Literature What Good Readers Do



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Catholic Schoolhouse - Year 2 Dialectic At Home

Integrated Grammar, Writing, and Literature Study
By Julie Keller
Quarter 2

Week 7
Literature
What Good Readers Do: For this quarter we will focus on Aesop’s fables. In the last quarter we took a careful look at characterization and point of view. In Aesop’s tales, the characters are exclusively animals. Giving animals human traits is a literary device called anthropomorphism. Include this definition in your notebook and give your explanation as to why Aesop chose to use animals for characters.
For your Notebook: We discussed the term fable in class. What did we say that term meant? Add it to the definitions section of your book.
Quarterly Focus Book Study:
For homework, you are to complete reading the fables we began in class. Write the morals of those stories.
Additionally, you are two read passages from the Bible. Compare the lessons from the Bible passages to the lessons in Aesop’s fables.
For your Notebook: Using your paragraph writing skills, write a paragraph that compares the lessons from Aesop to the Bible passages. Discuss how using both could make the word of God more accessible to children.

Additional Literature: For this quarter, it is suggested that for weeks 7-9 you read The Wonder Book for Boys and Girls by Nathanial Hawthorne (http://www.gutenberg.org/files/32242/32242-h/32242-h.htm#CONTENTS). This collection of short stories will make Greek Mythology come alive and also help you become familiar with the work of this great American author. For this week read The Gorgon’s Head and The Golden Touch. To respond to what you have read, choose one of the following activities to share in class.

  1. Create a business card for Perseus. On one side, create an image of one of

Perseus’s feats.

  1. Create a travel brochure for either Perseus or Midas. Try to convince your audience to come visit this land and maybe have a similar experience.

  2. Create a week of Facebook posts from either Perseus or Midas. Have a post for each day. (Use the attached template for this project. No Internet or Facebook account required.)

Composition - Paragraph and Sentence Study
4X4s of good writing: Topic and Thesis
For your Notebook: Write down at least 7 possible topics for your essay. Circle three that you like the best. Take each of those three and brainstorm additional details for your topic. Which one do you think you can write about with the most ease? Which one is best for creating an argument? (An argument in this case is taking a stand or convincing your audience of something.) Select one and provide your reasons for choosing that topic.

Option A: Read a sample essay and find the thesis. Is it effective? Discuss how a good thesis can make the essay easier for both the reader and the writer? (For sample essays, the Write Source online is a great place to go http://www.thewritesource.com/studentmodels/ws2k-summer.htm)

Option B: Write your thesis statement. This statement will usually go at the end of the introductory paragraph. For help with the thesis statement, look at Format Writing, Writer’s Inc., or this handout from Purdue https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/01/
Grammar

Memory Work and Practice: Complete Lesson 7. Continue doing memory drills.


  • Grammar: In class discuss the importance of putting adjectives in the proper order by degrees. For instance, a proper order for the adjectives young, funny, and brown would be as follows: I love playing with my neighbor’s funny, young, brown dog.

Many students may do this order naturally and not know that there is an actual rule behind it. Share with them the following order: Opinion (horrible), Size (tiny), Age (ancient), Shape (triangular), Color (blue, reddish), Origin (European), Material (metal), and Purpose (sleeping). Share with them examples of adjectives for each category.

If time permits, divide the class into teams and write some bland adjectives on the board that come from at least three of the categories. Have each team write a sentence that both improves the adjectives and places them in the proper list order.


For your Notebook: Write 5 sentences that have adjectives in a series. Make sure your adjectives are in the proper order and are interesting and creative.

Research
For this quarter you will produce a simple, three page research paper. You need to choose a topic related to either Antoine Lavoisier or Jean Baptiste Dumas. For this week begin doing some preliminary research on both scientists. Begin creating a list of topics for possible research. Before next week, decide on what topic you will pursue.
Week 8
Literature
What Good Readers Do: In the last quarter we discussed what a plot diagram is and how to break down a story according to different parts of the action. What drives the action is the interaction between the protagonist and antagonist. This interaction is known as conflict. There are three main types of conflict: character vs. character, character vs. nature, and character vs. himself. What type of conflict can be found in this week’s fables?
For your Notebook: Add the definitions of conflict to your notebook. Try to provide at least one literary example for each category of conflict.
Quarterly Focus Book Study:
For homework, you are to complete reading the fables we began in class. Write the morals of those stories.
For your Notebook: Using your paragraph writing skills, write a paragraph that compares Jeremiah and Jesus from our discussion in class.

