Questions by Rob Carson, Mike Cheyne, Andrew Hart, Gautam Kandlikar, and Bernadette Spencer
1. Ngoone Sobel led a revolt against this polity and defeated its burbaa at the Battle of Danki in 1549, which led to the establishment of the state of Kajoor. This polity's founder, Njajan Njai, is alleged to have emerged for water to settle disputes between the Waalo people, and united the Waalo, Bawol, and Cayor tribes. Slaves obtained from this polity led a 1521 revolt in Hispaniola that started in the sugar plantation of Diego Colón. The disintegration of this empire led to the rise of the Kaabu and Denkanye kingdoms. It originally began as a vassal state under the Mali Empire, and it reached its peak in the 14th and 15th centuries when it extended its control to the (*) Gambia River. For 10 points, identify this empire which was centered in Senegal and whose name identifies a major language of Senegal.
ANSWER: Wolof empire [accept Jolof or Djolof] 2. A mapping from a total space of a fiber bundle to a paracompact base satisfies the “lifting” property of this type. A homomorphism exists between homology groups and groups with this property, according to Hurewicz’s theorem. When inclusion maps of two manifolds into a simply-connected cobordism have this property, the maps are said to have an (*) equivalence relation of this type. All functions in a topological space that contain the same points belong to an equivalence class of this type, and the fundamental group is the simplest group of this type. For 10 points, identify this term which describes two objects which can be continuously transformed into each other.
ANSWER: homotopy 3. Daniel Dennett compared re-reading this work to Pierre Menard's new writing of Don Quixote and claims it is "wonderfully, importantly shallow" in an essay titled "Reintroducing" this work. This work claims that language referring to the self is just public language reversed in the section "The Systematic Elusiveness of I". This book uses the example of a cigarette smoker to distinguish between "episodes" and "dispositions" in a chapter that claims that learning only implies the ability to do things. That chapter also outlines the difference between the capacity to be right and the tendency to act a certain way, or (*) knowing and believing in the section "Knowing How and Knowing That". This work opens by asserting that the "original thesis" of philosophy is nothing more than a "category-mistake" that results from erroneously distinguishing mental processes from their physical origins and from relying on a "ghost in the machine". For 10 points, name this work that attacks Cartesian dualism, a book by Gilbert Ryle.
ANSWER: The Concept of Mind 4. At one point in this work, the protagonist meets Codlin and Short, who operate a traveling Punch and Judy show. One antagonist in this work contemplates murdering a lawyer named Brass before losing his footing and drowning. The protagonist of this work is sought by an unnamed character known as the “Single Gentleman,” and that unnamed character is eventually revealed to be a character from another of the author’s works, “Master Humphrey.” In one subplot of this work, a servant called the Marchioness helps (*) Dick Swiveller free the unjustly convicted Kit Nubbles. The villain of this work is the evil money-lending dwarf Daniel Quilp, who obtained the title possession and evicted the young protagonist and her grandfather, both of whom notoriously die in the conclusion. For 10 points, identify this Charles Dickens novel about Little Nell Trent, who lives in the title whimsical store.
ANSWER: The Old Curiosity Shop 5. He’s not Matisse, but one of his works was executed for the garden of Vicomte de Noailles and was titled Joy of Life, and his wife Yulla completed a 30-foot bronze sculpture for the Hadassah University Hospital that was called Our Tree of Life. During the mid-1920s, he worked on a series of lost-wax sculptures which he termed “transparents,” and he produced works such as Flight and Arrival in the early 1940s after his escape from the Nazis. The Minneapolis Sculpture Garden houses a copy of a work by this man featuring a (*) Titan who holds the claws of a giant bird while throttling its neck; that was originally cast in plaster for the 1937 Paris International Exhibition and is titled Prometheus Strangling the Vulture. For 10 points, identify this man who collaborated with Juan Gris, Pablo Picasso, and Alexander Archipenko and was a Russian-born Cubist sculptor.
ANSWER: Jacques Lipchitz [or Chaim Jakob Lipchitz] 6.Latent gene expression in this agent is controlled by promoters called C sub p, Q sub p, and W sub p. Its glycoprotein 350/220 is a major target of antibodies and vaccines being designed to combat this disease. The LMP-1 protein of this agent activates the CD40 pathway, which activate the JNK and p38 associated survival pathways in their targets. They enter their targets by interacting with CR2, and patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome are susceptible to infections by it. The Paul-Bunnell test is a (*) heterophile agglutination test used to detect infections by this agent. Multiple episomal copies of this virus are found in tumors from nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and it may also cause a disease in which a type of cells may have a “starry sky” appearance. For 10 points, name this member of the herpesvirus family that is most commonly transferred through saliva, a DNA virus that causes infectious mononucleosis.
