Library guide on ieee referencing

Download 69,14 Kb.
Date conversion06.12.2016
Size69,14 Kb.

Library guide on IEEE Referencing

Library guide on IEEE Referencing 1

Introduction 2

Choosing a reference style 2

What is referencing? 2

Why reference? 2

When to reference? (Plagiarism) 2

RMIT University definition of plagiarism 3

What constitutes plagiarism? 3

What is the penalty for plagiarism? 3

In-text references: examples 4

Reference List 4

Books: examples 4

Book 4

Book chapter 4

e-book from a database 5

e-book from the Internet 5

Journal articles: examples 5

Journal article 5

e-journal article from the internet 5

Other sources 6

Conference paper 6

e-Conference paper 6

Thesis 6

Website 7

Bibliography 7


The IEEE citation style is now widely used in electrical, electronic and computing publications. IEEE provides instructions for authors for each type of publication such as journals, magazines, newsletters, and standards.

IEEE is a numbered style with two components:

  1. In-text references where references are numbered [1] in the order of appearance in the article

  2. A reference list, displayed at the end of the article which provides full details of all references cited in-text. The references are ordered as they appear in the in-text references (in order of citation, not in alphabetical order).

This document is meant only as a guide. It is important that you check with your School as to what they require for referencing. You may be penalised for not conforming to your School’s requirements.

Choosing a reference style

The style (i.e. order in which the details of a reference are cited) may vary depending on the requirements of your department, lecturer or supervisor. Some Schools produce their own guidelines for citing references. Check with your School whether they have a preferred Referencing Style.

What is referencing?

Referencing an information source used in an academic work means to employ a standardised method of acknowledging that source. The full details of the source must be given. All information used in your assignment, thesis, etc., whether published, or unpublished, must be referenced.

Why reference?

When writing a piece of academic work (ie. essay, thesis, etc.) you are required to acknowledge the sources of information that you have used:

  • to prove that your work has a substantial, factual basis,

  • to show the research you've done to reach your conclusions,

  • to allow your readers to identify and retrieve the references for their own use.

Information obtained from the Internet is covered by copyright law. For this reason it is important to cite Internet references just as you would cite print references. Many style guide producers have extended the system used for print resources and applied this to electronic resources. A date of access is very useful as Internet resources change rapidly.

When to reference? (Plagiarism)

You must reference all sources used in a particular work whether you are:

  • directly copying the words of another author (quoting), or

  • putting their ideas into your own words (paraphrasing)

If you do not acknowledge these sources, then you are plagiarising their work. Plagiarism is defined as the taking, using, and passing off as your own, the ideas or words of another. It is a very serious academic offence, and may result in your work being failed automatically. There is more information on this subject in Copyright, plagiarism and fair use (

RMIT University definition of plagiarism

RMIT has an assessment charter, which elaborates key responsibilities common to all staff and students in relation to assessment and defines the University’s policy on plagiarism. Plagiarism is defined (RMIT 2003a) as stealing somebody’s intellectual property (IP) by presenting their work, thoughts or ideas as though they are your own. It is cheating. It is a serious academic offence and can lead to expulsion from RMIT.

Plagiarism can take many forms - written, graphic and visual forms, and includes use of electronic data and material used in oral presentations. Plagiarism may even occur unintentionally, such as when the origin of the material used is not properly cited.

What constitutes plagiarism?

Under the charter, you may be accused of plagiarism if you do any of the following:

Copy sentences or paragraphs word-for-word from any source, whether published or unpublished (including, but not limited to books, journals, reports, theses, websites, conference papers, course notes, etc.) without proper citation.

  • Closely paraphrase sentences, paragraphs, ideas or themes without proper citation.

  • Piece together text from one or more sources and add only linking sentences without proper citation.

  • Copy or submit whole or parts of computer files without acknowledging their source.

  • Copy designs or works of art and submit them as your original work.

  • Copy a whole or any part of another student’s work.

  • Submit work as your own that someone else has done for you.

Enabling Plagiarism is the act of assisting or allowing another person to plagiarise your own work (RMIT 2003a). It is also a serious academic offence. More detail on what constitutes plagiarism is found in the January 2003 Policy: Plagiarism (

What is the penalty for plagiarism?

Plagiarism is not permitted in RMIT University. Any use of another person’s work or ideas must be acknowledged. If you fail to do this, you may be charged with academic misconduct and face a penalty under RMIT Regulations 6.1.1 – Student Discipline (

Penalties for plagiarism (RMIT 2003c) include:

  • recording of a failure for the assignment or course,

  • cancellation of any or all results,

  • suspension from the program,

  • expulsion from the program.

Acknowledgement: The information in this section on Plagiarism has been supplied from the Written reports and essays: guidelines for referencing and presentation (RMIT Business 2006, p. 5).

In-text references: examples

Using this system, references are numbered in the order in which they are first cited in the text. If the same reference is cited later in the text, the same number is given.

"The theory was first put forward in 1987 [1]" 

"Scholtz [2] has argued that......." 

"Several recent studies [1], [3], [4], [15], [16] have suggested that..." 

