Michaelmas Term Seminars Enlightenment Debates



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Michaelmas Term Seminars

Enlightenment Debates





Week 1. What is Enlightenment? (Dr Kevin Hillard)


I. Primary texts
Primary reading

Moses Mendelssohn, ‘Über die Frage: Was heißt aufklären?’ (1784)

Immanuel Kant, ‘Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?’ (1784)
German originals in editions of Mendelssohn’s/Kant’s works, or in: Was ist Aufklärung? Thesen und Definitionen, ed. Ehrhard Bahr (Stuttgart, 1974)

Was ist Aufklärung? Beiträge aus der Berlinischen Monatsschrift, ed. Norbert Hinske and Michael Albrecht, 4th ed. (Darmstadt, 1990)

English translations in: What is Enlightenment? Eighteenth-Century Answers and Twentieth-Century Questions, ed. James Schmidt (Berkeley, 1996)

Kant’s essay can also be found on a number of websites, e. g. http://www.english.upenn.edu/~mgamer/Etexts/kant.html; http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/kant-whatis.html.
It is important to read both essays.

Consider the definitions offered by the two writers, noting points of agreement or difference; and compare what they say with your own understanding of what Enlightenment is. Written work could pursue these issues and bring in twentieth-century debates (e. g. Horkheimer/Adorno) as a point of comparison.


Secondary reading

Gisbert Beyerhaus, ‘Kants “Programm” der Aufklärung aus dem Jahre 1784’, Kant-Studien, 26 (1921), 1-16

Franco Venturi, ‘Was ist Aufklärung? Sapere aude!’, Rivista storica italiana, 71 (1959), 119-128

Luigi Firpo, ‘Ancora a proposito di “Sapere aude!”, Rivista storica italiana, 72 (1960), 114-117

Werner Schneiders, Die wahre Aufklärung (Munich, 1974)

Norbert Hinske, ‘Mendelssohns Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung? oder Über die Aktualität Mendelssohns’, in Ich handle mit Vernunft …Moses Mendelssohn und die europäische Aufklärung, ed. Norbert Hinske (Hamburg, 1981), 85-117

Hans Erich Bödeker, ‘Aufklärung als Kommunikationsprozeß’, Aufklärung, 2/2 (1987), 89-111

Norbert Hinske, ‘Il dialogo silenzioso: Principi di antropologia e di filosofia della storia in Mendelssohn e Kant’, tr. S. Carboncini, in Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa: Classe di Lettere, 3rd series, XIX (1989), no. 4, pp. 1299-1323; in German as ‘Das stillschweigende Gespräch: Prinzipien der Anthropologie und Geschichtsphilosophie bei Mendelssohn und Kant’, in Moses Mendelssohn und die Kreise seiner Wirksamkeit, ed. M. Albrecht, E. J. Engel, N. Hinske (Tübingen, 1994), pp. 135-156

H. B. Nisbet, ‘“Was ist Aufklärung?” The Concept of Enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century Germany’, Journal of European Studies, 12 (1992), 77-95

James Schmidt, ‘What Enlightenment Was: How Moses Mendelssohn and Immanuel Kant answered the Berlinische Monatsschrift’, Journal of the History of Philosophy, 30 (1992), 77-101



What is Enlightenment? Eighteenth-Century Answers and Twentieth-Century Questions, ed. James Schmidt (Berkeley, 1996)

Die Bestimmung des Menschen, ed. Norbert Hinske, in Aufklärung 11 (1999), no. 1

Katerina Deligiorgi, Kant and the Culture of Enlightenment, SUNY series in philosophy (Albany, 2005)

Wolfgang Albrecht, ‘Bestimmung(en) des Menschen: Zu einem Zentralthema des Aufklärungsdiskurses und einigen seiner Facetten im Umkreis Lessings’, in Practicing Progress: The Promise and Limitations of Enlightenment: Festschrift for John A. McCarthy, Internationale Forschungen zur allgemeinen und vergleichenden Literaturwissenschaft, 106 (Amsterdam, 2007), 21-34

