Mdaw 2011 India File Week 3 Warriors

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India Solvency: Generic (3/3)

India’s space program is capable and willing to more explorative techniques in space
Jeff Foust, editor and writer for the space review. The other rising Asian space power” SPACE REVIEW, 12-18-06.
Moving beyond serving society India’s space program is hardly a new development. Its origins date back more than four decades, when the Indian government established the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) in 1962 to conduct sounding rocket research. As the program grew in the late 1960s INCOSPAR became the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), and by 1975 ISRO launched its first satellite, Aryabhata, on a Soviet rocket. India’s first indigenously-built orbital launch vehicle, the SLV-3, successfully put a satellite in orbit in 1980 (a year after an earlier flight failed), and ISRO continued a series of larger satellites and rockets in the years that followed. India’s increasingly ambitious space program provides a new opportunity for cooperation for the US, with far less geopolitical baggage for America than dealing with China or even Russia. ISRO has been devoted for most of its history to efforts with primarily practical applications, rather than for national prestige. This has meant a focus on communications satellites to provide critical services, including telemedicine and distance learning, to many parts of the nation that had little existing communications infrastructure; meteorology payloads (often flown on the same geosynchronous satellites that performed communications missions) to improve weather forecasting; and remote sensing satellites to identify and map the nation’s natural resources. India adopted an unusually pragmatic approach to providing these services as it built up its own satellite manufacturing and launch capabilities: the first generation of INSAT communications satellites were built by a US company, Ford Aerospace (now Space Systems/Loral), and launched on Delta and Shuttle missions in the 1980s; later INSAT models, while built domestically, have been launched on Ariane vehicles. Now, though, as India has built up its domestic space infrastructure, the government has shown a willingness to move beyond communications and remote sensing applications. While India is a partner in Europe’s Galileo satellite navigation system currently under development, and has agreed to work with Russia to repopulate its GLONASS navigation system, ISRO announced earlier this year plans to develop its own regional satellite navigation system, building the satellites, ground stations, and receivers all within India. India is also looking at applications that, unlike navigation, communications, or remote sensing, don’t have an obvious practical role in aiding the country’s development. ISRO is developing its first planetary science mission, the Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter, scheduled for launch in early 2008. That spacecraft is not intended to be a one-time mission, as the “1” designation after its name suggests: other science missions to the Moon and even Mars are in the early planning stages.

India Solvency: Manned Missions

India will send humans to space
CNN, “India plans manned space mission in 2016” By Harmeet Shah Singh, January 29, 2010,
Indian researchers have announced plans to send their astronauts to space in 2016. The cost of the proposed mission is estimated at $4.8 billion, said S. Satish, spokesman for the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Studies have begun on the design of the crew capsules that will be used to put a pair of astronauts 300 kilometers aloft for seven days, he said. The project budget has been sent for federal approval, he added. A training facility for astronauts will also be built in southern India as part of the program, which Satish said would be solely Indian.
India is currently gearing up tech for manned missions, including deep space missions.
Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies. “INDIA’S MANNED SPACE FLIGHT: SCOPE AND SIGNIFICANCE” by Radhakrishna Rao, 29 July 2009,
Not withstanding a snag affecting the performance of India’s maiden lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 launched in October 2008, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is going ahead with India’s first manned mission slated for launch in 2015. In the international political and strategic context, an Indian manned flight is considered a calculated move by the country to boost its national prestige and sharpen its technological edge and scientific expertise for deep space missions including a possible lunar human landing by 2020. G Madhavan Nair, Chairman, ISRO has consistently stressed the need to sustain India’s leadership position in space by taking up challenging missions of national relevance. Nair has observed, ”[a]s far as space is concerned, India can be described as a developed country.” The Indian manned mission is considered a dilution of the original philosophy of the Indian space program as envisaged by its architect Vikram Sarabhai. He was for utilizing the fruits of space technology for national development rather than going in for space spectaculars like planetary probes and manned flights. Nevertheless, in the context of India’s emergence as an economic and technological powerhouse, the manned space flight is considered a natural progression of its growing space prowess and a reflection of its national aspirations.

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