Module 4 Global Change (gv sections) 13. 1 Physical Geography: Seasonal Change; Long Term Change, Plate Tectonics



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Module 4 Global Change (GV SECTIONS)
13.1 Physical Geography: Seasonal Change; Long Term Change, Plate Tectonics.


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Activities/Skills

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Time

4 weeks
12 lessons


The relationship between the global structures and processes of the Earth’s surface. The location of tectonic processes and the consequences of such processes.

The theory of plate tectonics.

Characteristics of tectonic plates.



  • Brief history of theory
    (Wegener, Vine-Matthews etc.).

  • Discussion of lithospheric plates:

world map;

movement;

link with earth structure.

• Character of crust:


sima/sial;

link with oceanic and continental plates;

isostasy;
crustal deformation.

Secondary source utilisation:


maps at a variety of scales;


ICT;
GIS etc..

Notes

Taylor-Wegener notes

Question on major structural features*

Hazards 28-31






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Time

4

weeks


Biological and geological evidence of plate tectonics; the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; palaeo-magnetism and sea floor spreading.

The global pattern of tectonic

activity and its relationship to constructive, destructive and conservative plate margins; hot

spots.
Constructive margins (faulting, earthquakes and volcanic activity).

Destructive margins (subduction, earthquakes and

fold mountain formation).

Conservative margins (faulting

and earthquakes)



• Continental drift and the break
up of Pangaea: continental fit;

matching geology;

past glaciations;

ancient plants/animals.

• More recent evidence for plate movement:

polar wandering curves; stripe like magnetic anomalies; ‘recent’ age of ocean floor.

Horizontal movement:

speed/scale;

relationship between plate boundaries.

• Mapping link between active volcanoes/earthquakes and plate boundaries. Anomalies of hot spots.

• Divergent plates:
Mid Atlantic ridge;

E. African ridge;

basaltic lava and its features (pillow lava);

transform faults.

• Convergent plates:
Ocean trench/andesitic lava;

Benioff zones;


Ocean/ocean - island arc;
Ocean/continental - Andean fold mountains;
Continental/continental - Himalayan.

San Andreas Fault.



Analysis and evaluation of evidence.

Limitation of evidence.

Limitation of
conclusions drawn.

Mesosaurus –

divergence notes.

Evidence notes.

Geology questinan movement rates*
Notes

Video


Savage Earth

Maps

* Assessment


Module 4 - Global Change
13.2 People and the Environment: Hazards; Conflicts over Resources





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Burglary: urban distribution;

urban effects.





  • The origin, geographical

distribution, frequency of

occurrence and scale of the

hazard.


  • The effects of the hazard on

the physical, built and human environments.

hazard can be predicted and/or prevented.



  • Types of response to the hazard, varying from fatalism to reaction, protection and prevention. Individual or collective responses, hazard
    management and relief.

Definition of burglary i.e. breaking and entering to remove property. Data sources e.g., newspapers, crime statistics and their limitations. Distribution within the urban area e.g., difference between inner city

and suburbs. Frequency e.g. chance of repeat burglary. Scale e.g., type of goods/value/number affected.

e.g., property damage, physical

injury, psychological stress, economic cost to individual and

areas experiencing frequent

burglaries.


Prediction based on previous

experience. Prevention e.g., alleviating the causes, removing the opportunity.


Meaning with examples of fatalism, reaction (e.g. call police), protection (e.g. alarms), prevention (e.g. social programmes) individual response (e.g. greater security), collective response (e.g. neighbourhood watch), management (e.g. police programmes), relief (e.g. insurance, victim support), success and limitations of the above including crime displacement.

Fieldwork could be

conducted here.

Possibly questionnaires.

Published statistical

data (e.g., newspapers,

crime statistics and

their limitations).

Possibly interviews.



Notes on basic patterns – basic theory.

Data from Stafford.


Newspaper articles.


Notes – some discussion re personal anecdotes.

GIS data from the N-E.

Geofile Oxford Case Study. Clear elaboration of terminology re responses.


Question on burglary*

* Assessment Structured essay question




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3 weeks
9 lessons

*
A transmittable disease: global

distribution; international and

national effects.



  • The origin geographical

distribution, frequency of

occurrence and scale of the

hazard.

• The effects of the hazard on



the physical, built and

human environments.

• The extent to which the

hazard can be predicted

and/or prevented.
• Types of response to the

hazard, varying from

fatalism to reaction,

protection and prevention.

Individual or collective

responses, hazard

management and relief.


Only one disease should be studied.

Where appropriate discuss the

differences between LEDCs and MEDCs.
Definition of a transmittable

disease, how it is transmitted,

geographical pattern and why,

frequency and numbers affected. Data sources and their limitations.


Physical social and economic effects on the individual. Social and

economic effects on the family, wider community and country.


The validity of past experience as a

predictor. Prevention — discuss the

possibility of stopping transmission.
Give examples of fatalism, reaction

(e.g., take drugs, alternative

medicines), protection (e.g.

immunisation), prevention (e.g.

non-contact), individual response

(e.g. adopt protective measures),

collective response (e.g. education awareness programmes), hazard management (e.g. government sponsored immunisation schemes), relief (e.g. support schemes).

Published statistical

data.

* Locational quotient



Geofile


Unit Aids - a

North/South divide?

Notes
Newspaper articles on Aids

TV video on the nature of aids.

Hagersrands diffusion model (brief)

Notes
Various questions on aids

Case Study

* Assessment – data stimulus question



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Resources


2 weeks

2 weeks
Volcanoes and earthquakes:

global distribution;

global and regional effects.
The origin, geographical

distribution, frequency of

occurrence and scale of the hazard.

