor Listed

  • Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. (1961). Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam.

Book, Corporate Author, Edition other than 1st:

  • American Psychiatric Association. (1990). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • Note: “Author” is used as above when author and publisher are identical.

Books, 3-5 authors

  • Becker, F., Bowie, S. L., Dluhy, M., & Topinka, J. (1998). Assessing the privatization of managing public housing: Final report. Miami, FL: Florida International University Institute of Government.
  • Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., & Williams, J. M. (1995). The craft of research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Book Chapter in an Edited Book (Cont.)

    • Bowie, S.L., Dutton-Stepick, C., & Stepick, A. (2000). Voices from the welfare vortex: A descriptive profile of urban, low-income African American women on the eve of devolution. In L.G. Nackerud, & M. Robinson
    • (Eds.),Early implications of welfare reform in the southeast (pp. 91-111). Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publishers

Journal Articles

  • Bowie, S. L. (2001). The impact of privatized management in urban public housing communities: A comparative analysis of perceived crime, neighborhood problems, and personal safety. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 28 (4), 67-87.

Anonymous or unknown author (Common in Newspapers)

  • Caffeine linked to mental illness. (1991, July 13). New York Times, pp. B13, B15.

Magazine Article

  • Gardner, H. (1991, December). Do babies sing a universal song? Psychology Today, 70-76.

Pamphlet/Brochure

  • Just Say No Foundation. (1992). Saving our youth. [Brochure]. Washington, DC: Author.

Avoid Biased and Pejorative Language

  • Generally speaking, avoid writing anything that will offend anyone
  • Do not use ethnic labels (e.g., Hispanic), when you can use geographical labels (e.g, Mexican Americans)
  • Don’t refer to “men” when referring to all adults, when you can use “men and women.”

Avoid Biased and Pejorative Language (Cont.)

  • Do not use “homosexuals,” when you can use “gay men and lesbians.”
  • Do not use “depressives,” when you can use “people with depression.”

Avoid Biased and Pejorative Language (Cont.)

  • Correct use of the terms “gender” and “sex”
  • The term “gender” refers to culture and should be used when referring to men and women as social groups.
  • The term “sex” refers to biology and should be used when biological distinctions are emphasized (e.g., “sex differences in hormone production.”)

Be Sensitive to Labels

  • Persons in clinical studies are “patients,” not “cases.”
  • Avoid equating people with their conditions. For instance, do not say “schizophrenics,” say “people diagnosed with schizophrenia.”
  • Use the term, “sexual orientation,” not sexual preference.”

Use of Ethnic Terminology in Writing

  • In racial references, the manual simply recommends that we respect current usage. Currently both the terms "Black" and "African American" are widely accepted, while "Negro" and "Afro-American" are not. These things change, so use common sense.

Use of Ethnic Terminology in Writing

  • Capitalize Black and White when the words are used as proper nouns to refer to social groups. Do not use color words for other ethnic groups. The manual specifies that hyphens should not be used in multiword names such as Asian American or African American.

Use of Age Terminology in Writing

  • In referring to age, be specific about age ranges; avoid open-ended definitions like "under 16" or "over 65." Avoid the term elderly. Older person is preferred. Boy and Girl are acceptable referring to high school and and younger. For persons 18 and older use men and women.

This Concludes the APA Style Workshop

  • Questions?


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