Additional Literature: Read The Paradise of Children and The Three Apples in The Wonder Book for Boys and Girls by Nathanial Hawthorne. To respond to what you have read, choose one of the following activities to share in class.

  1. Create Pandora’s Box and share it with your family or class. Explain to them the story and how this box relates to the tale.

  2. Create a comic book rendering of the Labors of Hercules.

  3. Write a letter to Pandora persuading her not to open the box.

Composition - Paragraph and Sentence Study
4X4s of good writing: Introductory Paragraph
As explained in class, a good introductory paragraph needs four parts: a good opening statement, a “picture” expansion, a tie in sentence between this “opening” and the thesis, and an effective thesis.
Option A: Read the first paragraph of Self-Reliance by Emerson http://grammar.about.com/od/60essays/a/selfrelianessay.htm. In your notebook, outline the four parts of Emerson’s introduction.

Option B: Write your introductory paragraph for your essay.
Grammar

Memory Work and Practice: Complete Lesson 8. Continue doing memory drills.

  • Grammar: In class discuss the importance of articles in sentences. Why are articles needed? What would sentences look like without them? Have students write sentences on the board without articles. Discuss how the meaning becomes unclear.

For your Notebook: Write and diagram five sentences paying careful attention to the articles.
Research
After choosing your topic, use Weeks 8 and 9 creating your Annotated Bibliographic cards. Only use the Internet for two sources. You must have a total of 8 sources.

Week 9
Literature
What Good Readers Do: As we read this week’s selections both in Literature and Religion, we define Typology. Typology is the study of types. How does this term relate to both Aesop and this week’s religious readings? Additionally, we look at allegory. Allegory is a story, poem, or picture that can reveal a hidden meaning. How does allegory relate to our study of fables?
For your Notebook: Include the definitions of the terms above. Look at some religious art. How do these terms relate to the pictures you have chosen? Include some images in your notebook and briefly explain how they are examples of Typology or Allegory.
Quarterly Focus Book Study: Finish any fables that we didn’t finish in class and write the morals for them.
For your Notebook: Write an expository paragraph about a time when being gentle with others was the best method.

Additional Literature: Read The Miraculous Pitcher and The Chimaera in The Wonder Book for Boys and Girls by Nathanial Hawthorne. To respond to what you have read, choose one of the following activities to share in class.

  1. What lesson can be learned from The Miraculous Pitcher? Write a paragraph explaining that lesson.

  2. Create an artistic rendering of The Chimaera based on descriptions in the short story.

  3. Create trading cards for Bellophron, Hercules, Chimaera, and Pegasus. Include important information for each on the back of the trading cards.



Composition - Paragraph and Sentence Study
4X4s of good writing: Body of the Essay
Now that you have your introduction and a strong thesis, it is time to write the body of the essay. When creating the body of the essay, keep these things in mind:

  1. Each sentence needs to include a good tie-in from one sentence to the next.

  2. Begin with a good topic sentence.

  3. Afterwards, include some clear primary support/subtopics.

  4. Each primary support needs a specific support to help show support for what you are discussing.

Before you begin writing, take a look at the following from Purdue OWL. These handouts will help you with paragraphing and structuring the body of your essay.


https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/606/01/

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/606/02/



Option A: Select an essay by Ralph W. Emerson, Mark Twain, Daniel Defoe, or another favorite writer. Look at the length of the paragraphs to understand how the writer creates balance. Pay careful attention to how the writer moves from one topic to the next and focus only one topic per paragraph. Keep this essay for use in next week’s lesson.

