“Meet the Clauses” Grammar Topic Mr. McGowan – English 3 Phrases vs. Clauses



Download 15,56 Kb.
Date conversion07.01.2017
Size15,56 Kb.

“Meet the Clauses”

  • Grammar Topic
  • Mr. McGowan – English 3

Phrases vs. Clauses

  • across the river (prepositional phrase)
  • studying math (verbal phrase)
  • the vice-president of the bank (appositive phrase)
  • to play in the NFL (infinitive phrase)
  • Rudy proofread his essay
  • when I answered the phone
  • that we collected
  • as soon as we reached the house

DEFINITIONS

  • CLAUSE
    • A group of words
    • Contains a verb and its subject
    • Used as part of a sentence
    • How does this differ from a PHRASE?
    • PHRASE: group of related words that functions as one part of speech

Mini-quiz: Phrase or Clause?

  • 1. riding in the car
  • 2. when we got to the party
  • 3. while she was talking to me
  • 4. to say something like that
  • 5. rodents are small mammals

Answers

  • riding in the car
    • PHRASE (Verbal)
  • 2. when we got to the party
    • CLAUSE
  • 3. while she was talking to me
    • CLAUSE
  • 4. to say something like that
    • PHRASE (infinitive)
  • 5. rodents are small mammals
    • CLAUSE

Independent vs. Subordinate Clauses

  • INDEPENDENT CLAUSE (or main clause)
    • Contains a subject and its verb
    • Expresses a complete thought
    • CAN stand by itself as a full sentence
    • Ex:
    • Ms. Reilly doesn’t know how to teach math.
    • Ashley is a fun person; she loves to go out and have fun.

How do we make a subordinate clause into a full sentence?

  • Ex: what Jill named her new dog
  • Do you know what Jill named her new dog?
  • Answer: Add an independent clause to it somehow.
  • PRACTICE EXERCISE: Using these subordinate clauses, write a full and complete sentence.
  • when Jose read his essay
  • which is used to measure temperature

Sample Answers

  • when Jose read his essay
    • When Jose read his essay, he found lots of errors.
    • When Jose read his essay, he realized he needed to fix it.
    • Do you know when Jose read his essay?
  • that is used to measure temperature
    • A thermometer is an instrument that is used to measure temperature.
    • What is the name of that thing that is used to measure temperature?

Independent or Subordinate?

  • Mr. Smith took the aluminum cans that we collected to the recycling center.
  • After a hen lays an egg, it gently rolls along the slanted floor of the cage.
  • The eggs pass through an inspection area, where bad eggs can be removed.
  • What is truly amazing is that no human hands ever touch the eggs.

Answers

  • Mr. Smith took the aluminum cans that we collected to the recycling center.
    • SUBORDINATE
  • 2. After a hen lays an egg, it gently rolls along the slanted floor of the cage.
    • INDEPENDENT
  • 3. The eggs pass through an inspection area, where bad eggs can be removed.
    • SUBORDINATE
  • 4. What is truly amazing is that no human hands ever touch the eggs.
    • SUBORDINATE
    • How could it be independent??
    • What is truly amazing?

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

  • Subordinate clause
  • Modifies a noun or pronoun
  • Usually begins with a RELATIVE PRONOUN or RELATIVE ADVERB
  • WHO WHOM WHOSE WHICH THAT WHEN WHERE
  • I have read every novel that John Irving has written.
  • I have read every novel that John Irving has written.
  • Grandma Moses, who began painting at the age of 76, became famous for her primitive style of art.
  • Grandma Moses, who began painting at the age of 76, became famous for her primitive style of art.

Identify the Adjective Clause

  • My uncle told me about the time when he traveled across the country.
    • when he traveled across the country.
    • Modifies “time”
  • From 1996-2000, Bill lived in Spain, where he went to school.
  • The book I am reading is a biography of John F. Kennedy.
    • I am reading
    • Modifies “book” (tells which one)
    • Where is the relative pronoun? (That) is understood
  • We’ll never forget that summer we stayed in San Diego.
    • we stayed in San Diego.
    • Modifies “summer” (tells which one)
    • (When) is understood

NOUN CLAUSES

  • Subordinate clause
  • Used as a noun
    • Subject
    • Direct Object
    • Indirect Object
    • Object of preposition
    • Predicate nominative

How do I know this is a noun clause?

  • Some common intro words:
  • WHAT WHICH THAT HOW
  • WHICHEVER WHOEVER
  • WHATEVER WHOMEVER WHY
  • WHETHER WHOM WHO
  • Dr. Rodriguez, a scientist, will explain what the greenhouse effect is.
    • what the greenhouse effect is.
    • DIRECT OBJECT (answers the question “what?”)
  • She said that she would be late.
    • that she would be late.
    • DIRECT OBJECT (answers the question “what?”)
  • Do you know who painted The Mona Lisa?
    • who painted The Mona Lisa
    • Looks like it could be independent
    • But not in this case: needs the first part

Mini-quiz: Identify the noun clause

  • Can you tell me what the past tense of “swing” is?
  • I will listen carefully to whatever you say.
  • Give whoever wants one a free pass.
  • Do you know why Ricardo missed the party?
  • A remote island was where Napoleon was exiled.