Reinhard Brandt, Die Bestimmung des Menschen bei Kant (Hamburg, 2007)

Giovanni Landolfi Petrone, ‘La voix de la raison: la Bestimmung des Menschen d’après l’itinéraire kantien’, in Kant et les lumières européennes: Actes du VIIe Congrès de la Société d’Études Kantiennes de langue française, ed. Lorenzo Bianchi, Jean Ferrari, Alberto Postigliola (Naples and Paris, 2009)

Oliver R. Scholz, ‘Kants Aufklärungsprogramm: Rekonstruktion und Verteidigung’, in Kant und die Zukunft der europäischen Aufklärung, ed. H. F. Klemme (Berlin and New York, 2009), pp. 28-42

Günter Zöller, ‘Aufklärung über Aufklärung: Kants Konzeption des selbständigen, öffentlichen und gemeinschaftlichen Gebrauchs der Vernunft’, in Kant und die Zukunft der europäischen Aufklärung, ed. H. F. Klemme (Berlin and New York, 2009), pp. 82-99

Willi Goetschel, ‘Einstimmigkeit in Differenz: Der Begriff der Aufklärung bei Kant und Mendelssohn’, in Text + Kritik Sonderband: Moses Mendelssohn, ed. Heinz Ludwig Arnold and Cord-Friedrich Berghahn (Munich, 2011), pp. 79-98

George di Giovanni, ‘The Year 1786 and Die Bestimmung des Menschen, or Popularphilosophie in Crisis’, in Moses Mendelssohn’s Metaphysics and Aesthetics, ed. Reinier Munk, Studies in German Idealism, 13 (Dordrecht, 2011), pp. 217-234

Frederick C. Beiser, ‘Mendelssohn Versus Herder on the Vocation of Man’, in Moses Mendelssohn’s Metaphysics and Aesthetics, ed. Reinier Munk, Studies in German Idealism, 13 (Dordrecht, 2011), pp. 235-244

James Schmidt, ‘What Counts as an Answer to the Question “What is Enlightenment?”?’ (2011), at http://www.academia.edu/3751155/What_Counts_as_an_Answer_to_the_Question_What_is_Enlightenment_

Samuel Fleischacker, What is Enlightenment?, Kant’s Questions (Abingdon, 2013)



Week 3. Tolerance (Dr Caroline Warman)



Tolerance.
Primary texts: short texts from Bayle, Locke, Spinoza; Voltaire's Traité sur la tolérance; please also read the anthology Tolérance: le combat des Lumières.

Questions to bear in mind when reading these texts: What is tolerance? Is it an epistemology or a religious position or a theory of society?

The bibliography is followed by specific topics for the seminar presentations (topics will be shared out at the beginning of term).
Pierre Bayle, De la Tolérance, Commentaire Philosophique (1686), ed. Jean-Michel Gros (Paris: Champion, 2006): Read the 'Discours préliminaire,' and also Part 1, ch.1, and Part 2, ch.1.

In English: Pierre Bayle's Philosophical Commentary, ed. and trans. Amie Godman Tannenbaum (New York, Peter Lang, 1987).

John Locke, A Letter Concerning Toleration (1689) in Locke on Toleration, ed. Richard Vernon, trans. Michael Silverthorne, (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Baruch de Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1670), ch.20, in Spinoza, Complete Works, ed. Michael Morgan, trans. Shirley Jordan, (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2002), ch.20: http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/31458292-Spinoza-Complete-Works.pdf

Voltaire, Traité sur la Tolérance (1763), ed. John Renwick (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 1999).

In English: Voltaire, Treatise on Tolerance, ed. Simon Harvey, trans. Simon Harvey and Brian Masters (Cambridge: CUP, 2000).



