Module 7: Human Systems 00 Pretest Take the pretest before getting started. 01 Nervous and Endocrine Systems



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Module 7: Human Systems

7.00 Pretest
Take the pretest before getting started.

7.01 Nervous and Endocrine Systems
The nervous and endocrine systems are the two major systems of internal ____in our bodies. They both send messages, although in different ways. The nervous system sends ____-speed electrical signals whereas the ____messages of the endocrine system are spread in a ____nature.

The Nervous System
The nervous system is made up of a complex series of ____that send and process signals through the body. This communication sends and receives information that controls our ____, perceptions, thoughts and ____.

There are 2 main categories of the nervous system


1. ____
a. this system includes the ____and ____
2.

Neurons
Electrical signals called ____are carried throughout the nervous system by specialized cells called ____Neurons share some common features:

Draw and label neuron here…

____

Describe the following in 10 words or less.

Cell body-____

Dendrites-____

Axon-____

Axon Terminal-____

Nerve-____





Nervous System Form and Function
Neuron functions can be divided into 2 categories…
1-____
2-____

Sensory and ____neurons carry signals to and from the spinal cord and ____, while the ____in the spinal cord and brain ____received signals and send out new signals for the appropriate ____response. That is what leads us to divide the nervous system into the ____and ____nervous systems.

There are 3 types of neurons classified by the direction in which the impulses are traveling.

Type of neuron

Description (in your own words)

Sensory

____

Interneurons

____

Motor Neurons

____

The peripheral nervous system collects information about the body’s internal and external environments. (made up of ____and ____neurons)

The central nervous system is made up of ____in the brain and ____. This system processes the collected ____,creating a response that is sent to the necessary part of the body.

These 2 parts of the nervous system work together to allow the body to gather, send, process and respond to information.



Central Nervous System
The central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the ____and ____,which serve as the main processing center for the entire nervous system.

The Brain
The brain is the body’s main control center, controlling bodily functions and responses.


1

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

10


Region of Brain

Description (10 words max)

Structure # (from above diagram)

Cerebrum

____

xxx

Cerebellum

____

____

Cerebral cortex

____

____

Corpus Callosum

____

____

Temporal Lobe

____

____

Occipital Lobe

____

____

Parietal Lobe

____

____

Frontal Lobe

____

____

Pons

____

xxx

Thalamus

____

xxx

Hypothalamus

____

____

Pituitary Gland

____

xxx

Medulla Oblongata

____

____

Brain Stem

____

____


The Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is a cluster of ____and other cells that run through the spinal canal and is connected to the ____It serves as the main communication link between the brain and the rest of the body. There are 31 pairs of ____that branch off from the spinal cord, connecting to ____from various parts of the body.

Although the main function of the spinal cord is to carry information to and from the brain, there are some ____movements that are processed directly in the spinal cord. A reflex is a quick ____response to a stimulus.

**Remember that the vertebral column is the bone structure that surrounds and ____the spinal cord.

Nervous System Controls
The peripheral nervous system communicates between the CNS and the rest of the body. The 2 key parts are the:
1-____
2-____

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
All the neurons and related cells that carry signals to and from the spinal cord and brain
(Describe the following in your own words)
- Sensory nervous system-____
- Motor nervous system-____

Nervous systems function to control responses to the ____and to coordinate the functions of ____.



Somatic Nervous System
Motor neurons of the somatic nervous system carry signals to ____in response to changes in the ____environment. This is typically under ____control.

The rapid, automatic response is caused by a ____arc.

Steps of the reflex arc when stepping on a nail-


  1. ____receptors react to the sensation of the nail and send an impulse to the sensory neurons

  2. Information is passed to the ____

  3. ____in the spinal cord processes the info and immediately sends a message back (without ‘consulting’ the brain)

  4. the ____neuron carries the message to the leg muscle

  5. the leg muscle pulls your foot back

At the same time that this reflex arc takes place, other impulses carry information about your injury to your brain as well, but that typically takes slightly longer. (Have you ever noticed that when you hurt yourself, sometimes you react before you really even ‘feel’ the pain? This is why!)