ANSWER: Epstein-Barr Virus [Accept EBV; accept human herpesvirus 4; or HHV-4] 7. One chapter of this work uses the metaphor of a magic city to explain the necessity of partial successes on the way to permanent enlightenment. In the middle section of this work, a treasure tower covered with past incarnations of spirituality appears and the Ceremony of Space and Three Treasures begins. This works opens with the “Sutra on Limitless Meanings” that summarizes the past forty years of the Buddha's ministry. Through the parable of the burning house, this sutra explains the fallacy of the (*) three vehicle approach to enlightenment, claiming that all can reach nirvana through the single “greater vehicle”. This sutra is the most important in both Tendai and a Japanese sect that venerates the Shakyamuni Buddha. For 10 points, name this work that forms the basis of Nichiren Buddhism, an influential Mahayana Sutra named after a flower.
ANSWER: Lotus Sutra [or Sutra on the While Lotus of the Sublime Dharma; or Sanddharma Pundarika Sutra] 8. One person with this surname married the daughter of early American poet Annis Stockton. That man wrote an essay urging the creation of a “Secretary of Peace,” who would provide every American family with a Bible. Another person with this surname served as John Quincy Adams’ running mate in 1828 after previously serving as Adams’ Secretary of the Treasury. The earlier person with this surname is credited with reconciling John Adams and Thomas Jefferson and was earlier a member of the (*) Conway Cabal. That man with this surname founded Dickinson College and wrote the influential early textbook Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon the Diseases of the Mind. For 10 points, identify this surname of Founding Father Benjamin and diplomat Richard, who signed a demilitarization agreement with Sir Charles Bagot.
ANSWER: Rush 9. Lawrence Lessig’s essay “The Solipsist and the Internet” heavily criticized this author’s “writer’s manifesto” Digital Barbarism. The protagonist of one of his novels is bedeviled by the dwarf Orfeo Quatta but is nonetheless inspired by Raphael’s portrait of Bindo Altoviti and Giorgione’s The Tempest. That man, Alessandro Giuliani, tells his life story to Nicolo Sambucca in this man’s A Soldier of the Great War. This writer of Bob Dole’s 1996 resignation speech also wrote of an American adventurer living in Brazil and calling himself Oscar Progresso in his novel Memoir from an(*) Antproof Case, while his most recent novel is 2005’s Freddy and Fredericka. Characters in his most famous novel include the bridge-builder Jackson Mead, who seeks to “stop time and bring back the dead”. That novel’s protagonist falls in love with Beverly Penn and is accompanied by the flying white horse Athansor. For 10 points, identify this author who wrote about the child-resurrecting thief Peter Lake in his 1983 novel Winter’s Tale.
ANSWER: Mark Helprin [accept Digital Barbarism: A Writer’s Manifesto before “this author” is read] 10. One cult center of this god featured an unusual symmetrical double temple wherein he was worshipped in the southern half while Tasenetnofret, Panebtawy, and Horus the Elder were worshipped in the northern half. He is often depicted holding an ankh, which he uses to undo evil, and wearing a tall golden feathered crown with a uraeus on each side. His cult centers include al-Fayyum, the aforementioned Kom Ombo, and the former Arsinoe, and this son of Neith was the patron deity of the (*) pharaohs. In a more familiar role, he invented a fish-trap that recovered Horus’s severed hands, was able to save the four sons of Horus by catching them in a net, and personified the annual floods. For 10 points, identify this Egyptian god of the Nile whose animal form is suggested by the name of another of his major cult centers, Crocodilopolis.
