Module 4 Global Change (gv sections) 13. 1 Physical Geography: Seasonal Change; Long Term Change, Plate Tectonics
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Module 4 Global Change (GV SECTIONS )
13.1 Physical Geography: Seasonal Change; Long Term Change, Plate Tectonics.
12 lessons The relationship between the global structures and processes of the Earth’s surface. The location of tectonic processes and the consequences of such processes.
The theory of plate tectonics.
Characteristics of tectonic plates.
Brief history of theory
(Wegener, Vine-Matthews etc.).
Discussion of lithospheric plates:
link with earth structure.
• Character of crust:
link with oceanic and continental plates;
Secondary source utilisation:
maps at a variety of scales;
Question on major structural features*
Biological and geological evidence of plate tectonics; the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; palaeo-magnetism and sea floor spreading.
The global pattern of tectonic
activity and its relationship to constructive, destructive
and conservative plate margins; hot
Constructive margins (faulting, earthquakes and volcanic activity).
Destructive margins (subduction, earthquakes and
fold mountain formation).
Conservative margins (faulting
• Continental drift and the break
up of Pangaea: continental fit;
• More recent evidence for plate movement:
polar wandering curves; stripe like magnetic anomalies; ‘recent’ age of ocean floor.
relationship between plate boundaries.
• Mapping link between active volcanoes/earthquakes and plate boundaries. Anomalies of hot spots.
• Divergent plates:
Mid Atlantic ridge;
E. African ridge;
basaltic lava and its features (pillow lava);
• Convergent plates:
Ocean trench/andesitic lava;
Ocean/ocean - island arc;
Ocean/continental - Andean fold mountains;
Continental/continental - Himalayan.
San Andreas Fault.
Analysis and evaluation of evidence.
Limitation of evidence.
Geology questinan movement rates*
Module 4 - Global Change
13.2 People and the Environment: Hazards; Conflicts over Resources
Burglary: urban distribution;
distribution, frequency of
occurrence and scale of the
The effects of the hazard on
the physical, built and human environments.
hazard can be predicted and/or prevented.
Types of response to the hazard, varying from fatalism to reaction, protection and prevention. Individual or collective responses, hazard
management and relief.
Definition of burglary i.e. breaking and entering to remove property. Data sources e.g., newspapers, crime statistics and their limitations. Distribution within the urban area e.g., difference between inner city
and suburbs. Frequency e.g. chance of repeat burglary. Scale e.g., type of goods/value/number affected.
e.g., property damage, physical
injury, psychological stress, economic
cost to individual and
areas experiencing frequent
Prediction based on previous
experience. Prevention e.g., alleviating the causes, removing the opportunity.
Meaning with examples of fatalism, reaction (e.g. call police), protection (e.g. alarms), prevention (e.g. social programmes) individual response (e.g. greater security), collective response (e.g. neighbourhood watch), management (e.g. police programmes), relief (e.g. insurance, victim support), success and limitations of the above including crime displacement.
Fieldwork could be
data (e.g., newspapers,
crime statistics and
Notes on basic patterns – basic theory.
Data from Stafford.
Notes – some discussion re personal anecdotes.
GIS data from the N-E.
Geofile Oxford Case Study. Clear elaboration of terminology re responses.
Question on burglary*
Structured essay question
A transmittable disease: global
distribution; international and
distribution, frequency of
occurrence and scale of the
• The effects of the hazard on
the physical, built and
• The extent to which the
hazard can be predicted
• Types of response to the
hazard, varying from
fatalism to reaction,
protection and prevention.
Individual or collective
management and relief.
Only one disease should be studied.
Where appropriate discuss the
differences between LEDCs and MEDCs.
Definition of a transmittable
disease, how it is transmitted,
geographical pattern and why,
frequency and numbers affected. Data sources and their limitations.
Physical social and economic effects on the individual. Social and
economic effects on the family, wider community and country.
The validity of past experience as a
predictor. Prevention — discuss the
possibility of stopping transmission.
Give examples of fatalism, reaction
(e.g., take drugs, alternative
medicines), protection (e.g.
immunisation), prevention (e.g.
non-contact), individual response
(e.g. adopt protective measures),
collective response (e.g. education awareness programmes), hazard management (e.g. government sponsored immunisation schemes), relief (e.g. support schemes).
* Locational quotient
Unit Aids - a
Newspaper articles on Aids
TV video on the nature of aids.
Hagersrands diffusion model (brief)
Various questions on aids
* Assessment – data stimulus question
Volcanoes and earthquakes:
global and regional effects.
The origin, geographical
distribution, frequency of
occurrence and scale of the hazard.
The effects of the hazard on the
physical, built and human
The extent to which the hazard
can be predicted and/or
types of response to the hazard,
varying from fatalism to reaction, protection and prevention. Individual or collective responses, hazard management and relief.
