MC= sa/ essay= name 7/28/06 bio 350 exam #3 summer 2006

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BIO 350 EXAM #3 SUMMER 2006
(2 points each for multiple choice)

1. The primary force driving fluids to leak from capillaries (on the arterial side of the capillary) into the interstitial tissue is:

A. hydrostatic pressure of the blood

B. hydrostatic pressure of the lymph

C. colloid pressure of the blood

2. Compared to adult hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin has:

A. has no Fe molecules

B. higher oxygen affinity

C. more heme groups

D. both B and A are correct
3. The most metabolic water can be obtained from which foodstuff ?

A. Carbohydrates B. Fats C. Proteins

4. In singing birds, like the zebra finch example in your text book, it was determined that neurons within the central nervous system can respond to hormones (testosterone) in adults birds to enhance the production of the song and even produce new neurons.

A. True B. False

5. The greatest cross-sectional surface area for the blood to flow past is which of the following regions of the circulation ?

A. aorta

B. arteries

C. capillaries

D. veins

E. vena cava (region right before the atrium)

6. A condition, such as elephantiasis, where severe edema occurs is most closely associated with which of the following ?

A. low hydrostatic pressure in the veins

B. very high colloid osmotic pressure in the capillary

C. blockage of the lymphatic system so lymph can not flow

D. an over production of NO locally producing vasodilatation

E. active use of skeletal muscle inhibiting lymph flow

7. The region of the circulation with the least hydrostatic pressure is

A. aorta

B. arteries

C. capillaries

D. veins

E. vena cave (region right before the atrium)

8. Studies have shown that the visual world is NOT well “mapped” on the visual cortex in the cat, monkey or human. It is just too hard to determine what the organization is on the surface and deeper in the layers in such sensory areas of the brain

A. true B. false

9. Sonic and shaker muscles, as described in your text book, have which of the following properties?

A. They are very slow muscles in their ability on contract and relax

B. They have a very good ability to pump and take up calcium from the myoplasm

(cytoplasm) back into the SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum)

C. Contains very slow myosin ATPase activity

D. Allow calcium to be maintained at high level for prolonged periods of time in the

myoplasm (cytoplasm).

E. They are not neurally innervated muscle fibers

10. The carotid sinus is primarily related to which of the following functions ?

A. monitoring pH in the blood

B. monitoring the pCO2 in the blood

C. monitoring the hydrostatic pressure in the blood

D. perfusion of the nasal passage ways in the human nose

E. none of the above

11. The mammalian systemic circulation (mark the correct answer)______________________:

A. receives more blood than the pulmonary circulation.

B. is a high pressure system compared to the pulmonary circulation.

C. receives blood from the left ventricle.

D. Both B and C are correct.

E. All the above are correct

12. In you, a typical mammal, the right half of the heart pumps blood through the __________and the left half pumps blood through the __________ circulation.

A. systemic: pulmonary

B. systolic: semilunar

C. diastolic: systolic

D. kidneys: liver

E. pulmonary: systemic

13. When the ventricles relax in the human heart a substantial amount of blood will back flow from the main arteries to refill the ventricles so they can pump it back out again.

A. True B. False

14. The main pacemaker of the mammalian heart is normally the _________.

A. The AV node

B. The SA node

C. The Purkinje system

D. The bundle of His

E. none of the above since it is purely neurogenic

15. One of the pronounced cardiovascular responses to diving among birds and mammals is tachycardia (speeding up of the heart rate) during the physical contact with the cold water.

A. True B. False

16. Invertebrates with a open circulatory system never have arteries from the heart to direct blood to particular regions of the body.

The statement above is-

A. True B. False
17. The majority of the blood volume is stored in the ______________ when you are in a relaxed state.

A. arteries

B. pulmonary veins

C. pulmonary arteries

D. systemic veins

E. heart
18. The thickest wall of the circulatory system is in the _____________

A. veins

B. capillaries

C. aorta

D. pulmonary veins

E. arterioles
19. Which one of the lower vertebrates have two completely separated atria and two completely separated ventricles ?

A. turtles

B. salamanders

C. lungfish

D. crocodiles

  1. frogs

20. The sliding-filament theory describes how a muscle shortens by the active sliding

of .. A) muscle fiber in relation to each other

B) myofibrills in relation to each other

C) microtubules in relation to each other

D) sarcomers in relation to each other

E) actin filaments in relation to myosin filaments

21. Rigor mortis can be explained by the ......... in muscles post mortem.

A) bacterial growth

B) decreased amount of water

C) reduced concentration of ATP

D) increased concentration of Mg2+

E) release of lysosomal proteolytic enzymes

22. Which one of the following differences between invertebrate and vertebrate skeletal muscles is TRUE in most cases ?

A) Vertebrate muscle fibers have inhibitory motor neurons.

B) Invertebrates generally have summating and facilitating junction potentials.

C) Vertebrates generally have polyneuronal innervation of single muscle fibers.

