Edward Albee, from Who’s Afraid of
Virginia Woolf? (1962)
Edward Albee (born 1928) is an American playwright. His works are considered well-crafted, often unsympathetic examinations of the modern condition. This play, set in a small town American university campus, this play dissects two marriages. George and Martha are playing games with the younger couple, Nick and Honey. Here George takes centre stage, with Honey and Nick as his audience. Honey begins to grasp the full meaning of the tale he tells.
GEORGE: How They Got Married. Well, how they got married is this...the mouse got all puffed up one day and she went over to Blondie’s house, and she stuck out her puff and she said...look at me.
HONEY: (white...on her feet) I...don’t...like this.
NICK: (to George) Stop it!
GEORGE: Look at me...I’m all puffed up. Oh my goodness, said Blondie.
HONEY: (as from a distance)...and so they were married.
GEORGE: ...and so they were married...
HONEY: ...And then...
GEORGE: ...and then.
HONEY: (hysteria) WHAT? And then, WHAT?
NICK: NO! no!
GEORGE: (as if to a baby) and then the puff went away...Like
NICK: (almost sick) Jesus God.
HONEY: ...the puff went away...
NICK: Honey...I didn’t mean to...honestly, I didn’t mean to...
HONEY: You...you told them.
(Grabbing at her belly) Ohhhh nooooo.
NICK: Honey...baby...I’m sorry...I didn’t mean to.
GEORGE: (abruptly and with some disgust) And that’s how you play Get
MOCK PAPER 3
ENGLISH LITERATURE (SPECIFICATION A) LITA3
Unit 3 Reading for Meaning
2 hours 30 minutes
Please read this advice carefully before you turn to the material.
- Here are the materials taken from the prescribed area for study, Love Through the Ages. You will be using this material to answer the two questions on the page opposite.
- Read all four pieces (A, B, C and D) and their introductions several times
in the light of the questions set. Your reading should be close and careful.
6. Wider Reading
The questions test your wider reading in the prescribed area for study, Love
Through the Ages. In your answers, you should take every opportunity to refer to your wider reading.
Answer both questions
1 Read the two drama extracts (Extract A and B) carefully. They were written at
different times by different writers.
Basing your answer on the drama extracts and, where appropriate, your wider reading in drama, compare the ways the two playwrights have used dramatic form, structure and language to express their thoughts and ideas.
2 Write a comparison of the ways Christina Rossetti and Hanif Kureishi explore ideas
of love, loss and the relationship between love and memory.
You should consider:
- the ways the writers’ choices of form, structure and language shape
your responses to these extracts
- how your wider reading in the literature of love has contributed to your
understanding and interpretation of the extracts.
Extract A: Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night
William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. In this extract from Twelfth Night Viola is dressed in male disguise, as Cesario. Orsino is in love with Olivia, but Olivia has mistakenly fallen in love with
Cesario (Viola in disguise as a male). Viola herself is in love with Orsino, but he thinks she is male and has employed her/him to woo Olivia for him. Viola attempts to communicate her love in code.
VIOLA: But if she cannot love you, sir?
DUKE ORSINO: I cannot be so answer'd.
VIOLA: Sooth, but you must.
Say that some lady, as perhaps there is,
Hath for your love a great a pang of heart
As you have for Olivia: you cannot love her;
You tell her so; must she not then be answer'd?
DUKE ORSINO: There is no woman's sides
Can bide the beating of so strong a passion
As love doth give my heart; no woman's heart
So big, to hold so much; they lack retention
Alas, their love may be call'd appetite,
No motion of the liver, but the palate,
That suffer surfeit, cloyment and revolt;
But mine is all as hungry as the sea,
And can digest as much: make no compare
Between that love a woman can bear me
And that I owe Olivia.
VIOLA: Ay, but I know--
DUKE ORSINO: What dost thou know?
VIOLA: Too well what love women to men may owe:
In faith, they are as true of heart as we.
My father had a daughter loved a man,
As it might be, perhaps, were I a woman,
I should your lordship.
DUKE ORSINO: And what's her history?
VIOLA: A blank, my lord. She never told her love,
But let concealment, like a worm i' the bud,
Feed on her damask cheek: she pined in thought,
And with a green and yellow melancholy
She sat like patience on a monument,
Smiling at grief. Was not this love indeed?
We men may say more, swear more: but indeed
Our shows are more than will; for still we prove
Much in our vows, but little in our love.
Oscar Wilde, The Importance of Being Earnest
Oscar Wilde (1854 – 1900) was an Irish writer, poet, and prominent aesthete. His parents were successful Dublin intellectuals, and from an early age he was tutored at home, where he showed his intelligence, becoming fluent in French and German. Reading Greats, Wilde proved himself to be an outstanding classicist, first at Dublin,
then at Oxford. Known for his biting wit, flamboyant dress, and glittering conversation, Wilde was one of the most well-known personalities of his day. It was his only novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray – still widely read – that brought him more lasting recognition. The Importance of Being Earnest follows two young women, Cecily and Gwendolen, as they aim to stage manage their own proposals.
