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India CP 2NC Overview




On the India Counterplan—
Extend Sappenfield 08. India has the capability, expertise, and drive to do the affirmative plan in a more effective less, less costly fashion. Not only is Indian space flight driven by a unique sense of national pride that makes it more effective than NASA programs, but it also is aimed at solving human problems to boot – something lost in NASA’s technocracy.
The counterplan avoids all of the DAs stemming from U.S. space capability, NASA, and of course politics while solving 100% of the case.
Additionally, the CP solves the internal net benefits of soft power and weaponization, each of which is a reason to prefer the CP by itself to any permutation or the aff.

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**Solvency**

India Solvency: Generic (1/3)



India emerging as a global space power
Aeromag, Staff, “Indian space industry flying high,” 2009, http://www.aeromag.in/home/indianspace.html.
Indian space industry, over the past several years, has made significant forays, notable amongst which are space based services in the fields of telecommunications and broadcasting and application of space technology in the areas of telemedicine and tele-education. The policies adopted by the Department of Space (DOS) have been instrumental in commercialising the space programme for national development. It is envisaged that this buoyant space market would provide opportunities for DOS to participate in the global market for spacecraft and related launch service technology. Association of more than 500 small, medium and large scale industries with DOS has been a key feature of space industry partnership and this is a result of gradual nurturing of the symbiotic relationship over the past years. Active co-operation in the form of procurement control, know-how transfers and provision of technical consultancy has enabled DOS to meet the increasing challenge of advanced technology and handling complex manufacturing jobs. With the increasing demand in space products and services internationally, DOS is striving to build on partnership between its commercial arm, ANTRIX Corporation and the industries. Technology Transfer activities have made steady progress over the years. Efforts are on to identify IPRs that have potential for commercialisation. Licensee industries continue to productionise and market the products licensed by ISRO. Indian space industry has made significant contribution towards realisation of subsystems required for Indian Space Programme. DOS has associated more than 500 small, medium and large scale industries while implementing its various programmes. So far, DOS has transferred nearly 300 technologies to Indian industries for commercialisation and undertaken technical consultancies in various fields. Seventeen patent applications were filed in the last financial year. cooperation is an integral part of space activities, and ISRO continues to lay importance on bilateral and multilateral relations with space agencies and space related bodies with the aim of taking up new scientific and technological challenges, defining international frameworks for exploitation and utilisation of outer space for peaceful purposes, refining space policies and building and strengthening existing ties between countries. also takes great interest in providing expertise and services available at its centres for helping other developing countries in the applications of space technology. Formal Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) or Agreements have been entered into with several countries towards harnessing the space technology for mutual benefit. International cooperation has become an integral part of the space programmes of all the countries across the globe. DOS has been pursuing bilateral and multilateral relations with space agencies and spacerelated bodies with the aim of building and strengthening existing ties between countries; taking up new scientific and technological challenges; refining space policies and defining international frameworks for exploitation and utilisation of outer space for peaceful purposes. Internationally, India is considered by spacefaring nations as an emerging space power, which achieves its goals in a cost effective and time-bound manner. Specifically, the developing countries look to India for assistance in building up their capabilities in the form of training and consultancies. The scope of international cooperation has become wider and diverse, as the department has made tremendous progress in recent times. ISRO’s maiden mission to Moon, the Chandrayaan-1, has been an exemplary example of international cooperation with its international payloads. It has also earned several national and international laurels and was instrumental in the ISRO-NASA joint discovery water molecules on the moon surface, unattained by any of the previous missions of such nature. Follow-on mission, Chandrayaan-2 will be jointly developed with Russia and will have an Indian orbiter and Russian lander, Russian rover and Indian mini-rover. There would also be opportunities for scientific instruments from other countries in Chandrayaan-2 mission. Indo-French joint satellite mission called MEGHA-TROPIQUES for the study of the tropical atmosphere and climate related to aspects such as monsoons and cyclones, is making steady progress. The major instrument on the satellite called MADRAS is being jointly developed by ISRO and CNES, and two other instruments called SCARAB and SAPHIR will be provided by CNES. MADRAS payload, for detection of rain through microwave analysis, is getting integrated into the spacecraft and the other two payloads are expected to be delivered by CNES shortly. An atmospheric sounder called ROSA from Italy, similar to the one in OCEANSAT-2 will also be integrated with MEGHA-TROPIQUES. ISRO will use the well-proven IRS satellite bus, provide a PSLV launch this year, operate the satellite, collect and distribute the data. The global space satellite business alone is a USD 120 billion