*helpful tip- ‘soma’ means body… this is our ‘body’ nervous system



Autonomic Nervous System
The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s ____environment by controlling ____body activities of our muscles and organs. (for example, it will automatically speed up your heart rate when you start to run)

There are 2 divisions:


1-____
2-____

Division

Sympathetic

Parasympathetic

Purpose

____

____

Effect

____

____

*Review the nervous system diagram… place your cursor over each box for a quick summary.



Endocrine System
While the nervous system sends ____moving signals on direct paths through the body, the endocrine system sends ____moving ____signals.

The endocrine system is made up of a series of ____.. Endocrine glands release chemical messages called ____into the blood stream.

The hormone molecule can only ____and act on cells that have ____to bind with that particular hormone.

The body’s responses to hormones are usually ____ and longer lasting than the response to nerve impulses.

The endocrine system uses ____ hormones to help maintain a healthy balance in the body.

Use the interactive to describe the following major endocrine glands:



  1. Pineal gland____

  2. Pituitary gland____

  3. Thyroid gland____

  4. Parathyroid gland____

  5. Thymus____

  6. Adrenal gland____

  7. Pancreas____

  8. Gonad glands___

Sample Question
Which part of the brain is responsible for controlling automatic body functions that occur without you thinking about them, like breathing and vomiting?

  1. Cerebrem

  2. Corpus Callosam

  3. Medulla Oblongata

  4. Temporal Lobe

The endocrine system helps to maintain a healthy balance in the body by using opposing ___________.

  1. Neurons

  2. Hormones

  3. Ions

  4. Glands

*Complete the 7.01 Assessment (worksheet)

7.02 Respiratory and Circulatory
The Respiratory and Circulatory Systems work together to carry ____to the body’s cells and to remove ____from those cells.

The main function of the respiratory system is to exchange these ____with the environment. The circulatory system transports the ____between the respiratory system and other parts of the body.



Respiratory System
All cells in our body, especially our brain cells, require a constant supply of ____to undergo cellular respiration. The respiratory and circulatory systems provide our cells with oxygen needed for ____,while getting rid of the ____produced by the same process.

(Review the cellular respiration link if you want a quick reminder… or look back to your 2.05/2.06 assignments)

Label the parts and give a brief description of each




F

E

D

C

B

A


http://www.buzzle.com/articles/organs-of-the-respiratory-system.html

Part

Function/Description

Letter of Location in Diagram Above

Diaphragm

____

___

Larynx

____

____

Lungs and Bronchi

____

____

Nose

____

____

Pharynx

____

____

Trachea

____

____

The ____and ____are not part of the respiratory system, but they are important to its function. They work with the ____to cause inhalation and exhalation



Circulatory System
The circulatory system consists of the ____, blood, and blood ____.

3 important functions
1. ____
2. ____
3. ____

The Heart
The heart is a ____that works constantly. The contractions are the driving force behind the circulatory system, ____ blood through the blood vessels of the body.

The heart is divided into 4 ____,with a wall called a ____separating the right and left sides of the heart.

The septum is important because it separates ____and ____and prevents it from mixing. Each side has an upper and lower chamber as well. The upper chambers are called ____. The atria are the collecting areas into which blood flows from other areas of the body. The lower chambers, called ____, pump blood out to somewhere else in the body.

Label and describe the following parts of the heart:

Aorta Pulmonary Artery Right Atrium Left Atrium



Superior Vena Cava Pulmonary Vein Right Ventricle Left Ventricle



Circulation
Let’s explore the paths that blood takes to and from the heart.

The heart can push blood in 2 different directions:


-pushes ____blood TO the ____ (Pulmonary)
-pumps ____blood to the rest of the body. (Systemic)

Pulmonary Circulation
-the blood returning from the body is ____ in oxygen and it comes into the ____side of the heart
-in the ____of the lungs, CO2 waste from the cells ____out of the blood to be released when we exhale and ____from the inhaled air is absorbed into the ____.
-the blood which is now ____then flows into the left side of the heart to begin the second pathway.