Gwendolen. Married, Mr. Worthing?
Jack. [Astounded.] Well… surely. You know that I love you, and you led me to
believe, Miss Fairfax, that you were not absolutely indifferent to me.
Gwendolen. I adore you. But you haven’t proposed to me yet. Nothing has been said
at all about marriage. The subject has not even been touched on.
Jack. Well… may I propose to you now?
Gwendolen. I think it would be an admirable opportunity. And to spare you any
possible disappointment, Mr. Worthing, I think it only fair to tell you quite frankly
before-hand that I am fully determined to accept you.
Gwendolen. Yes, Mr. Worthing, what have you got to say to me?
Jack. You know what I have got to say to you.
Gwendolen. Yes, but you don’t say it.
Jack. Gwendolen, will you marry me? [Goes on his knees.]
Gwendolen. Of course I will, darling. How long you have been about it! I am afraid
you have had very little experience in how to propose.
Jack. My own one, I have never loved any one in the world but you.
Gwendolen. Yes, but men often propose for practice. I know my brother Gerald does.
All my girl-friends tell me so. What wonderfully blue eyes you have, Ernest! They are
quite, quite, blue. I hope you will always look at me just like that, especially when
there are other people present.
Christina Rossetti, Remember (1862)
Christina Georgina Rossetti (5 December 1830 – 29 December 1894)
was an English poet who wrote a variety of romantic, devotional, and children's poems. When the sonnet “Remember” first appeared in “Goblin Market” and Other Poems in 1862, it was both warmly and sadly received by readers. A mixture of happiness and depression tends to run throughout many of Christina Rossetti’s poems, and this one, which begins “Remember me when I am gone away,” implies immediately a loving, yet sad, request.
Remember me when I am gone away,
Gone far away into the silent land;
When you can no more hold me by the hand,
Nor I half turn to go yet turning stay.
Remember me when no more day by day
You tell me of our future that you plann'd:
Only remember me; you understand
It will be late to counsel then or pray.
Yet if you should forget me for a while
And afterwards remember, do not grieve:
For if the darkness and corruption leave
A vestige of the thoughts that once I had,
Better by far you should forget and smile
Than that you should remember and be sad.
Hanif Kureishi, The Body (2002)
This prose extract is taken from the conclusion of the short story ‘Remember This Moment, Remember Us’, from his collection of short stories, The Body (2002), by Hanif Kureishi. Anna and Rick decide to leave a tape message for their two-year-old son, Daniel, to be watched when he is Rick’s age – 45. Although they haven't decided what to say, they will go ahead with the filming certain that something will occur to them. This spontaneity may make their little dispatch to the future seem less portentous. Rick lugs the Christmas tree over towards the sofa where they will sit for the message and turns on the lights. He regards his wife through the camera. She has let down her hair.
‘How splendid you look!’
She asks, ‘Should I take my slippers off?’
‘Anna, your fluffies won’t be immortalised. I’ll frame it down to our waists.’
She gets up and looks at him through the eye piece, telling him he’s as fine as he’ll ever be. He switches on the camera and notices there is only about fifteen minutes of tape left. With the camera running, he hurries towards the sofa, being careful not to trip up. They will not be able to do this twice. Noticing a half-eaten sardine on the arm of the sofa, he drops it into his pocket. Rick sits down knowing this will be a sombre business, for he has been, in a sense, already dead for a while. The two of them will have fallen out on numerous occasions; Daniel might
love him bit will have disliked him, too, in the normal way. Daniel might love him but will have disliked him, too, in the normal way. Daniel could hardly have anything but a complicated idea of his past, but these words from eternity will serve as a simple reminder.
After all, it is the unloved who are the most dangerous people on earth.
The light on the top of the camera is flashing. As Anna and Rick turn their heads and look into the dark moon of the lens, neither of them speaks for what seems a long time. At last, Rick says, ‘Hello there,’ rather self-consciously, as though meeting a stranger for the first
time. On stage he is never anxious like this. Anna, also at a loss, copies him.
‘Hello, Daniel, my son,’ she says. ‘It’s your mummy.’
‘And daddy,’ Rick says.
‘Yes,’ she says. ‘Here we are!’
‘Your parents,’ he says. ‘Remember us? Do you remember this day?’ There is a silence; they wonder what to do.
Anna turns to Rick then, placing her hands on his face. She strokes his face as if painting it for the camera. She takes his hand and puts it to her fingers and cheeks. Rick leans over and takes her head between his hands and kisses her on the cheek and on the forehead and on the lips, and she caresses his hair and pulls him to her.
With their heads together, they begin to call out, ‘Hello, Dan, we hope you’re ok, we just wanted to say hello.’