Option B: Write the body of your essay.
Grammar

Memory Work and Practice: Complete Lesson 9. Continue doing memory drills.


  • Grammar: To prepare for the lesson on adverbs watch Schoolhouse Rock “Lolly, Lolly, Get your Adverbs Here” or Grammaropolis’ Adverb Song (both available through an Internet search). If time permits, play Verb-Adverb Charades (directions here http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/04/lp334-02.shtml)

For your Notebook: Write a descriptive paragraph of an activity and use imaginative adverbs.

Research
Continue your research and create your annotated bibliographic cards.

Week 10
Literature
What Good Readers Do: We have looked at character, plot, point of view, and conflict in depth. Another important element of story is setting. Setting is the geographic location and moment in time when the story takes place. As you read the fables this week, consider the setting. Is the setting important to the story? If the setting changed how would the story change?
For your Notebook: Include the definition of setting. (Don’t forget to be using your foldables and making the notebook interesting and interactive). Think of three stories that you have read in the past in which the setting is important.
Quarterly Focus Book Study:
Complete reading the fables that we have read in class. Write the moral for those fables.
For your Notebook: Write a process paragraph explaining to a politician how to be humble and the reward for that behavior.

Additional Literature: Read The Minotaur and The Pygmies in The Tanglewood Tales by Nathanial Hawthorne. This book is the sequel to The Wonderbook for Boys and Girls. To respond to what you have read, choose one of the following activities to share in class.

  1. Draw a map of the Labyrinth through which Theseus had to find his way. Make it attractive and neat. Include some elements of Greek art.

  2. Make a diorama of the battle between Hercules and the Pygmies.

  3. Using IMovie or Animoto, create a movie trailer for either short story. Include the important elements of the story but don’t give away the ending. Just entice the readers to read the story.



Composition - Paragraph and Sentence Study
4X4s of good writing: Conclusion
Write the conclusion of your essay. Consider the following before you begin:

  1. Begin with a concluding transition (Ex. In essence, In short . . .)

  2. Follow the concluding transition with a restatement of thesis.

  3. Summarize each topic of your essay.

  4. Include an effective ending comment.



Option A: Using the same essay that you used in Week 9, look at how your author ended the essay. How did he restate his thesis? What was his concluding transition?
Option B: Write the conclusion to your essay.
Grammar

Memory Work and Practice: Complete Lesson 10. Continue doing memory drills.


  • Grammar: Explain to the class that prepositions are anything a cat can do to a desk or a squirrel can do to a hollow log. List some prepositions on the board. If time permits, play the Preposition Scavenger Hunt with the class. Have one student leave the room, and hide an item while s/he is in the hallway. When the student returns, have the class guide him/her to the object using only prepositions.


For your Notebook: Write three sentences that use prepositions and diagram them correctly.

Research
Now that you have assembled your research, create your outline. Make sure that you have a strong thesis and include it at the top of the outline.
Week 11
Literature
What Good Readers Do: Theme is the main idea or underlying meaning in a piece of writing. Sometimes the theme can be quite obvious (such as the morals in fables). For some works, there is a major theme and minor themes (For example, The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe has a main theme of Courage and some minor themes of Friendship and Forgiveness.
For your Notebook: Include the definition of theme. If you were to write a fable, what would your theme or moral be?
Quarterly Focus Book Study:
Complete reading the fables that we have read in class. Write the moral for those fables.
For your Notebook: Write the five rules for being a good friend.

Additional Literature: Read The Dragon’s Teeth and Circe’s Palace in The Tanglewood Tales. To respond to what you have read, choose one of the following activities to share in class.

  1. Draw a floor plan for Circe’s house.

  2. Make a crossword puzzle for one of the stories. Use characters, setting, vocabulary, etc. to make it.

  3. Write a job description for one of the characters in the stories.



Composition - Paragraph and Sentence Study
4X4s of good writing: Style

Now that you have written your essay, it is time to do revision. As you revise you need to look at the elements that will enhance the flow of your essay



Consider the following before you begin:

  1. Use good verbs and verbals (avoid using linking verbs by themselves and use action verbs to “show” your meaning rather than just tell.