ANSWER: Sobek [or Suchos; or Sebek; or Sochet; or Sobk; or Sobki; or Soknopais] 11. An entertaining scene at the end of this novel sees the protagonist and his friend ambush two people coming out of the Kadoya inn, throwing eggs at them and beating them up. Its protagonist gains the nickname “Red-towel” shortly after seeing a display reading “THE DUMPLINGS IN THE BROTHEL QUARTER ARE SIMPLY DELICIOUS”, a reference to an earlier incident in which he’d ordered a dish of fried prawns. The maid (*) Kiyo dies of pneumonia at the end of this novel, shortly after its protagonist returns to live with her in Tokyo. Its protagonist admires Uranari and allies with Hotta, who he calls “Porcupine”, but is disgusted by Nodaiko and the rumormonger Akashatsu, who are nicknamed “the Clown” and “Redshirt”. For 10 points, name this novel whose title character is a Shikoku math teacher, a work by Natsume Soseki.
ANSWER: Botchan 12. The results of this experiment have been confirmed by the experiments of Turneaure, who used 1.42 GHz masers and superconducting-cavity stabilized oscillators. That experiment improved upon the Vessot-Levine experiment that confirmed this experiment using a maser fired on a rocket. Further experiments by one of its namesakes and Snider led to more accurate results for this experiment, and it was performed in a tube filled with helium in order to reduce scattering. Central to this experiment were two (*) iron crystals placed 74 feet apart, one of which served as an emitter of 14.4 KeV gamma rays, and the other of which absorbed the gamma ray. This experiment gave a value for gravitational redshift that was close to values predicted by Einstein’s theory. For 10 points, identify this experiment performed by two scientists in the Jefferson Laboratory of Harvard.
ANSWER: Pound-Rebka experiment 13. Agostino Veneziano engraved one work by this artist that depicts several Écochré figures bending over a skeleton whose head is raised by a bearded man, and the titular figures of one of this man’s paintings are depicted running off to the right as the titular nude character wards off men to the left. This artist of Moses Defending the Daughters of Jethro executed a Virgin and Child Enthroned with Four Saints, but his patron refused to accept it because its characters were too demented. The central figure of one work by this pupil of (*) Andrea Del Sarto is of a deathly green color, and this artist completed 12 frescos, including Royal Elephant, for Francis I’s palace. For 10 points, name this Mannerist painter of The Deposition who supervised the painting and stuccowork in The Palace of Fontainebleau, whose name suggests he had red hair.
ANSWER: Rosso Fiorentino 14. This thinker claimed that the fact that Hobbes and Foucault both spoke of a “war of all against all” leads many to think that they have more in common besides “the fact that, with the exception of Hobbes, both were bald.” One of his texts arose from a debate with Gananath Obeyesekere about the distinction between “Western” and “indigenous” thought, which arose from Obeyesekere’s book about a certain figure who was mistaken for Lono. He relied on Richard B. Lee’s studies among the !Kung (pronounced “[tongue-click] Kung”) for a symposium about “Man the Hunter” at which he proposed one of his notable theses, which was later expounded on in his Stone Age Economics. This thinker wrote (*)How “Natives” Think about Captain Cook, for Example and posited that hunter-gatherer economies were the “original affluent society.” For 10 points, name this University of Chicago anthropologist.
ANSWER: Marshall David Sahlins 15. In the preface to the second edition of this novel, the author praised the criticism it had received from Joseph A. Balseiro in The Watchman. On his deathbed, this novel’s narrator begs “but...bring the baby!” in order to ask forgiveness from his grandson and mourns the fact that he never loved his wife Antonia. This novel’s title character marries the “professional beauty” Helena, a cousin and former ostensible love interest of the narrator. This novel’s narrator gives a brilliantly-received speech at a banquet honoring the title character’s (*) painting of a Biblical murder scene, which had earlier prompted the narrator to read Lord Byron’s Cain. It is interspersed with sections from the narrator’s Confession, which he gives to his daughter Joaquina. For 10 points, identify this nivola about Joaquin Monegro’s intense hatred for the title artist, a retelling of a Biblical story by Miguel de Unamuno.
ANSWER: Abel Sanchez: A Story of Passion [or Abel Sanchez:Una historia de passion] 16. One source notes that immediately prior to this man’s arrest he asked why his enemies were “searching for fleas in my trousers.” He publicly exposed the marital infidelity of Redens, his former superior, in order to supplant him. This man achieved party fame for penning the book On the History of Bolshevik Organizations in Transcaucasia, a fawning biography of Stalin. According to Molotov’s memoirs, this man boasted that he had poisoned Stalin to prevent future purges. With his one-time ally (*) Gregory Malenkov, he eliminated opponents in the Leningrad Affair. He was eventually arrested and executed in 1953 after being condemned by Khrushchev. During World War II, he supervised the Soviet atomic bomb project, controlled domestic labor camps, and ordered his department to engage in the Katyn Forest massacre. For 10 points, name this notorious head of the NKVD under fellow Georgian Stalin.