‘Yes, that’s right,’ chips in the other. ‘Hello!’
‘We hope you had a good forty-fifth birthday, Dan, with plenty of presents.’
‘Yes, and we hope you’re well, and your wife, or whoever it is you’re with.’
‘Yes, hello there...wife of Dan.’
‘And children of Dan,’ she adds.
‘Yes’, he says. ‘Children of Dan – however many of you there are, boys or girls or whatever – all the best! A good life to every single one of you!’
‘Yes, yes!’ she says. ‘All of that and more!’
‘More, more, more!’ Rick says.
After the kissing and stroking and cuddling and saying hello, and with a little time left, they are at a loss as to what to do, but right on cue, Dan has an idea. He clambers up from the floor and settles himself on both of them, and they kiss him and pass him between them and get him to wave at himself. When he has done this, he closes his eyes, his head falls into the crook of his mother’s arm, and he smacks his lips; and as the tape whirls towards its end, and the rain falls outside and time passes, they want him to be sure of at least this one thing, more than forty years from now, when he looks at these old-fashioned people in the past sitting on the sofa next to the Christmas tree, that on this night they loved him, and they loved each other.
‘Goodbye, Daniel,’ says Anna.
‘Goodbye,’ says Rick.
‘Goodbye, goodbye,’ they say together.
English Literature LITA3
Unit 3 Reading for Meaning
Monday 25 January 2010 9.00 am to 11.30am
For this paper you must have:
! a 16-page answer book.
! 2 hours 30 minutes
! Use black ink or black ball-point pen.
! Write the information required on the front of your answer book. The Examining
Body for this paper is AQA. The Paper Reference is LITA3.
! Answer both questions.
! Do all rough work in your answer book. Cross through any work that you do not want to be marked.
! The marks for questions are shown in brackets.
! The maximum mark for this paper is 80.
! Material from your wider reading may not be taken into the examination room.
! You will be marked on your ability to:
. use good English
. organise information clearly
. use specialist vocabulary where appropriate.
! This unit assesses your understanding of the relationships between different aspects of English Literature.
Please read this advice carefully before you turn to the material.
Here are the materials taken from the prescribed area for study, Love Through the Ages. You will be using this material to answer the two questions on the page opposite. Read all four items (A, B, C and D) and their introductions several times in the light of the questions set. Your reading should be close and careful.
Both questions test your wider reading in the prescribed area for study, Love Through the Ages. In your answers you should take every opportunity, where relevant, to refer to your wider reading.
Ensure that you write about a minimum of one wider reading text from each of the three genres of poetry, drama and prose.
Answer both questions.
1 Read the two poems (Item A and Item B) carefully, bearing in mind that they were written at different times by different writers and are open to different interpretations.
Write a comparison of these two poems.
In your answer you should consider the ways in which Shakespeare (in Item A) and MacNeice
(in Item B) use form, structure and language to present their thoughts and ideas; make relevant references to your wider reading in the poetry of love. (40 marks)
2 Read the two extracts (Item C and Item D) carefully, bearing in mind that they were written at different times by different writers and are open to different interpretations.
Write a comparison of the ways in which .forbidden love. is presented in these two extracts. In your answer you should consider the ways in which Stoppard (in Item C) and Hall (in Item D) use form, structure and language to express their thoughts and ideas; make relevant references to your wider reading. (40 marks)
William Shakespeare wrote a sequence of 154 sonnets in the 1590s. In common with most other poems written in this form, Shakespeare.s major theme is love.
Devouring Time, blunt thou the lion.s paws,
And make the earth devour her own sweet brood;
Pluck the keen teeth from the fierce tiger.s jaws,
And burn the long-liv.d phoenix in her blood;
Make glad and sorry seasons as thou fleet.st,
And do whate.er thou wilt, swift-footed Time,
To the wide world and all her fading sweets.
But I forbid thee one most heinous crime:
O! carve not with thy hours my love.s fair brow,
Nor draw no lines there with thine antique pen;
Him in thy course untainted do allow
For beauty.s pattern to succeeding men.
Yet, do thy worst, old Time: despite thy wrong,
My love shall in my verse ever live young.
Louis MacNeice (1907.1963) was born in Belfast, and was one of a group of prominent writers who published in the 1930s. His work is celebrated for the delicacy and power of its descriptions as well as its use of everyday experiences.
Item B cannot be reproduced here due to third-party copyright constraints.
The Invention of Love (1997) by Tom Stoppard dramatises events in the life of poet and classical scholar A.E. Housman (1859.1936) by imagining his reminiscences from beyond the grave. A.E. Housman.s one great love was for the sportsman, Moses Jackson, whom he met at Oxford; his love was unrequited.
In the following extract the recently dead 77 year-old A.E. Housman (referred to as .AEH.) speaks to his younger self, now an Oxford undergraduate (referred to as .Housman.). They discuss aspects of the love that existed between men in ancient Greece.