Lexicology and phraseology: suffixes and prefixes



Download 443,87 Kb.
Page2/6
Date conversion07.09.2017
Size443,87 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6

demo- prefix (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with people or population: democracy · democratic
--- [not in Longman]
--- [not in Cambridge]
--- [not in Macmillan]
--- [not in Merriam-Webster’s]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


dis- prefix

(in adjectives, adverbs, nouns and verbs)

not; the opposite of

dishonest

disagreeably

disadvantage

disappear
dis- prefix

1 shows an opposite or negative



I disapprove (=do not approve)

dishonesty (=lack of honesty)

2 [in verbs] shows the stopping or removing of a condition



Disconnect the machine.

Disinfect the wound.
dis- prefix
added to the front of some words to form their opposites
to disagree
a dishonest person

dis- prefix

used with some nouns, verbs, and adjectives for giving a word the opposite meaning:


dislike (=to not like something)
dissimilar (=not similar)
disbelief
dis-

Function:

prefix


Meaning:

1 in verbs : to do the opposite of ▪ disagree ▪ disappear ▪ disapprove

2 in nouns : opposite or absence of ▪ disbelief ▪ discomfort ▪ dishonor

3 in adjectives : not ▪ disagreeable ▪ disconnected ▪ disinterested

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
down adverb [Oxford]
down- prefix

1 at or towards the bottom or end of something [↪ up-]:



downstairs

downriver (=nearer to where it goes into the sea)

2 used to show that something is being made smaller or less important [↪ up-]:



to downgrade a job (=make it less important)

to downsize a company (=reduce the number of jobs in it)

3 used to show that something is bad or negative [↪ up-]:



the downside of a situation (=the negative part of it)

down-market products (=low quality products)
down- prefix

at or towards the end or the lower or worse part



downhill

downriver

down-market

the downside
down- prefix

1. lower in position, amount, quality, or importance: used with some nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs



floating downriver

another dramatic downturn in sales
down adverb [Merriam-Webster’s]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-ectomy

combining form

(in nouns)

a medical operation in which part of the body is removed



appendectomy (= removal of the appendix )
-ectomy suffix [in nouns] technical

the removing of a particular part of someone's body by an operation



an appendectomy (=removing the appendix)
--- [not in Cambridge]
--- [not in Macmillan]
--- [not in Merriam-Webster’s]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-ed, -d suffix

1 (in adjectives)

having; having the characteristics of

talented

bearded

diseased

2 (makes the past tense and past participle of regular verbs)



hated

walked

loved
-ed suffix

1 forms the regular past tense and past participle of verbs. The past participle form is often used as an adjective



I want, I wanted, I have wanted

I show, I showed, I have shown

He walked away.

a sound that echoed through the room

a wanted criminal

2 [in adjectives] having a particular thing



a bearded man (=a man with a beard)

a kind-hearted woman
-ed suffix (ALSO -d)
used to form the past simple and past participle of regular verbs:
called
asked
looked
started
played
returned
worked
--- [not in Macmillan]
-ed

Pronounced:

/əd, ɪd after t or d; t after p, k, tʃ, f, θ, s, or ʃ; d elsewhere; exceptions are pronounced at their entries/



Function:

verb suffix or adjective suffix



Meaning:

1 —used to form the past tense and past participle of regular verbs ▪ It ended. ▪ It has ended. ▪ clapped ▪ tried ▪ patted

2 : having : characterized by ▪ domed ▪ cultured ▪ two-legged ▪ blue-eyed
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(com)edy
--- [not found in any of the dictionaries]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-ee

suffix


(in nouns)

1 a person affected by an action



employee compare -er, -or

2 a person described as or concerned with



absentee

refugee
-ee [in nouns]

1 someone who is being treated in a particular way:



the payee (=someone who is paid)

a trainee

an employee

2 someone who is in a particular state or who is doing something:



an absentee (=someone who is absent)

an escapee
-ee suffix ( OBJECT )

added to a verb to form a noun which refers to the person who the action of the verb is being done to



an employee (= someone who is employed)

the payee (= a person who money is paid to)

an interviewee (= someone who is being interviewed for a job)

-ee suffix ( CONDITION )

added to an adjective, noun or verb to refer to a person who is in that condition or state

a refugee (= someone who has taken refuge)

an escapee (= someone who has escaped)
-ee suffix

1 used with some verbs to make nouns meaning someone who is affected by an action



a trainee

an employee

2 used with some verbs to make nouns meaning someone who performs an action



an escapee
-ee /i/ noun suffix

1 : a person who gets or is affected by a specified action or thing


▪ appointee ▪ trainee

2 : a person who does a specified action


▪ escapee ▪ standee

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


en- (also em- before b, m or p) prefix

(in verbs)

1 to put into the thing or condition mentioned

encase

endanger

empower

2 to cause to be



enlarge

embolden
en- prefix [in verbs]

1 to make someone or something be in a particular state or have a particular quality



enlarge (=make something bigger)

endanger (=put someone in danger)

2 to go completely around something, or include all of it



encircle (=surround everything)
en- prefix BEFORE B OR P em-

1 used to form verbs which mean to put into or onto something:
encase
encircle
endanger

2 used to form verbs which mean to cause to be something:
enable
endear
enlarge
enrich

3 used to form verbs which mean to provide with something:
empower
--- [not in Macmillan]
en- also em-

Pronounced:

/ɪn/ /ɪm/



Function:

prefix


Meaning:

◊In all senses em- is usually used before words starting with b, m, or p.