ANSWER: Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria 17. This composer wrote a single-movement concerto which begins with a solo xylophonist playing a number of cadenzas in free time. The best-known work by this composer of Fantasy on Japanese Woodprints was popularized by a 1958 recording made by Fritz Reiner and the Chicago Symphony. His most-recorded work is an intermezzo for strings and solo trumpet taken from his opera Etchmiadzin, while his other popular works include an orchestral piece commissioned by Andre Kostelanetz to “fit around” some pre-taped (*) whale songs. This composer of The Prayer of Saint Gregory and And God Created Great Whales first introduced his characteristic “spirit murmur” technique in his 1943 piece Lousadzak. For 10 points, identify this composer of 67 symphonies, the second of which is subtitled “Mysterious Mountain”; likely the most famous non-Khachaturian Armenian composer.
ANSWER: Alan Hovhaness [or Alan Yovhannes; or Alan Vaness Chakmakjian] 18. At one point in this game, the player can receive the Alien Medal from a group of squid. To do so, the player must take no damage in a fight against Ironhead, a character from this game’s developer’s earlier title Ikachan. After escaping from jail, the player is asked to collect a sprinkler and a controller to build a rocket for Momorin Sakamoto. This game contains a bonus stage called “Sacred Ground”, where the protagonist fights Jenka’s brother Ballos, the creator of the Demon Crown. Its protagonist learns his real name, (*) Quote, after using a mushroom from Ma Pignon to restore the memories of Curly Brace. This game sees the player repeatedly fight Balrog while attempting to prevent the Doctor from using red flowers to create an army of Mimigas. For 10 points, identify this 2004 platformer, independently developed entirely by Daisuke Amaya under the alias “Pixel”, which takes its name from its setting, the interior of a floating island.
ANSWER: Cave Story [or Doukutsu Monogatari] 19. One modification of this theory assumes the presence of hydrated, tightly bound counterions that cause potential to decay in one region. In that modification, the charge in one region has a hyperbolic sine dependence on namesake potential. This theory, which was improved by Stern, assumes a Poisson-Boltzmann distribution of charges and a uniform dielectric constant in the aqueous phase. The DLVO theory assumes the structure proposed by this model. It describes a rigid, charged (*) surface in contact with a cloud of oppositely charged ions in solution, though its shortcomings include the assumption that activity is equal molar concentration and that ions behave as point charges. It has been successfully used to model phospholipid bilayers and colloidal particles. For 10 points, identify this theory which improved upon the Helmholtz model, which models a diffuse electric double layer.
ANSWER: Gouy-Chapman-Stern theory [accept Gouy-Chapman-Stern until “Stern;” prompt on “double layer” until “bilayer”] 20. This man’s son Holcroft commanded the Duke of Marlborough’s artillery at the Battle of Blenheim. Two of this man’s allies, John Crookshanks and Andrew McCormack, were killed at the Battle of Rullion Green after fleeing the site of one of this man’s actions. He once disguised himself as a parson to befriend Talbot Edwards; that happened several years after he returned from exile under the disguise of a doctor named Aylford. Dissatisfied by the 1662 Act of Settlement, he led a failed conspiracy to storm Dublin Castle and capture the Lord Lieutenant, a man who he later attempted again to abduct and hang at Tyburn. This opponent of the Duke of (*) Ormonde and servant of the Duke of Buckingham once demanded to speak with Charles II and, in doing so, won a pardon for his most famous crime, during which he had flattened St. Edward’s Crown with a mallet and filed the Sceptre with the Cross in half. For 10 points, identify this Irish colonel, notorious for his 1671 attempt to steal the English Crown Jewels.
ANSWER: Thomas Blood TIEBREAKER This poem tells of how “many a jest” was told “of the keys betraying / This night” after noting that “many a glance” has been sent “from out the eye, love’s firmament”. It speaker compares his circumstances to “a vapour or a drop of rain” which “once lost, can ne’er be found again”. That speaker asks this poem’s addressee to “see how / Devotion gives each house a bough / Or branch!” after earlier describing how (*) “Aurora throws her fair / fresh-quilted colors through the air”. Its final stanza opens “Come, let us go, while we are in our prime / and take the folly of our time” after earlier encouraging a “sweet slug-a-bed” to “get up, get up for shame!” For 10 points, identify this poem which encourages the title figure to engage in the title action “while time serves, and we are but decaying”, a work by Robert Herrick.