Tolerance: le combat des Lumières (Paris: SFEDS, 2015). Online here: https://www.openbookpublishers.com/shopimages/resources/Tolerance-Original-French.pdf

In English Tolerance: The Beacon of the Enlightenment, trans. C. Warman et al (Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2016), online here: http://www.openbookpublishers.com/product/418/


Key critical literature:

Forst, Rainer, "Toleration", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Part 3. ‘The History of Toleration.’ Quick introduction to the history and polemics around the concept of ‘toleration’.

Nicholas Cronk, ed., Etudes sur le Traité sur la tolérance de Voltaire (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2000).

Ole Peter Grell and Roy Porter, eds., Toleration in Enlightenment Europe (Cambridge: CUP, 2000).

John Marshall, John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture (Cambridge: CUP, 2006).

Mostefai, Ourida & Scott, John T. (2009). Rousseau and L’Infâme: Religion, Toleration, and Fanaticism in the Age of Enlightenment. Rodopi.


Further exploring here:

Baubérot, Jean & Lenoir, Claude-Jean (1997). La Tolérance Ou la Liberté? Les Leçons de Voltaire Et de Condorcet. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).

Beltran, M. (1994). Tolerance and freedom of conscience in the works of Spinoza-remarks on Mignini, Filippo hypothesis. Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 86 (4):738-746.

Bessire, François ; Menant, Sylvain ; Cotoni, Marie-hélène & Voltaire, (2000). "Traité Sur la Tolérance" de Voltaire.

Billecoq, Alain (1998). Spinoza et l’idée de tolérance. Philosophique 1:122-142.

Blois, M. (2008). 'the True Spirit Of Toleration': Edmund Burke on Establishment and Tolerance. Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy 3:212-229.

Boulad-Ayoub, Josiane (1990). « Et la religion le remplit de fureur... » : Les déterminations idéologiques, polémiques et politiques, du Mahomet de Voltaire. Philosophiques 17 (2):3-22.

Broad, Jacqueline & Green, Karen (eds.) (2007). Virtue, Liberty, and Toleration: Political Ideas of European Women, 1400-1800. Springer.

Brown, Wendy (2008). Regulating Aversion: Tolerance in the Age of Identity and Empire. Princeton University Press.

Brownlee, Timothy (2013). Hegel's Defense of Toleration. In Angelica Nuzzo (ed.), Hegel on Religion and Politics. State University of New York Press 79.

Bucher, Tg (1985). Between atheism and tolerance-on the historical effects of Bayle, Pierre (1647-1706). Philosophisches Jahrbuch 92 (2):353-379.

Buisson, Ferdinand (2005). Protestantisme libéral, tolérance et esprit laïque. Revue D'Histoire Et de Philosophie Religieuses 85 (1-2):253.

Bukovskaya, Natalia (2008). Tolerance in Kant's Philosoph-Political Discourse. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:63-69.

Clark, Samuel (2009). No abiding city: Hume, naturalism, and toleration. Philosophy 84 (1):75-94.

De Krey, Gary (2010). John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture. Faith and Philosophy 27 (2):231-236.

Dunn, John (2003). Locke: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.

Eliopoulos, Panos (2007). Pierre Bayle and his Ideas on Religious Toleration. Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 18 (1-2).

Grimaldi, Nicolas (1999). Tolérance et intolérance de la raison à l'âge des lumières: la politique au rouet. Giornale di Metafisica: Revista Bimestrale di Filosofia 21 (3):257-298.

Hickson, Michael W. (2013). Theodicy and Toleration in Bayle's Dictionary. Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (1):49-73.

Horton, John & Mendus, Susan (eds.) (2015). John Locke's Letter on Toleration in Focus. Routledge.

Israel, Jonathan I. (2006). Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man, 1670-1752. Oxford University Press.

Israel, Jonathan Irvine (1999). Locke, Spinoza and the Philosophical Debate Concerning Toleration in the Early Enlightenment. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).

Jenkinson, Sally L. (1996). Two concepts of tolerance: Or why Bayle is not Locke. Journal of Political Philosophy 4 (4):302–321.

Madden, D. (2000). Toleration in Enlightenment Europe. History of European Ideas 26 (1):74-77.