Systemic Circulation
-once the ____blood enters the ____side of the heart, it is pumped out to the rest of the body.
-as the blood circulates, body cells absorb much of the ____from the blood and dump off their CO2 (from cell respiration). Once the blood has given off all its oxygen to the body, it returns to the ____side of the heart to start again with the pulmonary circulation.

Just remember:


Pulmonary = Lungs
Systemic = Body

*watch the video on the heart at the bottom of the page.

Blood Vessels
Blood moves through the circulatory system through 3 types of blood vessels:

Type of Blood Vessel

Description (brief summary)

1-____

____

2-____

____

3-____

____

Watch the “Blood Vessels” video.

Blood
Blood is a mixture of several types of cells, ions, proteins, and water.

The major components of blood are ____which contains hormones, ____, dissolved proteins, minerals and salts, ____, white blood cells, and ____.



Blood Component

Description (summary- 10 words or less)

Plasma

____

Red Blood Cells

____

White Blood Cells

____

Platelets

____

Watch the “Blood” video.

Blood Pressure
As the heart pumps blood into the ____, the flow of blood exerts ____on the walls of the arteries, pushing the blood through the body.

Sensory nerves in blood vessels send impulses to the brain. These impulses regulate blood pressure in a few ways:

-when blood pressure is ____, the nervous system signals the ____ muscles in the blood vessel wall to relax so that the pressure will go down.

-when blood pressure is low, the nervous system signals for the muscles to ____in order to increase the pressure.

-kidneys help regulate blood pressure by controlling the ____of blood. When blood pressure is high, hormones signal the kidneys to remove ____from the blood as urine (pee) so that the volume and pressure of blood will reduce.

-when the pressure is low, the kidney conserves ____to keep the blood volume and pressure higher.

A sphygmomanometer measures blood pressure.

The number on the meter when the pressure is first released is the ____,which is the force in the arteries when the heart pumps.

The force in the arteries when the heart contracts in between pumps is called the ____.

A normal blood pressure reading is about: ____



Cardiovascular Disease
More than half of all the deaths in the US are related to ____

Disease

Causes

Symptoms

Prevention

Treatment

High Blood Pressure

____

____

____

____

Arterial Disease

____

____

____

____

Heart Attack

____

____

____

____

Stroke

____

____

____

____

**Complete the self-check

For your assignment, you need to find a creative way to describe how blood flows through the lungs, heart and body and how the respiratory system interacts with the circulatory system to deliver oxygen to our body cells. You could do this as a PowerPoint, comic strip, story, etc. Contact your teacher if you need help. (Be sure to include all of the required terms listed on the activity page. Also, remember everything should be in your OWN words).



Sample Questions
In the heart, what separates the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood?

  1. Ventricle

  2. Septum

  3. Atrium

  4. Vessel

Which part of the blood is responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body?

  1. Plasma

  2. Red Blood Cells

  3. While Blood Cells

  4. Platelets

How does the nervous system respond to low blood pressure?

  1. The nervous system signals smooth muscles in the blood vessels to contract to decrease blood pressure.

  2. The nervous system signals smooth muscles in the blood vessels to contract to increase blood pressure.

  3. The nervous system signals smooth muscles in the blood vessels to relax to decrease blood pressure.

  4. The nervous system signals smooth muscles in the blood vessels to relax to increase blood pressure.

An individual was sent to the hospital and it was determined that the blood was cut off to a part of the brain. What did the individual experience?

  1. Heart attack

  2. Stroke

  3. High blood pressure

  4. Arterial disease

7.03 Digestive and Excretory

Food
Molecules in food contain chemical energy that is used to produce ____, the molecule that powers a cell. Food (and water) also supply our cells with the materials needed to grow, divide, and repair.

The digestive system is responsible for ____food into small molecules that can be used by the cells in your body. The excretory system eliminates ____from the body.



Digestive system is made up of the digestive tract, which is a series of ____organs joined in a long twisting tube. Accessory organs help the body break down and ____ food.