 Aleixandre was a prominent member of this Spanish literary circle, which met in the Ateneo de Seville and was formed to honor the 300th anniversary of the death of Luis de Gongora.
ANSWER: the Generation of 1927 [or the Generacion del 1927]
 The most famous member of the Generation of 27, Federico Garcia Lorca, wrote this play, whose child-desiring title character strangles her husband after attending a fertility ritual.
ANSWER: Yerma [accept Barren, I guess] 2. At the climax of this movie, the formerly-acne-ridden mantou-maker Mui appears and takes over for the injured Iron Shirt and Empty Hand, neutralizing a vortex shot. For 10 points each:
 Identify this movie in which the kung-fu promoter Sing reunites Light Weight, Iron Head, Hooking Leg, and Golden Leg to defeat the corrupt Team Evil.
 This actor and director starred as “Mighty Steel Leg” Sing in Shaolin Soccer. He’s also known for starting the careers of many so-called “Sing girls” and for creating such mo lei tau films as 1990’s All for the Winner.
ANSWER: Stephen Chow Sing-Chi [accept Zhou Xingchi]
 At one point, this actor co-hosted the children’s program 430 Space Shuttle with Stephen Chow. He co-starred with Chow Yun-fat in Hard Boiled and won the Cannes Best Actor award for Wong Kar-wai’s In the Mood for Love.
ANSWER: Tony Leung Chiu-Wai [accept Little Tony or Liang Chaowei; do not accept “Tony Leung Ka-Fai” or “Big Tony”] 3. He put down an uprising co-led by Bardas Phokas the Younger and David III Kuropalates, only to recall the exiled Phokas seven years later to quell Bardas Skleros’s upsrising. For 10 points each:
 Identify this Byzantine ruler whose distrust of his countrymen led him to create the Varangian Guard. He gained his most famous nickname by blinding 99 percent of his defeated foes after a battle.
ANSWER: Basil II [or Basileios II; or Basil the Bulgar-Slayer; or Basileios Boulgaroktonos; or Basileios the Porphyrogenitus; or Basileios the Younger]
 This was the battle at which Basil II famously slew those Bulgars, led at the time by Samuel I. Victory for the Byzantines was assured by Nikephoros Xiphias’s successfull attack from the rear.
ANSWER: Battle of Kleidion [or Battle of Clidium; or Battle of Belasitsa]
 Roughly a century earlier, the Bulgarian armies under Simeon I won a great victory over John Bogas and Leo Phokas at this 917 battle, which saw the death of Constantine Lips during the routing of the Byzantine forces.
ANSWER: Battle of Achelous 4. Most x-ray machines you would encounter at the dentist’s rely on this effect. For 10 points each:
 Identify this term that describes radiation which is produced when electrons decelerate over relatively short distances. It has a continuous spectrum with a cutoff at a minimum wavelength threshold.
ANSWER: bremsstrahlung [or “braking radiation”]
 Another method of producing x-rays is to bombard metals such as tungsten with high energy electrons in order to eject electrons from this shell. The s subshell is the only subshell present in this shell.
ANSWER: K shell
 While the Auger effect involves the transition of an electron to fill an inner-shell vacancy, this process sees the transition of an electron from the same shell to fill the vacancy.
ANSWER: Coster-Kronig transition 5. Identify the following about the family of Pallas, the son of the Titan Crius, for 10 points each.
 Likely Pallas’s best known child with his wife, the river Styx, this winged goddess served as Zeus’s charioteer. A well-known statue of her formed part of the Megalon Theon, the temple complex outside Samothrace.
ANSWER: Nike [prompt on “Victory” or “Victoria”]
 In addition to Nike and Zelus, the personification of zeal, Pallas and Styx had two other children, one the personification of strength and the other the personification of force. Name either.
ANSWER: Kratos [or Cratus] or Bia
 Ovid’s Fasti claims that this mother of Phainon, Pyroeis, and Stilbon was also a daughter of Pallas. Many of her better-known children came as a result of her marriage to Astraeus.