Reference List

A reference list, displayed at the end of the work which provides full details of all references cited in-text. The references are ordered as they appear in the in-text references (in order of citation, not in alphabetical order).

Books: examples


Author(s) First name or initials. Surname, or name of organisation, Title of book followed by fullstop if no edition statement, or comma if there is an edition statement, ed., Edition (except the first). Place of Publication City: Publisher, Year of Publication.

C. W. Lander, Power Electronics, 3rd. ed., London: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

K. Kalantar-Zadeh, Nanotechnology-enabled sensors, Berlin: Springer, 2007.

Book chapter

Author(s) First name or initials. Surname, "Title of the chapter," in Title of the book, ed., Edition (except the first) vol., volume if available, Ed. editor if available, Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication, pp. Chapter/s or First and Last pages of the article.

G. K. Knopf and A. S. Bassi, "Biological-based optical sensors and transducers," in Opto-mechatronic Systems Handbook: Techniques and Applications, Hyungsuck Cho, Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2003, pp. 195-210.

S. M. Halpin. “Harmonics in power systems,” in Electric power generation, transmissions, and distribution, 2nd ed., L. L. Grisby, Ed. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis, 2007.

e-book from a database

Author(s) First name or initials. Surname. (date of publication year, month day). Title. (ed. edition except the first) [Type of medium]. volume number if needed. (issue number if needed). Available: site/path/file

A. K. Salkintzis. (2004). Mobile Internet: enabling technologies and services. [Online]. Available:

e-book from the Internet

Author(s) First name or initials. Surname. (date of publication year, month day). Title. (ed. edition except the first) [Type of medium]. volume number if needed. (issue number if needed). Available: site/path/file

V. Guruswami. (2004). List decoding of error-correcting codes: winning thesis of the 2002 ACM doctoral dissertation competition. (2nd ed.) [Online]. 3282. Available:

Journal articles: examples

Journal article

Author(s) First name or initials. Surname, "Title of article," Title of journal, vol. volume, (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, Date of issue month if available year.

K. P. Dabke and K. M. Thomas, "Expert system guidance for library users," Library Hi Tech, vol. 10, (1-2), pp. 53-60, 1992.

A. Baghai-Wadji. “Introduction to the special issue on modeling, optimization, and design of acoustic devices,” IEEE transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, vol. 54, (10), pp. 1916-1919, October 2007.

e-journal article from the internet

Note: the dates where months are included the following abbreviations can apply: Write May, June, and July in full. Abbreviate the other months: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec. Use a slash for bimonthly issues (Aug./Sept. 2000) and a hyphen or en dash for a quarterly (July-Sept. 2000).

Author(s) First name or initials. Surname. (year, month). Title of article. Title of Journal. [Type of medium]. volume number (issue number), pp. pages. Available: site/path/file

J. S. Fulda. (2000, Mar.). The Internet as an engine of scholarship. ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society. [Online]. 30 (1), pp. 17-27. Available:

R. Kazemzadeh, and J. M. Kauffmann. (2007). Turbine Speed Variation Study in Gas Power Plant for an Active Generator. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Systems Enginering. [Online]. 10 (3), pp. 161-165. Available:

Other sources

Conference paper

Author(s) First name or initials. Surname, "Title of paper," in Title of the Conference, Editor/s firstname last name if available, Ed. Place of publication: Publisher if available, Date of publication, pp. first and last pages of the paper.

A. H. Cookson and B. O. Pedersen, "Thermal measurements in a 1200kV compressed gas insulated transmission line," in Seventh IEEE Power Engineering Society Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, 1979, pp. 163-167.

Q. Fang, S. Tan, B. Ahmed, D. Berlin, I. Cosic, “A PDA Based Ambulatory Human Skin Resistance Measuring System,” in Proceedings of the 5th IASTED International Conference on Telehealth, Banff, Canada, 2005, pp. 17-22.

e-Conference paper

Author(s) First name or initials. Surname. (year, month). Title. Presented at Conference title. [Type of Medium]. Available: site/path/file

X. Yang. (2003, Aug.). NIRA: a new Internet routing architecture. Presented at ACM SIGCOMM FDNA 2003 Workshop. [Online]. Available:


Author(s) First name or initials. Surname, "Title of thesis," Type of thesis PhD dissertation or doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Department, University, Place, State, Country, Year of Publication.

S. Birch, "Dolphin-human interaction effects: frequency mediated psychophysiological responses in biological systems," doctoral dissertation, Dept. Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Victoria, Australia, 1997.

J. Jusak. “Blind channel equalization for mobile communications,” doctoral dissertation, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Victoria, Australia, 2005.


Author First name initial. Surname, "Title of Article," Date of publication in month year format; url site/path/file.

S.S. Lang, "New Cornell Study Suggests that Mental Processing is Continuous, not like a Computer," June 2005;

Acknowledgement: RMIT University Library gratefully acknowledges Monash University Library’s permission to reproduce their examples in this guide.


Monash University Library, “Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) style examples,”April 2006,

RMIT Business, “Written reports and essays: guidelines for referencing and presentation in RMIT Business,” Feb 2006,



Save Date: 25/09/2008

RMIT University Library Page of

The database is protected by copyright © 2016
send message

    Main page