2. Compared to adult hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin has:
A. has no Fe molecules
B. higher oxygen affinity
C. more heme groups
D. both B and A are correct
3. The most metabolic water can be obtained from which foodstuff ?
A. Carbohydrates B. Fats C. Proteins
4. In singing birds, like the zebra finch example in your text book, it was determined that neurons within the central nervous system can respond to hormones (testosterone) in adults birds to enhance the production of the song and even produce new neurons.
A. True B. False
5. The greatest cross-sectional surface area for the blood to flow past is which of the following regions of the circulation ?
E. vena cava (region right before the atrium)
6. A condition, such as elephantiasis, where severe edema occurs is most closely associated with which of the following ?
A. low hydrostatic pressure in the veins
B. very high colloid osmotic pressure in the capillary
C. blockage of the lymphatic system so lymph can not flow
D. an over production of NO locally producing vasodilatation
E. active use of skeletal muscle inhibiting lymph flow
7. The region of the circulation with the least hydrostatic pressure is
E. vena cave (region right before the atrium)
8. Studies have shown that the visual world is NOT well “mapped” on the visual cortex in the cat, monkey or human. It is just too hard to determine what the organization is on the surface and deeper in the layers in such sensory areas of the brain
22. Which one of the following differences between invertebrate and vertebrate skeletal muscles is TRUE in most cases ?
A) Vertebrate muscle fibers have inhibitory motor neurons.
B) Invertebrates generally have summating and facilitating junction potentials.
C) Vertebrates generally have polyneuronal innervation of single muscle fibers.
D) Invertebrates generally do not have graded muscle contractions.
E) Vertebrates generally have innervation with multiple terminals from axons.
23. In which muscle group would one most likely find the least amount of staining for enzymes associated with the TCA and the electron transport chain following the general muscle phenotypes?
A) slow red vertebrate muscle
B) Slow oxidative (Type I) vertebrate muscle
C) Fast oxidative (Type IIa) vertebrate muscle
D) Fast glycolytic (Type IIb) vertebrate muscle
24. The figure below illustrates the changes in pressure in the left atrium, ventricle, and aorta over the time of 1 heart beat. Choose the answer which best describes what is occurring at point Z (marked on the graph)
the aortic valve has opened
the atrioventricular valve has opened
the blood in the aorta is back flowing into the ventricle
37. Which of the following hormones is secreted by the adrenal cortex?
C. adrenal corticotropic hormone (ACTH)
38. Calcitonin helps to mobilize calcium out of the bone and keep calcium high in the blood.
(A) True (B) False
*****Short answers and or Essay questions (LOOK AT THE POINTS FOR EACH QUESTION- determine the extant of information needed)
1. (2 points) Explain the significance and reasons of having a compliant (i.e., elastic) aorta with blood flow to the systemic tissues.
2. (2 points) How have insects avoided the necessity of transporting gases in the blood?
3. (2 points) In smooth muscle there is no troponin complexes. So how does the muscle contract?
Pick one mechanism we went over in class or one in your book and explain it generally with the process of contraction ?
4. During strenuous exercise there is an increase in blood flow to the working muscles.
(5 points total for this question)
A. Where is this blood being mobilized from and how (2 point).
B. What local factor(s) (in the working muscle) promotes and increases blood flow to the working muscle or increases O2 delivery to the tissue. (1 points)
C. What role does the nervous system play in promoting the blood flow to working muscles
5. (4 points) Diagram & state how the two hormones from the pancreas regulate blood glucose levels. (Name the two hormones and their action towards altering blood glucose as well as feed back process)
6. (5 points) Draw a sarcomere and label the components. List the bands A, I, and H clearly and state which one or ones will be altered in length during muscle contraction within a physiological range of muscle contraction.
7. (2 points) Propose one or more mechanisms by which peptides and/or steroid hormones might affect an animals behavior? (Think of Chapter 11- animal behavior).
8. (2 points) List or write out three differences between slow and fast muscle fibers. Clearly state which type of muscle you are describing.