ANSWER: Eos [or Aurora] 6. George S. Kaufman was known as “The Great Collaborator” for a reason. For 10 points each:
 Kaufman’s most famous collaborative partner was this man, with whom he wrote such plays as Merrily We Roll Along, The Man Who Came to Dinner, and You Can’t Take it With You.
ANSWER: Moss Hart
 Kaufman created a stage adapation of June Moon while working with this author, who wrote such short stories as “Alibi Ike” and “Some Like Them Cold”, as well as the epistolary baseball novel You Know Me Al.
ANSWER: Ringgold Wilmer “Ring” Lardner
 Kaufman worked with J.P. Marquand on a stage adapation of this Marquand novel, a satire of upper-class Boston society whose protagonist briefly carries on an affair with the lower-class Mary Monahan.
ANSWER: The Late George Apley 7. Works of this composer found in the Chigi Codex include his Requiem, which lacks extant Sanctus, Communion, and Agnus Dei sections, and his Missa de plus en plus. For 10 points each:
 Identify this composer from the Franco-Flemish school who wrote the heavily contrapuntal Missa Prolatonium, which consists entirely of mensuration canons. He was the dedicatee of another composer’s lamentation motet Nymphes des Bois.
ANSWER: Johannes Ockeghem [also accept first names like Jean or Jan and last names like Okeghem, Ogkegum, Okchem, Hocquegam, or Ockegham]
 This composer of Nymphes des Bois and sometime student of Ockeghem is more famous for such works as his Missa Hercules dux Ferrariae and his Missa Pange lingua. Some call him the most famous composer between Guillaume Dufay and Palestrina.
ANSWER: Josquindes Prez [accept either underlined portion; also accept Josquinus Pratensis, or Jodocus Pratensi]
 Josquin also composed two masses based on this popular French song, often used as the basis for Renaissance cantus firmus masses. Josquin’s settings of it were partly titled “super voces musicales” and “sexti toni”.
ANSWER: L’homme armé [or “the armed man”] 8. Name these British literary critics, for 10 points each.
 This student of I. A. Richards blasted C.P. Snow’s “Two Cultures” theory in a Richmond lecture at Cambridge. He also founded the journal Scrutiny and wrote New Bearings in English Poetry.
ANSWER: F. R. Leavis [or Frank Raymond Leavis]
 This Welsh critic examined the differences in rural and urban societies in British literature in The Country and the City and developed the cultural materialist approach to literary studies in such works as Culture and Marxism and Literature.
ANSWER: Raymond Henry Williams
 This man was inspired by The Golden Bough to examine the triple nature of the titular archetypal woman in The White Goddess. He also wrote many historical novels like Count Belisarius and I, Claudius.
ANSWER: Robert Graves 9. Transition from the ground state into this state occurs due to intersystem crossing facilitated by spin orbit coupling. For 10 points each:
 Identify this state that is characterized by the excitation of an electron into a higher energy state accompanied by a change in the spin, giving it the namesake multiplicity level.
ANSWER: triplet state
 The relaxation from a triplet state to a ground state is accompanied by the emission of photons via this process. Unlike fluorescence, it occurs over longer time-scales.
ANSWER: phosphorescence  Transitions to and from various electronic states can be visualized on these diagrams, which are named for a Polish scientist. Non-radiative transitions are usually shown with squiggly lines on these diagrams.
ANSWER: Jablonski diagrams 10. A near-destitute Harriet Smithson once played this work’s title role at the Opera Comique; that title character leaps into the lava flowing from Mt. Vesuvius at this work’s end. For 10 points each:
 Identify this opera which sees the wedding between Elvire and Alphonse interrupted by a revolution against the viceroy of Naples led by Masaniello, whose sister Fenella accuses Alphonse of assaulting her.
ANSWER: The Mute Girl of Portici [or Masaniello, ou La muette de Portici; prompt on Masaniello; by Daniel Auber]
 In addition to The Mute Girl of Portici, Daniel Auber composed such other grand operas as Gustave III, which was adapted by another composer into this work. Due to interference from censors, its setting was changed from Sweden to Boston, making “Riccardo, the Earl of Warwick” the target of an assassination.
ANSWER: Un ballo in maschera [or A Masked Ball; accept Una vendetta in domino; by Giuseppe Verdi]
 Another superstar of the grand opera scene was this man, who made his name with epic works like Robert le diable and Les Huguenots.