Answers

  • 1. Can you tell me what the past tense of “swing” is?
    • what the past tense of “swing” is
  • 2. I will listen carefully to whatever you say.
    • whatever you say
  • 3. Give whoever wants one a free pass.
    • whoever wants one
  • 4. Do you know why Ricardo missed the party?
    • why Ricardo missed the party?
  • 5. A remote island was where Napoleon was exiled.
  • - where Napoleon was exiled.

ADVERB CLAUSES

  • Subordinate clause
  • Modifies verb, adjective, or another adverb
    • Answers the questions:
    • How? When? Where? Why? To what extent? Under what condition?
  • The pitcher felt as though all eyes were on him.
  • The pitcher felt as though all eyes were on him. (modifies verb “felt”)
    • HOW did he feel?
  • Alex Rodriguez made his major debut when he was only 18.
  • Alex Rodriguez made his major debut when he was only 18. (modifies verb “made”)
    • WHEN did he make his debut?
  • Introduced by SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
    • Partial list:
    • AS LONG AS AS SOON AS
    • AS WELL AS UNLESS SINCE
    • IN ORDER THAT WHILE UNTIL
    • BECAUSE IF AS IF
    • He played as if he were a kid again.
    • He played as if he were a kid again.
    • (HOW did he “play?”)

Mini-quiz: Identify the adverb clause

  • When our school has a fire drill, everyone must go outside.
  • She walked until she was too tired to take another step.
  • As soon as you’re ready, we’ll leave.
  • I visited the museum because I wanted to see the exhibit.
  • You should return your gift if you are not satisfied.

Answers

  • When our school has a fire drill, everyone must go outside.
  • When our school has a fire drill
  • Modifies “must go” (WHEN?)
  • 2. She walked until she was too tired to take another step.
  • until she was too tired to take another step.
  • Modifies “walked” (TO WHAT EXTENT?)
  • 3. As soon as you’re ready, we’ll leave.
  • As soon as you’re ready
  • Modifies “will leave” (WHEN?)
  • 4. I visited the museum because I wanted to see the exhibit.
  • because I wanted to see the exhibit.
  • Modifies “visited” (WHY?)
  • 5. You should return your gift if you are not satisfied.
  • if you are not satisfied.
  • Modifies “should return” (UNDER WHAT CONDITION?)

Sentences Classified According to Structure

  • SIMPLE (S)
  • COMPOUND (CD)
  • COMPLEX (CX)
  • COMPOUND-COMPLEX (CC)
  • SIMPLE Sentences
    • 1 Independent clause
    • 0 Subordinate clauses
  • My uncle taught me how to play the guitar.
  • The polar bear is an endangered species.
  • Covered with dust, the old bike looked dirty but worked well.
  • COMPOUND Sentences
    • 2 or more independent clauses
    • 0 subordinate clauses
  • Clauses are connected by:
    • Comma + (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet)
    • Semicolon
    • Semicolon + Transition expression

Examples of Compound Sentences

  • Leonardo’s story sounded incredible, but it was true.
  • Leonardo’s story sounded incredible, but it was true.
  • Agatha Christie was a prolific writer; she wrote 80 books in 60 years.
  • Agatha Christie was a prolific writer; she wrote 80 books in 60 years.
  • The defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo was a victory for England; however, it brought to an end an era of French grandeur.
  • The defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo was a victory for England; however, it brought to an end an era of French grandeur.

Transitional Expressions to Use

  • HOWEVER THEREFORE
  • MEANWHILE FOR EXAMPLE
  • IN ADDITION IN FACT STILL
  • BY THE WAY ON THE OTHER HAND
  • The discovery was made in the fall; meanwhile, it was held secret until spring.
  • COMPLEX sentences
    • 1 independent clause
    • 1+ subordinate clause
  • Gerald Ford, who served as the U.S. President from 1974-1977, died in 2006.
  • Gerald Ford, who served as the U.S. President from 1974-1977, died in 2006.
  • While we were on vacation in Puerto Rico, we went to the beach every day.
  • While we were on vacation in Puerto Rico, we went to the beach every day.
  • COMPOUND-COMPLEX
  • 2+ independent clauses
  • 1+ subordinate clause
  • The two witnesses told the police what they saw, but their accounts were quite different.
  • The two witnesses told the police what they saw, but their accounts were quite different.

Mini-quiz: Classify these sentences

  • Charles Drew did research on blood plasma and helped develop blood banks.
  • If the month of March comes in like a lion, it goes out like a lamb.
  • When World War I ended in 1918, many thought it was the last war; however, WWI began in 1939.
  • You should leave now; therefore, your guests should follow you, too.

Answers

  • Charles Drew did research on blood plasma and helped develop blood banks.
  • SIMPLE
  • Only one subject (compound verb)
  • 2. If the month of March comes in like a lion, it goes out like a lamb.
  • COMPLEX
  • If the month of March comes in like a lion, it goes out like a lamb.
  • 3. When World War I ended in 1918, many thought it was the last war; however, WWI began in 1939.
  • COMPOUND-COMPLEX
  • When World War I ended in 1918, many thought it was the last war; however, WWI began in 1939.
  • 4. You should leave now; therefore, your guests will follow you, too.
  • COMPOUND
  • Two independents joined by transitional expression therefore


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page