Link between distribution and
boundaries of tectonic plates.
• Constructive margins (volcanic
activity and earthquakes).
• Destructive margins/subduction zones (volcanic activity at island arcs etc)/ earthquakes as continental plates meet Benioff zones.
• Conservative margins (earthquakes).
• Hot spots/rift valleys.
• Magnitude/intensity of earthquakes measured by Richter/Mercalli scales.
• Nature of different volcanic eruptions.
• primary hazards:
• secondary hazards:
avalanches (rock and snow); Tsunamis.
• impact depends on eruption styles;
• primary hazards;
nuées ardentes (pyroclastic flow);
• secondary hazards: volcanic gases;
Prediction based on past patterns —
limitations of such data.
Little warning in short term (earthquakes).
Monitoting of volcanic hazards:
• tiltmeters and ground deformation;
• gas/steam emissions, etc.
Individual research plus group report back
Covered in tectonic unit
Savage Earth video.
Lorna Prieta 1989
Nevada del Ruiz 1985
Geological hazard mapping.
Resistant design for buildings and
• injection of water in fault zones;
spraying of lava flows.
Community awareness and
1988 Armenia class quake
Iceland case study
Module 4 Global Change
13.3 Human Geography: Changes in countries in Various States of Development in the
Last 30 Years
(TNCs) and the global economy
The reasons for the growth and
the spatial organisation of
Definition and example of a TNC.
Description and explanation of the spatial organisation of one TNC. Explanation of pattern including different labour demands, varying markets, trade barriers etc, improvements in transport and communications.
Case Study ICI
The development of global
Definition and example of global
products and global marketing.
product. Explanation of global
marketing in terms of consumer
Coke –Nike eg of global products
(Population Resources Development
knowledge, advertising, improved
communications, benefit to TNC.
The social and economic
Identify named groups affected e.g.workers,
government, women, rural dwellers. Look at data for
social/economic improvement or
deterioration. Link to the impact of the TNCs. Discuss attitudes to the changes. Use a case study of one host country and one country of origin as far as possible.
impacts of TNCs on their host
countries and their countries of
Newly industrialising countries
(NICs) as host countries and
countries of origin, and NICs
importance in the changing
Definition of an NIC.
NICs. Look at spatial pattern.
Basing the work on a case study (as far as possible), explain why NICs became host countries, (eg cheaper labour costs, expanding market, government, and weaker environmental laws, geographical location). Develop why they become countries of origin (stronger domestic industries but rising costs, therefore, move outwards). Look at changing importance in world economy.
Growth of Pacific Ring notes.
Taiwan case study – Skovea p112.
Article on financial problems.
Different attitudes in both the
host and countries of origin to
* Structured essay question on Global products and NICS/TNCS
The relationship between
Using case studies look at examples
of economic, social, refugee and illegal movements.
international migration and
Migration into UK
Multiculturalistion v assimilation/
Major forms of international
The changing forms of
Based on the above describe and
explain how they are changing
in terms of destination, numbers involved, characteristics (e.g., age, sex, wealth) of migrants. Attitudes of e.g. governments to migration.
Multi-cultural societies and
Definition of multi-cultural and
evidence for a multi-cultural society.
Recognition that issue involves at least two viewpoints. Discussion of economic and social issues e.g., jobs, housing, education, cultural elements.
issues related to them in
MEDCs and LEDCs.
Different attitudes to
Attitudes of host, ethnic and
country of origin groups to the above issues (should be case study based where possible).
Sri Lanka –
international migration and multi-cultural societies.
The extent to which regions of
a country are integrated or
Case Study on Kurds and N Ireland.
Notes on Spain and Canada.
subject to separatist pressures.
The extent to which political
power within groups of nations
is centralised or decentralised
and the consequences of this.
The reasons for and consequences of separatist pressure (both within and across political boundaries),
Use of case studies e.g., Basques, Scotland to discuss reasons for separatist pressure e.g., geographical
location, historical, economic, social, cultural factors. Discussion of consequences e.g., action to support separatist pressure, different levels of autonomy. Resulting political/economic impact. Attitudes of those involved.
Secondary source texts.
* Structured question on migration and multiculturalism
* Structured question on separatist pressures
The reasons for and
of groups of
nations, with particular
reference to the European
Different attitudes to these
Particularly with reference to the
EU discuss the dates of countries
joining and the resulting changing
spatial pattern. Reasons for joining
should include economic (e.g., CAP, free trading market) and social (e.g. free movement of labour).
e.g., attitudes of governments,
politicians, workers, EU residents, farmers etc..
policies funding Federalists v Eurosceptics.
Majority voting issues re expansion.
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