Lexicology and phraseology: suffixes and prefixes



Download 443,87 Kb.
Page5/6
Date conversion07.09.2017
Size443,87 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6

Pronounced:

/moʊst/



Function:

adjective suffix



Meaning:

: in or to the greatest degree : mostinnermost ▪ outermost ▪ topmost
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-ness suffix

(in nouns)

the quality, state or character of

dryness

blindness

silliness
-ness suffix [in nouns]

used to form nouns from adjectives



loudness

sadness
-ness suffix
added to adjectives to form nouns which refer to a quality or a condition
happiness
sadness
nervousness
selfishness
kindness
-ness suffix

used with many adjectives to make nouns meaning a state or quality:


completeness (=the state of being complete)
politeness (=polite behaviour)
-ness

Pronounced:

/nəs/


Function:

noun combining form



Meaning:

: state : condition : quality ▪ goodness ▪ friendliness ▪ sickness ▪ freshness
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

non-

prefix


(in nouns, adjectives and adverbs)

not


nonsense

non-fiction

non-alcoholic

non-profit-making

non-committally
Help

 Most compounds with non are written with a hyphen in British English but are written as one word with no hyphen in North American English.


non- / prefix

1 [in adjectives, nouns, and adverbs] used to say that someone or something is not a particular thing, or does not do a particular thing



non-British visitors

a non-smoker (=someone who does not smoke)

a non-stop flight (=one in which a plane flies from one place to another without stopping on the way)

2 [in nouns] used to refer to a situation where a particular action did not happen or will not happen



non-payment of taxes

They were very disappointed at his non-appearance (=the fact that he did not go to an event where he was expected).
non- prefix
used to add the meaning 'not' or 'the opposite of' to adjectives and nouns
non-sexist
non-racist

non- / prefix

1 not: used with nouns and adjectives:
a non-alcoholic drink (=one that does not contain alcohol)

2 failure to do something: used with nouns
non-delivery (=failure to deliver goods)

3 not good or exciting: used with nouns
a non-event (=an event that is very boring)
non-

Pronounced:

/nɑn/


Function:

prefix


Meaning:

: not ▪ nonfatal ▪ nonfiction ▪ nonprofit ▪ non-native English speakers ▪ a nonreligious holiday
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-cracy

combining form

(in nouns) the government or rule of

democracy

bureaucracy
-ocracy suffix also -cracy [in nouns]

government by a particular sort of people or according to a particular principle



democracy (=government by the people)

meritocracy (=government by people with the most ability)
--- [not in Cambridge]
--- [not in Macmillan]
--- [not in Merriam-Webster’s]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-crat

combining form

(in nouns)

a member or supporter of a particular type of government or system



democrat

bureaucrat
-ocrat suffix also -crat [in nouns]

1 someone who believes in a particular principle of government



a democrat (=someone who believes in government by the people)

2 a member of a powerful or governing social class or group



a technocrat (=a scientist who controls an organization or country)
--- [not in Cambridge]
--- [not in Macmillan]
--- [not in Merriam-Webster’s]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-oid

suffix


(in adjectives and nouns) similar to

humanoid

rhomboid
--- [not in Longman]
--- [not in Cambridge]
--- [not in Macmillan]
--- [not in Merriam-Webster’s]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-ology

combining form

-logy

(in nouns)

1 a subject of study

sociology

genealogy

2 a characteristic of speech or writing



phraseology

trilogy
-ology suffix also -logy [in nouns]

1 the study of something, especially something scientific



geology (=the study of rocks and the Earth)

climatology (=the study of climate)

Egyptology (=the study of ancient Egypt)

2 the things studied by a particular science



The geology (=structure of the rocks etc) of north Devon is particularly interesting.
-ology suffix
the scientific study of a particular subject:
geology
climatology
--- [not in Macmillan]
-logy

Function:

noun combining form



Meaning:

1 : area of knowledge : theory : science ▪ theology ▪ biology ▪ musicology ▪ psychology

2 : speech or writing ▪ trilogy

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--- [not in Oxford]
-osis suffix

-osis plural -oses [in nouns]

1 a diseased condition:

silicosis (=a lung disease)

neuroses (=medical conditions that affect the mind)

2 a condition or process:

a metamorphosis (=change from one state to another)
--- [not in Cambridge]
--- [not in Macmillan]
--- [not in Merriam-Webster’s]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-ous

suffix


(in adjectives) having the nature or quality of

poisonous

mountainous
-ous suffix [in adjectives]

describes something that has a particular quality



dangerous (=full of danger)

spacious (=with a lot of space)
-ous suffix

added to nouns to form adjectives which refer to a quality or condition



dangerous

ambitious
--- [not in Macmillan]
-ous

Pronounced:

/əs/


Function:

adjective suffix



Meaning:

: full of : having a large amount of ▪ dangerous [=full of danger] ▪ poisonous [=having or containing poison] ▪ mountainous [=having many mountains] : having the quality of ▪ courageous [=having courage] ▪ glamorous [=having glamour]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

out- prefix
1 (in verbs) greater, better, further, longer, et

coutnumber

outwit

outgrow

outlive

2 (in nouns and adjectives) outside; outward; away from



outbuildings

outpatient

outlying

outgoing
out-

1 used to form nouns and adjectives from verbs that are followed by 'out':



an outbreak of flu (=from 'break out')

outspoken comments (=from 'speak out')

2 [in nouns and adjectives] outside or beyond something:



an outbuilding (=small building away from the main building)

outlying areas (=far from the centre)

3 [in verbs] being or becoming bigger, further, greater etc than someone or something else:



He's outgrown his clothes (=become too big for them).