Mori, Gianluca (1997). Pierre Bayle, the Rights of the Conscience, the "Remedy" of Toleration. Ratio Juris 10 (1):45-60.

Nussbaum, Martha C. (2006). Radical evil in the Lockean state: The neglect of the political emotions. Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (2):159-178.

Parkin, J. & Stanton, T. (eds.) (2013). Natural Law and Toleration in the Early Enlightenment. Oxford University Press.

Renwick, John (ed.) (2011). Voltaire: La Tolérance Et la Justice. Éditions Peeters.

Tailhé, Jacques & Maultrot, Gab Nic (1758). Questions Sur la Tolérance Où l'On Examine Si les Maximes de la Persécution Ne Sont Pas Contraires au Droit des Gens, À la Religion, À la Morale, À l'Intérêt des Souverains & du Clergé. Chez Henry-Albert Gosse & Compagnie.

Jeremy Waldron, ‘Toleration and Calumny,’ in Self-Evident Truths? Human Rights and the Enlightenment, ed. Kate E. Tunstall (London: Bloomsbury, 2012), p.209-237.

Zarka, Yves Charles, Lessay, Franck, Rogers, John, eds., Les fondements philosophiques de la tolérance (Paris : Presses Universitaires de France, 2002), 3 vols.
Suggested seminar topics – feel free to modify / combine / devise your own:


  • How do these writers define tolerance? Do they define tolerance?

  • How do their definitions differ?

  • What are the recurring features of these arguments (whether rhetorical strategies, arguments, illustrations)?

  • How do they seek to persuade?

  • How do they develop the notion of suffering in relation to the notions of tolerance and intolerance?



Week 5. Debate as definition: la querelle des Philosophes (Dr Jessica Goodman)

Primary texts

Palissot, Les Philosophes (1760; in La Comédie des Philosophes et autres textes, ed. Olivier Ferret, 2002)

Palissot, Petites lettres sur de grands philosophes (1757); on Google Books at:

http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/Petites_lettres_sur_de_grands_philosophe.html?id=U_sAAAAAcAAJ&redir_esc=y

Voltaire, Recueil des facéties parisiennes, esp. Voltaire’s notes to the Lettre de Palissot, auteur de la Comédie des Philosophes, pour servir de préface à la pièce and Lettres et réponses de M. Palissot et de Monsieur de Voltaire (should be out in OCV in September; if not I will supply relevant extracts)

Diderot, Le Neveu de Rameau (?1761-1777?; ed. Hobson, 2012)

Sedaine, Le Philosophe sans le savoir (1765; ed. Garapon, 1990)

Voltaire, L’Ecossaise (1760; in OCV)


Encyclopédie: Discours préliminaire, and articles ‘Encyclopédie’ and ‘Philosophe’ (online at http://encyclopedie.uchicago.edu)
You should also take a look at the various pamphlets reproduced in:

La Comédie des Philosophes et autres textes, ed. Olivier Ferret, 2002

La Fureur de nuire, ed. Olivier Ferret, 2007
For timeline and summaries:

http://base-agon.paris-sorbonne.fr/querelles/querelle-des-philosophes


Select secondary

Paul Benhamou, « La guerre de Palissot contre Diderot », in Les Ennemis de Diderot (Paris: Klincksieck, 1993), p. 17-29.

Christopher Cave, « Le rire des anti-philosophes », Dix-huitième siècle, 32 (2000), p. 227-239.

Logan Connors, Dramatic battles in eighteenth-century France: philosophes, anti-philosophes and polemical theatre, SVEC, 2012.

Robert Darnton, The Literary Underground of the Old Regime (Harvard University Press, 1982).

Gustave Desnoiresterres, La Comédie satirique au XVIIIe siècle. Histoire de la société française par l’allusion, la personnalité et la satire au théâtre. Louis XV, Louis XVI, la Révolution (Paris: Perrin, 1885).

Colin Duckworth, « Voltaire’s L’Écossaise and Palissot’s Les Philosophes: a strategic battle in a major war », SVEC, 1972, p. 333-351.