ANSWER: Giacomo Meyerbeer [or Jacob Liebmann Beer] 11. It lists spiders and bees above flies and beetles, as the former are useful and the latter are ugly. For 10 points each:
 Identify this theological concept, a hierarchical structure of all life and matter, as decreed by God.
ANSWER: the Great Chain of Being [or the scala naturae]
 This philosopher wrote a “study of the history of an idea” about the Great Chain of Being. Other works by this founder of the history of ideas include The Thirteen Pragmatisms and The Revolt Against Dualism.
ANSWER: Arthur Oncken Lovejoy
 The Great Chain of Being is similar in nature to the “Ladder of Divine Ascent” proposed in a namesake ascetical treatise written by this monk from Raithu, whose name was later adopted by another author for his Concluding Unscientific Postscript.
ANSWER: Saint John Climacus [prompt on “Saint John”, accept John of the Ladder, John Scholasticus or John Sinaites, also accept Johannes Climacus] 12. This theory was first introduced during a tour of the Guangdong Province, and was criticized as an attempt by its formulator, Jiang Zemin, to instill orthodoxy in the minds of capitalists and entrepreneurs. For 10 points each
 Identify this theory which prescribed that the Communist Party of China should stand for "productive forces," "culture," and the "interests of the overwhelming majority."
ANSWER: three represents [or Sange Daibiao]
 This chain-smoking predecessor of Jiang had outlined his vision of "Socialism with Chinese Characteristics" to the 12th Congress of the CCP. He is also known for the statement, "I don't care if it's a white cat or a black cat. It's a good cat so long as it catches mice."
ANSWER: Deng Xiaoping
 Hu Jintao's ideology of Scientific Development is key to the achievement of this utopian-sounding ideal. It signals the CCPs interest to shift focus from rapid economic growth, and to address social problems that have resulted from such rapid growth.
ANSWER: the Harmonious Society [or Hexie Shehui] 13. This man critiqued the supposed unique nature of man in Dependent Rational Animals, and he rejected both the genealogical and encyclopedic approaches to knowledge in favor of Thomism in Three Rival Visions of Moral Inquiry. For 10 points each:
 Name this Scottish philosopher who claimed the failure of the Enlightenment resulted from the elevation of individual rationality and the rejection of Medieval teleology in his book After Virtue.
ANSWER: Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre
 This foundational text of virtue ethics by Aristotle claims that goodness arises from choice rather than habit and that man should practice everything in moderation except for virtue.
ANSWER: Nicomachean Ethics [or Ethika Nikomacheia; or Ethikon Nicomacheon]
 This other British virtue ethicist argued that people were equally bound to ethical rules and etiquette in “Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives” and equated morality with other human characterisics in Natural Goodness. She also introduced the trolley problem.
ANSWER: Philippa Foot 14.This artist painted his wife at a department store in The Shoppers. For 10 points each:
 Name this American painter, whose works include Portrait of the Artist’s Wife, which depicts his wife Edith, and Chez Mouquin, which shows a man and an uninterested woman sitting in the title restaurant.
ANSWER: William Glackens
 Glackens was a member of the Eight, a group generally associated with this American artistic school from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Known for its realist styles, its members included Arthur B. Davies and George Luks.
ANSWER: Ashcan School
 Another Ashcan painter, George Bellows, was known for his boxing paintings, which included this 1909 work showing black prizefighter Joe Gans dueling with a white boxer.
ANSWER: Both Members of This Club 15. The last person to rule this polity as a caliph was Hisham III. For 10 points each:
 Identify this Muslim caliphate in Spain whose first caliph was Abd-ar-Rahman III. The main epicenter of the larger polity of al-Andalus, it shared its name with its capital, which had a namesake Great Mosque.
ANSWER: Caliphate of Cordoba
 One of Abd-ar-Rahman’s accomplishments was to oust Ordono the Bad from the throne of Leon and reinstall a ruler of this name dubbed the “Fat.” Another king with this name ruled Navarre during the early 1000’s and occupied both Castile and Leon during his reign.
 Al-Andalus itself as a polity lasted until the reign of this dude, the sultan of Grenada when it surrendered to Ferdinand and Isabella. After surrendering, his mother said that he “wept like a woman,” and the place where he looked back on his kingdom is called “the moor’s last sigh.”