industry and is growing rapidly. There are approx 3,000 man-made satellites circling this planet. As plans mature for reusable launch vehicles, with development of more space based land enabled applications, the space sector’s USD 120 billion could easily mushroom to USD 1.2 trillion or more in the coming years. The activity in two commercial satellite services, DTH Television and Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment and chipsets, drove robust space industry growth. These are the two largest sub segments of the space industry and also posted strongest growth numbers contributing nearly USD 20 billion in economic activity to the global economy. India is ramping up its space capabilities in an effort to be seen as a major global space power. It is moving beyond its traditional missions of developing communications and remote sensing satellites to focus on new areas such as navigation. ISRO has been devoted for most of its history to efforts with primarily practical applications, rather than for national prestige. This has meant a focus on communications satellites to provide critical services, including telemedicine and distance learning, to many parts of the nation that had little existing communications infrastructure “Today, India can be proud of an application driven space programme for the society at large that is fully operational and regarded as the most innovative one in the world”, says Chairman of ISRO and DOS Secretary K Radhakrishnan. “We have successfully developed a sound indigenous base in terms of multitude of technologies and infrastructure required for producing reliable space transportation systems and best-in-the class satellites, which is sought after even by the European Satellite operators”. Chandrayaan-1 was put precisely in an orbit of 100 km around the moon about two years ago, it was the beginning of a new era for the country, demonstrating its technological prowess in several disciplines. The first dedicated Indian Astronomy Satellite Mission ASTROSAT, planned to be launched in 2011 in an orbit around Earth at an altitude of 650 km and 8 degree inclination, will enable multi-wavelength observations of the celestial bodies and cosmic sources in X-ray, spectral bands simultaneously. The Chandrayaan-2 mission, planned for 2013, is expected to improve further our understanding of the origin and evolution of moon using (a) instruments onboard an orbiter and (b) in-situ analysis of the samples collected by a rover put on the lunar surface. YOUTHSAT, a microsatellite built by students from Universities of India and Moscow to study space weather is scheduled to be launched by the forthcoming flight of PSLV. “In the upcoming re-entry mission scheduled for 2011, we are instituting microgravity metallurgy experiment during the earth orbit phase”, Radhakrishnan said. He said India plans to cut satellite launch cost by half with the heavy-lift rocket that it’s developing, and is aiming a two-to-three fold increase in the number of spacecraft launches from the coming year. GSLV-Mk III that ISRO is developing now, would bring down the launch cost at least by half. At present, the launch cost of payload is pegged at around USD 20,000 per kilogram. GSLV-Mk III, which would have the capability to launch satellites of four tonne class, nearly twice the mass that ISRO can currently carry to space, is expected to be operational in the next two-three years. currently has 211 communication transponders, including 195 operational. “We need to go up to 500 (transponders) by 2014”, Radhakrishan. He said ISRO has so far been launching two-three satellites per year, adding, from next year, the Bangalore-headquartered space agency plans to launch six to eight launches, a “quantum jump” as he put it. “We are augmenting capacity like two-three fold increase in terms of missions (per year). ISRO is developing a heavy cryogenic engine and stage, almost three-times of what it uses in the GSLV (geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle). As part of efforts to lower the cost of access to space, ISRO is developing semicryogenic engine, replacing liquid hydrogen with purified kerosene, bringing down the launch cost price “drastically”. The idea is to use semi-cryogenic as the booster because of its higher density impulse. At the same time, it’s developing a reusable launch vehicle technology demonstrator and air-breathing rocket system using scramjet engines. In 2013, ahead of India’s human space flight planned for 2015-16, ISRO plans put an unmanned crew module on board a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. He also said that ISRO is working on a mission to Mars. Radhakrishnan said advanced spacefaring nations such as the US and Russia are eyeing human habitat in Mars from 2030 onwards. For them, “moon is not an end by itself” but “means to reach Mars” and have human habitat there. “They (countries such as the US and Russia) are devising new transportation systems to reach Moon and Mars”. India’s plan is to have a fly-by mission to Mars. “There are various strategies for reaching Mars. It’s a 200 days of journey (for Mars). We are working on it. We are studying at the moment”. of 2013, 2016 and 2018 offers “good opportunity” for ISRO to launch Mars mission, he added.
India’s space program is placing it with other great powers.
Vincent G. Sabathier and G.Ryan Faith, January 25, 2008, “India’s Space Program”, CSIS, http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/080125_sabathier.pdf.

Clearly, as India enjoys ongoing successes in broad areas of its space program, the increasingly international character of space exploration is becoming more and more visible. Following a successful establishment of a national human spaceflight program, the list of countries with such a capability will include the United States and three of the four BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) countries. Overall, this trend suggests that civil space capability is becoming an internationally recognized hallmark of the great power



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