Dena Goodman, The Republic of Letters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996).

Hervé Guénot, « Palissot de Montenoy: un ‘ennemi’ de Diderot et des philosophes », Recherches sur Diderot et l’Encyclopédie, 1 (Oct. 1986), p. 59-63.

Pierre Hartmann (ed.), Le Philosophe sur les planches. L’image du philosophe dans le théâtre des Lumières (Strasbourg: PUS, 2003).

Sylvie Kleiman-Lafon, « Voltaire’s L’Écossaise: The Story of a French and Scottish Fraud », Scotland and France in the Enlightenment, Deidre Dawson & Pierre Morère (eds) (Bucknell: BUP, 2003), p. 61-73.

Antoine Lilti, Le Monde des salons: sociabilité et mondanité à Paris au XVIIIe siècle (Paris: Fayard, 2005).

Didier Masseau, Les Ennemis des philosophes: l’anti-philosophie au temps des Lumières (Paris: Albin, 2000).

Michael O’Dea (ed.), Rousseau et les philosophes, SVEC 2010: 12.



English Showalter, « ‘Madame a fait un livre': Madame de Graffigny, Palissot et Les Philosophes», in Recherches sur Diderot et sur l'Encyclopédie, 23 (1997), p. 109-125.

KE Tunstall, ‘Aha! There you are Monsieur le Philosophe: Diderot, Rameau’s Nephew, and the figure of the philosophe in eighteenth-century Paris, in A History of French Literature, ed. Chris Prendergast [forthcoming 2015].
Suggested seminar topics – feel free to modify / combine / devise your own:

  • What is at stake in this querelle, personally and institutionally?

  • How did it contribute to the creation of the philosophes as a group?

What was the role of different genres and forms of writing in the querelle?


Week 6. The Luxury Debate (Dr Kate Tunstall)

Select primary texts

Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees (1714)

Voltaire, ‘Le Mondain’ (1736) [in Œuvres completes de Voltaire, vol. 16].

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Discours sur les sciences et les arts (1750)

Saint Lambert, ‘Luxe’, in Encyclopédie (1765)

Diderot, ‘Satire contre le luxe’, in Salon de 1767 (1767); Regrets sur ma vielle robe de chambre (1769)


Select secondary reading

Yves Benot, ‘Diderot et le luxe: jouissances ou égalité?’, in Les Lumières, l'esclavage, la colonization (2005), pp. 124 – 137.

Maxine Berg and Elizabeth Egers, Luxury in the eighteenth century: debates, desires, and delectable goods (2003)

Clarissa Bremner-David, Paris: Life and Luxury in the Eighteenth Century (2011)

John Brewer and Roy Porter, Consumption and the World of Goods (1993)

E. J. Clery, The Feminization Debate in Eighteenth-Century England: Literature, Commerce and Luxury (2004)

Jean-Christophe Rebejkow, ‘Diderot, les Salons de 1767 et de 1769 et la question du luxe’, Diderot Studies, 29 (2003), pp. 65-82

M. Hulliung, The Autocritique of Enlightenment: Rousseau and the Philosophes (1994)

E. J. Hundert, The Enlightenment’s Fable: Mandeville and the Discovery of Society (1994)

Daniel Roche, Histoire des choses banales [A history of everyday things : the birth of consumption in France, 1600-1800 (2000)]

John Sekora, Luxury. The Concept in Western Thought from Eden to Smollett (2004)

John Shovlin, The political economy of virtue: luxury, patriotism, and the origins of the French Revolution (2006)



Anoush Fraser Terjanian, Commerce and Its Discontents in Eighteenth-Century French Political Thought (2014)
Seminar topics – these are just suggestions; you are welcome to devise your own:

  • What does the term ‘luxury’ or ‘luxe’ refer to? How is the term defined and redefined in these texts?

  • How are questions related to gender present in the debate?

  • How does this debate relate to the other great debate of the period, namely the Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes?


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