Organ

Notes

Mouth

(teeth, saliva)

____


Tongue

____

Pharynx

____

Esophagus

____

Stomach

____

Small Intestine

____

Large Intestine

(E. coli)

____

Rectum and Anus

____


Accessory Organs

Organ

Notes

Pancreas

____

Liver and Gallbladder

____

Appendix

____


Excretory System

Organ

Notes

Skin

____

Lungs

____

Liver

____

Kidneys

____

Complete the self-check… there is no assignment for this lesson.

Sample Question
The canal that connects the pharynx to the stomach in the digestive system is called the _____.

  1. Esophagus

  2. Trachea

  3. Rectum

  4. Intestines

7.04 Muscular, Skeletal, and Integumentary

The Skeletal System
An organism’s skeletal system is made up of ______________ tissue with several important functions within the body.

Describe the functions of the skeleton:



Support

____

Protection

____

Movement

____

Mineral Storage

____

Blood Cell Formation

____

The human skeleton can be divided into 2 regions:






Made up of…

Axial Skeleton

____

Appendicular Skeleton

____

Bones are made up of different layers of tissue with different jobs. Explore the diagram and write a very brief (10 words or less) summary of the descriptions of each. (The descriptions are long, so just write a few words to remind yourself what each does)






Notes

Cartilage

____

Spongy Bone

____

Compact Bone

____

Bone Marrow

____

Periosteum

____

Osteoclast

____

Osteoblast

____


Joints
A place where 2 bones meet is called a __________. All joints contain ________________________ tissue that holds bones together.

3 categories of joints:



Type

Notes

Example

Fixed/immovable

____

____

Slightly movable

____

____

Freely movable

____

____


Muscular System
There are 3 different types of muscles

Type

Notes

Skeletal

____

Smooth

____

Cardiac

____


Muscles of the Body
Muscles are often grouped based on location and function within the body.

Muscle Group

Where found

Quadriceps (‘quads’)

____

Pectoralis (‘pecs’)

____

Hamstrings

____

Latisimus dorsi

____

Gastrocnemius

____

Triceps

____

Trapezius

____

Biceps

____

Deltoids

____

Abdominals (‘abs’)

____


Muscle Movement
Muscles produce movement by ____ (shortening) from end to end. Skeletal muscles are connected to ____by tough connective tissues called ____. This allows the muscle to pull on the bones. (like a lever and ____)

Most muscles work in opposing pairs… when one muscle contracts, the other ____.



Integumentary System
The largest organ in our body is our ____.

Role of Integumentary System

Description

Protection

____

Vitamin D Production

____

Gathering Information

____

Body Temperature

____

Excretion

____

Components of the Integumentary System

Component

Notes

Skin

____

Hair

____

Nails

____

Glands

____


**In this assignment, you need to describe a task that you do in great detail, using what you’ve learned about the body so far. Choose something that you actually do to make it more interesting… a specific move in a sport you do (making a free-point shot, doing a ballet move, throwing a football) or other activity (playing guitar, drawing, playing a video game). Think about what is involved… do you have to move your bones? How do your muscles help? How are your skin/hair/etc. involved? Consider including what we’ve learned about the nervous system, circulatory system, etc. too. You can present this through essay format, detailed labeled diagrams, PowerPoint, etc. Let your teacher know if you need help. (Remember, to write everything in your OWN words.)

Sample Question
Which of the following is NOT a function of the skeletal system?

  1. Support

  2. Protection

  3. Blood cell formation

  4. Mineral removal

When one muscle contracts, the other muscle in the pair ______.

  1. Contracts

  2. Relaxes

  3. Does nothing

  4. Gets excited

7.05 Reproductive System

The driving force behind many of the functions of the reproductive systems are hormones (____ and testosterone)

Hormones are produced in the ____,and they act on cells and tissues to produce many of the characteristics associated with males/females.

In females, ____triggers breast development and the widening of hips. In males, the ____causes growth of facial hair, increases muscular development and deepening of the voice.