D) Invertebrates generally do not have graded muscle contractions.

E) Vertebrates generally have innervation with multiple terminals from axons.

23. In which muscle group would one most likely find the least amount of staining for enzymes associated with the TCA and the electron transport chain following the general muscle phenotypes?

A) slow red vertebrate muscle

B) Slow oxidative (Type I) vertebrate muscle

C) Fast oxidative (Type IIa) vertebrate muscle

D) Fast glycolytic (Type IIb) vertebrate muscle

24. The figure below illustrates the changes in pressure in the left atrium, ventricle, and aorta over the time of 1 heart beat. Choose the answer which best describes what is occurring at point Z (marked on the graph)

  1. the aortic valve has opened

  2. the atrioventricular valve has opened

  3. the blood in the aorta is back flowing into the ventricle

  4. the blood pressure is building up in the ventricle and is not flowing

  5. None of the above are true

25. The example of a hard touch below your knee and having your leg kick out is an example of a fixed behavioral pattern based on hard wiring of the nervous system.

(A) True (B) False

26. The production of nitric oxide (NO) from endothelial cells is one mechanism to promote relation of smooth muscle cells.

(A) True (B) False

27. Which factor reduces hemoglobin’s oxygen affinity?

A. decreasing CO2

B. increasing pH

C. increasing temperature

28. Which part of the tubule (i.e., the nephron) reabsorbs the majority of glucose and water from the glomerular filtrate?

A. proximal tubule

B. distal tubule

C. thick descending limb of the loop of Henle

D. thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle

E. thin limb of the loop of Henle

29. Which of the following forms a countercurrent exchange system in the kidney medulla region?

A. The main renal artery

B. The renal vein leaving the kidney

C. vasa recta

D. peritubular capillary network around the distal tubule
30. Which of the following is high in reabsorption of water and salt more so than other regions?

A. proximal convoluted tubule

B. distal convoluted tubule

C. descending limb of the loop of Henle

D. thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle
31. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

A. directly alters the rate of filtration in Bowman’s capsule

B. increases secretion in the distal convoluted tubule

C. stimulates formation of water channels in the collecting ducts for water to pass

into the interstium.

D. increases water reabsorption in the descending loop of Henle

E. decreases salt reabsorption in the ascending loop of Henle
32. Which is the direct function of the renin?

A. conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotension I

B. conversion of angiotension I to angiotension II

C. release of aldosterone

D. stimulation of ADH synthesis

E. vasoconstriction of arterioles

33. Urine produced by the Malpighian tubules flows into which of the following structure?

A. Bladder

B. gastrointestinal tract (hind gut)

C. Ureter

D. Interstitial space

E. Vasa Recta

34. How is it that some sea birds, like a sea gull, can drink sea water and still regulate salt balance?

A. by use of the Malpighian tubules

B. by using the very long proximal tubules to concentrate urine

C. by the use of a salt gland that can secrete salt

D. by making uric acid

E. by high evaporation during flight

35. Which of the three following nitrogenous waste products eliminates the most

nitrogen molecules ?

A. Ammonia

B. Uric acid

C. Urea
36. Which aquatic animals would normally have a higher sodium concentration in their extracellular fluid ?

A. fresh water animals

B. salt water animals

37. Which of the following hormones is secreted by the adrenal cortex?


B. cortisol

C. adrenal corticotropic hormone (ACTH)

38. Calcitonin helps to mobilize calcium out of the bone and keep calcium high in the blood.

(A) True (B) False

*****Short answers and or Essay questions (LOOK AT THE POINTS FOR EACH QUESTION- determine the extant of information needed)
1. (2 points) Explain the significance and reasons of having a compliant (i.e., elastic) aorta with blood flow to the systemic tissues.

2. (2 points) How have insects avoided the necessity of transporting gases in the blood?

3. (2 points) In smooth muscle there is no troponin complexes. So how does the muscle contract?

Pick one mechanism we went over in class or one in your book and explain it generally with the process of contraction ?

4. During strenuous exercise there is an increase in blood flow to the working muscles.

(5 points total for this question)

A. Where is this blood being mobilized from and how (2 point).

B. What local factor(s) (in the working muscle) promotes and increases blood flow to the working muscle or increases O2 delivery to the tissue. (1 points)

C. What role does the nervous system play in promoting the blood flow to working muscles

(2 points).

5. (4 points) Diagram & state how the two hormones from the pancreas regulate blood glucose levels. (Name the two hormones and their action towards altering blood glucose as well as feed back process)

6. (5 points) Draw a sarcomere and label the components. List the bands A, I, and H clearly and state which one or ones will be altered in length during muscle contraction within a physiological range of muscle contraction.
7. (2 points) Propose one or more mechanisms by which peptides and/or steroid hormones might affect an animals behavior? (Think of Chapter 11- animal behavior).

8. (2 points) List or write out three differences between slow and fast muscle fibers. Clearly state which type of muscle you are describing.

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