The effects of the hazard on the

physical, built and human

environments,

The extent to which the hazard

can be predicted and/or

prevented.

types of response to the hazard,

varying from fatalism to reaction, protection and prevention. Individual or collective responses, hazard management and relief.


Link between distribution and

boundaries of tectonic plates.

• Constructive margins (volcanic

activity and earthquakes).

• Destructive margins/subduction zones (volcanic activity at island arcs etc)/ earthquakes as continental plates meet Benioff zones.

• Conservative margins (earthquakes).


• Hot spots/rift valleys.
• Magnitude/intensity of earthquakes measured by Richter/Mercalli scales.
• Nature of different volcanic eruptions.
Earthquakes:

• primary hazards:

ground shaking;
• secondary hazards:
soil liquefaction;

landslides;

avalanches (rock and snow); Tsunamis.

Volcanoes:

• impact depends on eruption styles;
• primary hazards;
nuées ardentes (pyroclastic flow);

tephra;


lava flow;

• secondary hazards: volcanic gases;

lahars;

landslides;

Tsunamis.

Prediction based on past patterns —

limitations of such data.
Little warning in short term (earthquakes).

Monitoting of volcanic hazards:

• seismograph;
• tiltmeters and ground deformation;
• gas/steam emissions, etc.


Secondary Sources

Individual research plus group report back



Hazards text
Covered in tectonic unit

Hazards Text

p28-47

Savage Earth video.

Case Study

Lorna Prieta 1989

Kobe 1995

Hazards Text

p51-67

Case studies



Nevada del Ruiz 1985

Sa Kurajima

Mt Pinatubo

1991




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Geological hazard mapping.
Resistant design for buildings and

infrastructure.


Environmental control:

• injection of water in fault zones;

• bombing/barriers/water

spraying of lava flows.


Community awareness and

education.







1988 Armenia class quake

Heimey Iceland case study




Module 4 Global Change

13.3 Human Geography: Changes in countries in Various States of Development in the

Last 30 Years





Specification Content

Detailed Content

Activities/Skills

Resources

Transnational corporations




.




(TNCs) and the global economy




Notes


5 weeks

The reasons for the growth and

the spatial organisation of

TNCs.


Definition and example of a TNC.

Description and explanation of the spatial organisation of one TNC. Explanation of pattern including different labour demands, varying markets, trade barriers etc, improvements in transport and communications.




Case Study ICI





































The development of global

Definition and example of global

Globalistion notes

products and global marketing.

product. Explanation of global







marketing in terms of consumer

Coke –Nike eg of global products

p115 PRD

(Population Resources Development

p109-116







knowledge, advertising, improved




communications, benefit to TNC.

The social and economic


Identify named groups affected e.g.workers, government, women, rural dwellers. Look at data for

social/economic improvement or

deterioration. Link to the impact of the TNCs. Discuss attitudes to the changes. Use a case study of one host country and one country of origin as far as possible.



impacts of TNCs on their host

countries and their countries of

origin.






















Newly industrialising countries

(NICs) as host countries and

countries of origin, and NICs

importance in the changing

world economy.


Definition of an NIC. Identify

NICs. Look at spatial pattern.

Basing the work on a case study (as far as possible), explain why NICs became host countries, (eg cheaper labour costs, expanding market, government, and weaker environmental laws, geographical location). Develop why they become countries of origin (stronger domestic industries but rising costs, therefore, move outwards). Look at changing importance in world economy.



Growth of Pacific Ring notes.

Taiwan case study – Skovea p112.

Article on financial problems.





Different attitudes in both the

host and countries of origin to

transnational corporations.










Published statistical




data.












* Structured essay question on Global products and NICS/TNCS




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The relationship between

Using case studies look at examples

of economic, social, refugee and illegal movements.









3 weeks
international migration and







multi-cultural societies.




Notes –

Migration into UK

West Germany

Changes


Refugees –

asylum changes

Multiculturalistion v assimilation/

integration



Major forms of international

Published statistical

migration.

data.

The changing forms of


Based on the above describe and

explain how they are changing in terms of destination, numbers involved, characteristics (e.g., age, sex, wealth) of migrants. Attitudes of e.g. governments to migration.

Census returns.



international migration.

Possibly interviews.


2 weeks

Multi-cultural societies and


Definition of multi-cultural and

evidence for a multi-cultural society.

Recognition that issue involves at least two viewpoints. Discussion of economic and social issues e.g., jobs, housing, education, cultural elements.






issues related to them in




MEDCs and LEDCs.







Different attitudes to


Attitudes of host, ethnic and

country of origin groups to the above issues (should be case study based where possible).




Case Studies

Fiji

Sri Lanka –



UK

USA


international migration and multi-cultural societies.



The extent to which regions of














a country are integrated or







Case Study on Kurds and N Ireland.

Notes on Spain and Canada.




subject to separatist pressures.







The extent to which political







power within groups of nations









is centralised or decentralised







and the consequences of this.







The reasons for and consequences of separatist pressure (both within and across political boundaries),

Use of case studies e.g., Basques, Scotland to discuss reasons for separatist pressure e.g., geographical

location, historical, economic, social, cultural factors. Discussion of consequences e.g., action to support separatist pressure, different levels of autonomy. Resulting political/economic impact. Attitudes of those involved.



Secondary source texts.







* Structured question on migration and multiculturalism


* Structured question on separatist pressures


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3 weeks
The reasons for and

consequences of groups of

nations, with particular

reference to the European

Union.
Different attitudes to these

political changes.



Particularly with reference to the

EU discuss the dates of countries

joining and the resulting changing

spatial pattern. Reasons for joining

should include economic (e.g., CAP, free trading market) and social (e.g. free movement of labour).
e.g., attitudes of governments,

politicians, workers, EU residents, farmers etc..






EU notes

EU policies funding


Federalists v Eurosceptics.

Majority voting issues re expansion.








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