During ____,the brain’s hypothalamus signals an increase in hormones that causes rapid growth and maturation. The reproductive system becomes fully functional.

Male Reproductive System
Remember that meiosis always produces ____sex cells (sperm for males) that contain a single set of chromosomes. This is important to ensure that when the gametes from both parents fuse together during ____,the new zygote is a diploid cell with the full set of chromosomes.

A sperm cell has a specialized structure for its voyage through the female reproductive system. The portion with the condensed ____ is called the “head”, which also contains ____to break through the egg cell’s thick outer layer. The midpiece of the sperm cell is packed with ____releasing mitochondria to power the cell’s voyage. The tail section is called a ____ that moves back and forth to propel the sperm cell.



Structure

Brief Description (10 words or less)

Vas Deferens

____

Epididymis

____

Testes

____

Urethra

____


Female Reproductive System
The female reproductive system includes the organs and ducts involved in producing the ____as well as those involved in housing and supporting a developing ____.

Structure

Brief Description

Fallopian Tube

____

Ovary

____

Vagina

____

All of the approximately 400,000 ____a woman will ever have are already formed at birth. After ____, one (or possibly 2+) follicles mature and release its egg during each monthly ____. Several hundred eggs will be released during a woman’s reproductive years.

The menstrual cycle lasts an average of ____. During the middle of the cycle, one (or sometimes 2+) egg develops and is released from the ovary in a process called ____. At the same time, hormones signal the ____to prepare to receive a fertilized egg. As a result, the walls of the uterus will ____.

The egg travels down the ____over about 2-3 days. If it is not fertilized, the egg and the uterine lining will dissolve and are shed through ____. If the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell, the resulting ____will be imbedded in the wall of the ____to receive nutrients and the menstrual cycle stops.



Fertilization
When sperm are released into the vagina, they swim through the ____into the uterus and up into the ____. If an egg is present, it can be ____. The sperm’s ____nucleus fuses with the egg’s haploid nucleus to form one ____nucleus with the full ____chromosomes. The fertilized egg is called a ____or an ____.

Trimester

What’s Happening?

1st Trimester


-fertilized egg undergoes ____until it becomes a hollow ball of cells called a ____

-implants into the wall of the ____where it will get nutrients

-cells begin to specialize

-cells divide into 3 layers during ____

*Ectoderm becomes ____

*Mesoderm becomes ____

*Endoderm becomes ____

-Neural tube is formed during ____ . (If tube doesn’t close completely, this can cause a birth defect called ____which can be prevented by ____acid in the diet.)

-Membranes such as the amniotic sac and the placenta form to help protect and ____the growing embryo.

-After 8 weeks, the embryo is called a ____

-By the end of the 1st trimester most organs are formed although they can’t function on their own. The fetus is about 8cm long and can move and show signs of ____


2nd Trimester

(your summary here) ____

3rd Trimester

(your summary here) ____

*Be sure to watch the video on embryonic development too.

Summary- be sure you can describe the following processes in your own words…

Describe the path of sperm

____

Describe the path of the egg

____

Describe the main stages of development from fertilization to birth

____

Sample Question
When do lungs develop in a human fetus?

  1. First trimester

  2. Second trimester

  3. Third trimester

  4. Birth

7.06 Immune System

Nonspecific Defenses
____are disease-causing agents

Types of Pathogen

Examples

How they may be spread

Virus

____

____

Bacteria

____

____

Fungi

____

____

Protozoa

____

____

The first defense is a combination of physical and chemical barriers called ____.






Description/Examples

External




Internal


Inflammatory response-____

White bood cells-____

Fever-____



Specific Defenses: The Immune System

This line of defense works together with the internal nonspecific defenses. The 2 main functions of the immune system involve



  1. production of proteins called ____

  2. white blood cells called ____

Our body has unique chemical markers on it to help our immune system tell which cells are part of our body and which are foreign invaders. When the immune system notices that an invader does not have your body’s ____it will start to attack it.