  2. We discussed parallelism in the first quarter. Use good parallels (especially needed on both sides of the conjunction, with two or three adjectives before a noun, and with the use of not only and but also.

  3. Vary the length of your sentences.

  4. Use effective “sound” techniques when appropriate (alliteration, assonance and consonance and figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification, and analogy)



Option A: Refer to Emerson’s essay “Self-Reliance.” Find all elements of style listed above in his essay.
Option B: Revise your essay using the 4x4’s of Style above as a guide.
Grammar

Memory Work and Practice: Complete Lesson 11. Continue doing memory drills.

  • Grammar: Conjunctions join words, phrases, and clauses together. In class review diagramming conjunctions and correct punctuation for lists, dependent clauses, and compound sentences. If time permits, play Conjunction Bingo. Pass out Bingo cards that contain 9 spaces that have conjunctions on them. Call out conjunctions. Students with those conjunctions should raise their hands and then come to the board. Each should write a sentence that has that conjunction used and punctuated properly. Then they can mark their spaces.


For your Notebook: Write six sentences that use conjunctions. Two should illustrate lists, two should be compound sentences, and two should be dependent clauses.

Research
Write your three page research paper. Use your research throughout the paper and make sure that you quote your sources appropriately. Remember if you summarize or paraphrase you must also provide a citation. For help in using quotations and summaries correctly, check out the following handout from Purdue https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/.

Week 12
Literature
What Good Readers Do: Irony is when the outcome of the story is not what you would expect. There are three types of irony: verbal irony, dramatic irony, and situational irony. Verbal irony is when a character says one thing and means another. For example, if it is raining outside a character might say, “It’s beautiful weather we are having.” Dramatic irony is when the audience know something that the character doesn’t. The most famous example of dramatic irony is when the audience knows that Juliet is alive but Romeo doesn’t. Situational irony is when the outcome of the story is a reversal of what is expected. For example, the Wizard in the Wizard of Oz is just an old man rather than a great and powerful being.
For your Notebook: Include the definitions of three forms of irony. How is irony used in the fables? List some examples.
Quarterly Focus Book Study:
Complete reading the fables that we have read in class. Write the moral for those fables.
For your Notebook: Write your own fable.

Additional Literature: Read The Pomegranate Seeds and The Golden Fleece in The Tanglewood Tales. To respond to what you have read, choose one of the following activities to share in class.

  1. Use Storybird (you can create an account for free) to rewrite and illustrate part or all of one of the stories.

  2. Make a list for a survival kit for Proserpina. What should she include for her journey?

  3. Create a postcard for Jason or Proserpina to send home. Write a quick note home on the other side.



Composition - Paragraph and Sentence Study
4X4s of good writing: Technical Editing

The final phase of good writing is proofreading. Before you submit your essay, revise it one more time, carefully looking at the following details:



  1. Eliminate punctuation errors, spelling errors, grammatical errors, run-on sentences, or sentence fragments.

  2. Read your essay aloud and have someone read it aloud to you. Make sure it has flow and rhythm to it. Any place that is hard to read orally probably needs revision to make the sentence clearer.

  3. Pick a title that includes at least four of the following seven elements: conciseness, relevancy, alliteration, rhythm, parallelism, symbolism, or play on words.


Option A and B: Revise your essay as noted above. Cover your essay with two pieces of paper so that you are only looking at one sentence at a time. This makes finding punctuation errors much easier.
Grammar

Memory Work and Practice: Complete Lesson 12. Continue doing memory drills.


  • Grammar: Interjections express strong feelings, sudden emotion, or surprise. Usually they are followed by an exclamation point. In class, play Mad Libs one more time. Split the class into two teams. Have them switch their lists and improve the selected words based on what they have learned this six weeks.


For your Notebook: Write seven sentences and diagram the eight basic parts of speech correctly.

Research
Edit your research paper according to the 4x4s. Create your Bibliography using your notecards. Be sure to alphabetize by the author’s last name.


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