ANSWER: Muhammad XII [prompt on Muhammad, accept Abu Abdullah or Boabdil] 16. The expression of genes involved in its lytic cycle is inhibited by the cI repressor. For 10 points each:
 Identify this virus which was identify by Andre Lwoff. Joshua and Esther Lederberg are also known for their work on this E. coli infecting bacteriophage.
ANSWER: bacteriophage lambda[or λ phage]
 This transcription factor binds to the OR and OL operator regions to inhibit the expression of the λ repressor, thereby preventing the phage from entering a lysogenic cycle.
 One of the lysogenic genes of the λ phage codes for this type of protein. These enzymes catalyze the incorporation of viral DNA into the host chromosome.
ANSWER: integrase [accept int] 17. One of his popular short stories is titled “The Chess Players,” and in another of his novels Hori longs for the titular animal, but dies soon after he receives it. For 10 points each:
 Identify this author who wrote The Donation of the Cow.
ANSWER: Munshi Premchand
 Premchand wrote in Urdu and in this language, which was also used by Harvansh Rai Bachchan to write an adaptation of the Rubaiyat. This language is widely spoken in Northern India.
 Another writer who wrote in the Awadhi dialect of Hindi was this dude, who is known for his 40 couplet poem on Hanuman, and a retelling of the story of the Ramayana in Rama-charitra-manas.
ANSWER: Tulsidas 18. On July 15, 1979, Jimmy Carter urged Americans “to use carpools or public transportation whenever you can” and “to obey the speed limit.” For 10 points each:
 That speech was the so-called “crisis of confidence” speech, which is better known by this word. Even though it never appeared in the speech, this word was seemingly the quality Carter ascribed to the listless American people.
 Shortly after the speech, five Cabinet officials resigned and Carter appointed this man as his first Chief of Staff. Carter’s campaign manager in 1976, this man, along with Jody Powell, served as part of the so-called “Georgia Mafia” that dominated the Carter administration.
ANSWER: William Hamilton McWhorter Jordan [his name is actually pronounced “Jurden”]
 The “malaise” speech didn’t help Carter win the 1980 election, which he lost to Reagan, although Carter did get more votes than this Congressman from Illinois who ran as an independent and took 6.6% of the popular vote.
ANSWER: John Bayard Anderson 19. Identify some stuff from statistics, for 10 points each.
 This theorem states that a sufficiently large number of identically distributed independent random variable with finite variance will take on a normal distribution.
ANSWER: central limit theorem
 This statement suggests that the existence of the 2+kth moment of a distribution of N random variables implies a finite mean and variance, and that if limit as N approaches infinity of the sum of the kth moments over the sum of the variances approaches zero, then the central limit theorem holds. It does away the need for
ANSWER: Lyapunov condition [or Lyapunov central limit theorem]
 This other mathematician is also known for his work along with Boris Gnedenko on the central limit theorem. You probably better know him for an equation he co-names with Sydney Chapman that densities of Markov chains.
ANSWER: Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov 20. One of his early contributions was a paper on The Laws of Returns Under Competitive Conditions which led to many developments in the theory of imperfect competition, and he also critiqued the Marshallian cross for its assumption of constant returns to scale. For 10 points each:
 Identify this Italian-born economist who critiqued the Wicksell-Hayek rule of interests and wrote The Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities.
ANSWER: Piero Sraffa  Piero Sraffa also compiled and edited the collected works and communications of this dude who proposed that England's comparative advantage in producing cloth and Portugal's in producing wine made sense for the two countries to trade wine and textiles.
ANSWER: David Ricardo  Sraffa developed some methods for the linear analysis of production, much like this economist who developed a technique that allows one to calculate the effects of changes in the means of production in an industry due to changes in production from another industry.
ANSWER: Wassily Leontief TIEBREAKER Answer some questions about American propaganda for 10 points each:
 The World War I agency called the Committee on Public Information was also named for this chairman, a journalist who wrote the book How We Advertised America. His agency tried to persuade Americans as to the righteousness of the war’s cause.
ANSWER: George Creel
 This other American propagandist was the nephew of Freud. Called the “father of public relations,” he literally wrote the book on propaganda, which was called Propaganda. He worked for American Tobacco, Procter and Gamble, and United Fruit.
ANSWER: Edward Louis Bernays
 This was the name given to Iva D’Aquino, an American citizen who participated in English-language propaganda broadcasts by the Japanese during World War II. Also known as “Orphan Ann,” D’Aquino appeared on radio programs that tried to lower soldiers’ morale.