Molecules called ____can be found on the outer surface of bacteria, viruses, etc. When the immune system detects the antigens on the invading substance, it triggers an ____response. Each antigen has a unique molecular ____that stimulates production of a corresponding ____The antibodies are specialized ____that bind to antigens (like puzzle pieces) that tells the body’s white blood cells to attack.

The white blood cells involved in the specific defenses are mostly ____and ____which are both produced in the red bone marrow.

The specific immune response can be divided into 2 main types of action: ____and ____immunities.



Humoral Immunity
Activated when ____recognize and bind to ____on invading pathogens

  1. B-cells circulate through the blood stream, looking out for pathogens. Remember that B cells have ____on them so they are looking for the pathogens that have antigens which match their shape

  2. Once the B cell’s antibody binds to the pathogen’s ____, the T cells will tell the B cell to grow and divide quickly, producing ____and ____

  3. Plasma cells produce ____to go around the body and bind to any pathogen antigens and signal to the body to attack and destroy the pathogens

  4. Plasma cells die once the infection is gone, but the ____remain. That way, if the same pathogen ever comes back, the memory cells can respond more quickly.

Cell-Mediated Immunity
Defends the body against invading pathogens that attack within body cells. Uses ____and does not involve ____.

  1. When a body cell is invaded by a ____, the cell’s membrane will show a part of the pathogen’s ____.

  2. The circulating helper T cells detect the signal and start to ____

  3. All the new helper T cells activate cytotoxic T cells which destroy the pathogens and prevent the infection from ____

  4. The ____T cells made will stay in the body after the infection is gone so the body will be able to respond faster if ever invaded by the same pathogen again.

**Be sure to review the Specific and Nonspecific Defenses in the chart on page 4

Active and Passive Immunity
The immune system uses ____cells to remember ____it has seen before so that it can react against them more efficiently in the future. This is called ____because it involves a response by a person’s own immune system. Exposure to a pathogen through a ____results in an ____active immunity. Vaccines allow a person to develop memory cells without encountering the actual pathogen.

*Edward Jenner observed acquired immunity over 200 years ago when making observations about milkmaids who were immune to getting ____because they once were exposed to cowpox, a similar, but non-deadly disease.






Active Immunity

Passive Immunity

Naturally Acquired

____

____

Artificially Acquired

____

____


Controlling Pathogens




Description

Antibiotics-

____

Antivirals-

____

Antiseptics (antimicrobials)

____

The misuse or overuse of ____has led to an increase in diseases that were once considered under control. This is because many strains of bacteria have evolved a resistance to the commonly used antibiotics, antiseptics, and medications.



The bacteria that are not killed by the exposure to the antiseptics or antibiotics survive to ____, producing an increasing population of bacteria with a ____ to those medications. (Can you say “Survival of the Fittest” aka “Natural Selection”?!)

**Complete the hand-washing lab to submit for 7.06. Remember to include your graph and answer your questions in your OWN words. (Also, remember a hypothesis is written in an “If…then…” statement.) Let your teacher know if you have any questions on your lab.

Sample Question
Which of the following is NOT a nonspecific defense of the immune system?

  1. Tears

  2. Mucus

  3. Antibodies

  4. Saliva

7.07 Collaboration
There are two ways to complete the collaboration.

  1. Attend the live collaboration session (check the live lesson calendar on the announcement page for dates and times.)

  2. Click discussion groups and click the segment two collaboration option. (The module 5 and 7 collaboration options should be running in the discussion group.) Once you click and open the discussion group, please choose the posting that states directions/instructions and follow the directions to complete the assignment.

7.08 DBA and 7.08 Exam
Please complete the module 7 review guide and video (found in the Biology Help Center on the announcement page) to help you prepare for your DBA and test. Once you have successfully passed your DBA with your teacher, you will then be issued the module 7 exam password.

7.09 Segment Two Exam
Please attend the live segment exam review to help you prepare for the exam. There is also a segment exam review sheet and review video in the Biology Help Center (on the announcement page). Remember, that you will need to study modules, 1, 5, 6, and 7 so that you are successful on your segment exam.


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