She outlived her brother (=he died before her).

4 [in verbs] doing better than someone, so that you defeat them:



I can out-argue you any day.

She outran him.
out- prefix (NOT CENTRAL)

/aʊt-/ prefix

used to add the meaning 'not central' to nouns and adjectives

the outskirts of town (= the areas that form the edge of the town)

out- prefix (FURTHER)

/aʊt-/ prefix

used to add the meaning 'going further' or 'being better than' to verbs

She doesn't drink or smoke and I'm sure she'll outlive (= live longer than) us all.

out- prefix (AWAY FROM)

/aʊt-/ prefix

used to add the meaning 'out of' or 'away from' to nouns and adjectives

She turned away from their outstretched hands (= hands held out).
out-

1 bigger, better, longer etc: used with many verbs



outclass

outnumber

outshine

2 outside, or away from: used with many nouns and adjectives



outdoor

outbuilding

outflow

3 used for forming nouns and adjectives from verbs that are followed by ‘out’



outcome (=from ‘to come out’)

outlay

outspoken
out-

Pronounced:

/ˌaʊt/


Function:

prefix


Meaning:

: in a manner that is greater, better, or more than something else ▪ outnumber ▪ outgrow ▪ outrun ▪ outmaneuver ▪ outplay

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



over-

prefix


(in nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs)

1 more than usual; too much



overproduction

overload

over-optimistic

overconfident

overanxious

2 completely



overjoyed

3 upper; outer; extra



overcoat

overtime

4 over; above



overcast

overhang

over-

1 too much:



overpopulation

overcooked vegetables

overweight

2 above; beyond; across:



overhanging branches

overhead telephone wires

the overland route (=not by sea or air)

3 outer:



an overcoat

4 additional:



We were working overtime. (=working beyond the usual time)
over- prefix ( TOO MUCH )

too much or more than usual



The children got rather over-excited (= too excited).

over- prefix ( MORE THAN )

more than



a club for the over-50s

over- prefix ( ACROSS )

across


Of course, the overland route is much slower than going by air.

over- prefix ( HIGHER POSITION )

above


She was knocked off her bicycle by an overhanging branch.
over-

prefix British English pronunciation: over- /əʊvə(r)/

1 too much: used with many verbs, nouns, or adjectives

to overheat

an overreaction

overconfident

2 more than: used with some nouns



a club for the over-sixties (=people who are more than 60 years old)

3 on, or above: used with some nouns



travelling overland

4 on top of: used with some nouns



over-trousers (=trousers worn on top of other trousers to protect them)
over-

Pronounced:

/ˌoʊvɚ/



Function:

prefix


Meaning:

1 a : too much or too great ▪ overconfident ▪ overcrowded ▪ overqualified ▪ overripe b : so as to be better or beyond ▪ overachieve ▪ overtake


2 : very or extremely ▪ overjoyed
3 : above ▪ overcoat ▪ overhang
4 : forward and often downward ▪ overbite ▪ overboard
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
para-

prefix


(in nouns and adjectives)

1 beyond


paranormal

2 similar to but not official or not fully qualified



paramilitary

a paramedic
para- prefix

1 beyond


the paranormal (=strange unnatural events, beyond normal experience)

2 very similar to something



terrorists wearing paramilitary uniforms

3 relating to a profession and helping more highly trained people



a paramedic (=someone who helps a doctor)

a paralegal (=someone who helps a lawyer)

4 relating to parachutes



a paratrooper

paragliding
para- prefix (BEYOND)
beyond:
Parapsychology is the study of abilities that go beyond what is natural and normal.
paranormal phenomena

para- prefix (SIMILAR)
similar to, or helping to do a similar job:
a paramedic
paramilitary
para- prefix

1 beyond: used with some nouns and adjectives:
paranormal (=strange and mysterious)

2 giving help to professional people: used with some nouns and adjectives:
a paralegal (=someone who is trained to help a lawyer)

3 similar to: used with some nouns and adjectives:
a paramilitary organization (=operating like an army)

4 involving the use of a PARACHUTE: used with some nouns:
parasailing (=a sport in which you are pulled through the air by a boat while wearing a PARACHUTE)
1 para-

Function:

prefix


Meaning:

1 : beyond or outside of ▪ paranormal

2 : helping highly trained professionals by doing tasks that require less training ▪ paramedic ▪ paralegal
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
peri(natal)
--- [not found in any of the dictionaries]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


-phile combining form (in nouns and adjectives) liking a particular thing; a person who likes a particular thing: Anglophile · bibliophile—compare -phobe
-phile suffix also -phil [in nouns]

someone who likes something



a bibliophile (=someone who likes books)

an Anglophile (=someone who likes English or British things)
-phile suffix
someone who enjoys a particular thing or has it as a hobby, or who likes a particular place:
A bibliophile likes books and an oenophile enjoys wine.
An Anglophile likes England or Britain.
-phile suffix

used for making nouns and adjectives describing someone who loves or likes something:


technophile (=someone who likes new technology such as computers)
francophile (=someone who loves France or the French culture and people)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


-phily
--- [not found in any of the dictionaries]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


phobia

noun


1 a strong unreasonable fear of something

He has a phobia about flying.

One of the symptoms of the disease is water phobia.

2 -phobia

(in nouns) a strong unreasonable fear or hatred of a particular thing

claustrophobia

xenophobia
-phobia suffix [in nouns]

1 technical a strong unreasonable dislike or fear of something, which may be part of a mental illness



claustrophobia (=fear of being in a small enclosed space)

aquaphobia (=fear of water)

2 a dislike or hatred of something



Anglophobia (=a dislike of English or British things)
phobia noun

n [C]


an extreme fear of a particular thing or situation, especially one that cannot be reasonably explained

I've got a phobia about/of worms.

-phobia suffix



Xenophobia means hatred of foreigners.
-phobia suffix

used for making nouns describing a strong feeling of disliking or being afraid of someone or something:


technophobia (=not liking new technology, especially computers)
arachnophobia (=fear of spiders)
-pho·bia

Pronounced:

/ˈfoʊbijə/



Function:

noun combining form



Meaning:

: an extremely strong dislike or fear of someone or something ▪ xenophobia [=fear and hatred of foreign people and things] —compare -philia
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pre- prefix

(in verbs, nouns and adjectives)

before

preheat

precaution

pre-war

preseason training (= before a sports season starts)
pre- prefix

1 before someone or something

ᅳsee also ante-

prewar (=before a war)

2 in preparation



a prearranged signal

Preset the video.
pre- prefix
before (a time or an event)
a pre-flight check
a pre-lunch drink
pre-industrial societies
pre- prefix

before: used with many nouns, verbs, or adjectives:


pre-war fashions
a prearranged meeting
preschool programmes (=for children who are too young for school)
precooked meals (=that you buy to take home and heat)
pre-

Pronounced:

/pri:/



Function:

prefix


Meaning:

1 : earlier than : before ▪ prehistoric ▪ preseason

2 : in advance ▪ prepay
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pro-

prefix


(in adjectives)

in favour of; supporting



pro-democracy
pro- prefix

1 supporting or approving of something

ᅳopposite anti-

pro-American

the pro-choice lobby

2 technical doing a job instead of someone



the pro-vice-chancellor
pro- prefix
supporting or approving of something:
pro-American
pro-democracy demonstrations

pro- prefix

supporting or approving of something: used with some nouns and adjectives:


pro-democracy
pro-European
pro-

Function:

prefix


Meaning:

: in favor of : supporting —often used with a hyphen ▪ pro-Democracy —opposite anti-
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
re-

prefix 

(in verbs and related nouns, adjectives and adverbs)

again


reapply

reincarnation

reassuring
re- prefix

1 again


They're rebroadcasting the play.

2 again in a better way



She asked me to redo the essay.

3 back to a former state



After years of separation they were finally reunited.
re- prefix

1 used to add the meaning 'do again', especially to verbs:
rebuild
remarry
reusable

2 returning something to its original state:
reafforestation (= planting new trees in an area where they were previously cut down).
re- prefix

1 again: used with many verbs, nouns, or adjectives:
Previous applicants need not re-apply.
the re-election of the Mayor
reheated soup

2 again in a different way: used with many verbs, nouns, or adjectives:
We've decided to redecorate the kitchen.
a rearrangement of our plans
a completely rewritten script

3 back to the way something was before: used with many verbs and nouns:
She reappeared a few minutes later.
the recapture of the city
re-

Pronounced:

/ri/


Function:

prefix


Meaning:

1 : again ▪ refill [=fill again] ▪ redo [=do over; do again]

2 : back to an original place, condition, etc. ▪ recall [=call something back]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(hydro)scopy
--- [not found in any of the dictionaries]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


sub-

prefix


1 (in nouns and adjectives)

below; less than



sub-zero temperatures

a subtropical (= almost tropical) climate

substandard

2 (in nouns and adjectives)

under

subway

submarine

3 (in verbs and nouns)

a smaller part of something

subdivide

subset

1   2   3   4   5   6


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page