1 : to put into or onto ▪ encode ▪ endanger ▪ enthrone ▪ embed

2 : to cause to be ▪ enrich ▪ enslave

3 : to provide with ▪ empower ▪ embody

4 : to cover with ▪ enshroud

5 : thoroughly ▪ ensnare ▪ entangle
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-en suffix

1 (in verbs) to make or become



blacken

sadden

2 (in adjectives) made of; looking like



wooden

golden
-en suffix

1 [in adjectives] made of a particular material or substance



a golden crown

wooden seats

2 [in verbs] to make something have a particular quality



darken (=make or become dark)

strengthen (=make or become stronger)
-en suffix

used to form verbs which mean to increase the stated quality



Sweeten to taste with honey or brown sugar.

I've had to loosen my belt.
--- [not in Macmillan]
1 -en

Pronounced:

/ən/


Function:

adjective suffix



Meaning:

: made of : consisting of ▪ earthen ▪ woolen

2 -en

Function:

verb suffix



Meaning:

1 : to become or cause to be ▪ sharpen ▪ whiten ▪ sadden ▪ broaden


2 : to cause or come to have ▪ lengthen ▪ strengthen
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-er suffix

1 (in nouns)

a person or thing that

lover

computer compare -ee, -or

2 (in nouns)

a person or thing that has the thing or quality mentioned

three-wheeler

foreigner

3 (in nouns)

a person concerned with

astronomer

philosopher

4 (in nouns)

a person belonging to

New Yorker

5 (makes comparative adjectives and adverbs)



wider

bigger

happier

sooner

-or suffix

(in nouns) a person or thing that

actor
-er suffix [in nouns]

1 someone who does something or is doing something



a dancer

a driver

2 something that does something



a scraper (=a tool you use for scraping)

ᅳsee also -ar, -or

-ar suffix

1 [in adjectives] relating to something



stellar (=relating to stars)

polar (=relating to the North or South Pole)

2 [in nouns] someone who does something



a liar (=someone who lies)

-or suffix [in nouns]

1 someone who does something or is doing something

an actor (=someone who acts)

an inventor

a translator

2 something that does something



a calculator (=a machine which calculates)

a word processor

ᅳsee also –er2 , -ar


-er suffix (PERFORMER )

(also -or) added to some verbs to form nouns which refer to people or things that do that particular activity



a singer (= a person who sings)

a swimmer (= a person who swims)

a dishwasher (= a machine or person that washes dishes)

an actor (= a person who acts)

-er suffix (SPECIALIST)
added to the names of particular subjects to form nouns which refer to people who have knowledge about or are studying that subject
a philosopher (= a person who knows about/studies philosophy)
an astronomer (= a person who knows about/studies astronomy)

-er suffix (FROM A PLACE)
added to the names of particular places to form nouns referring to people who come from those places
a Londoner (= a person who comes from London)
a northerner (= a person who comes from the north)

-er suffix (INVOLVED WITH)
added to nouns or adjectives to form nouns referring to people who are connected or involved with that particular thing
a pensioner (= a person who receives a pension)
first graders (= children who are in the first grade of an American school)

-er suffix (CHARACTERISTICS)
added to nouns to form nouns or adjectives referring to people or things which have those particular characteristics:
a double-decker (= a bus with two decks)
a big-spender (= someone who spends a lot of money)
--- [not in Macmillan]
2 -er also -ier or -yer

Pronounced:

/ɚ/ /iɚ, jɚ/ /jɚ/



Function:

noun suffix



Meaning:

1 a : person having a particular job ▪ hatter ▪ furrier ▪ lawyer ▪ jailer b : person or thing belonging to or associated with something ▪ old-timer ▪ high schooler ▪ prisoner c : native of : resident of ▪ New Yorker ▪ cottager d : thing that has ▪ double-decker

2 : person or thing that does or performs a specified action ▪ reporter ▪ player ▪ sharpener ▪ do-gooder

3 : person who is ▪ foreigner ▪ Westerner

-or

Pronounced:

/ɚ/


Function:

noun suffix



Meaning:

: a person or thing that does a specified action ▪ elevator ▪ translator
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(south)ern
--- [not found in any of the dictionaries]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


-ery, -ry suffix (in nouns)

1 the group or class of



greenery

gadgetry

2 the state or character of



bravery

rivalry

3 the art or practice of



cookery

archery

4 a place where something is made, grows, lives, etc



bakery

orangery
-ery suffix also -ry (in nouns)

1 a quality or condition



bravery (=the quality of being brave)

slavery (=the condition of being a slave)

2 things of a particular kind



machinery (=different types of machines)

all her finery (=beautiful clothes)

3 a place where a particular activity happens



a bakery (=where bread is baked)

an oil refinery
--- [not in Cambridge]
--- [not in Macmillan]
-ery

Pronounced:

/əri/


Function:

noun suffix



Meaning:

1 : qualities considered as a group : character ▪ snobbery

2 : place of doing, keeping, producing, or selling (something) ▪ fishery ▪ bakery

3 : collection ▪ finery

4 : state or condition ▪ slavery
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-ese

suffix


1 (in adjectives and nouns)

of a country or city; a person who lives in a country or city; the language spoken there



Chinese

Viennese

2 (in nouns) (often disapproving)

the style or language of

journalese

officialese
-ese suffix
1 [in nouns] the people or language of a particular country or place

the Viennese (=people from Vienna).

I'm learning Japanese (=the language of Japan).

2 [in adjectives] belonging to a particular country or place



Chinese music

3 [in nouns] informal language or words used by a particular group, especially when it sounds ugly or is difficult to understand



journalese (=language used in newspapers)

officialese (=language used in official or legal writing)
-ese suffix

of a place, or the language spoken in a place



Lebanese

Chinese
--- [not in Macmillan]
--- [not in Merriam-Webster’s]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ex- /eks/ prefix

(in nouns) former



ex-wife

ex-president
ex-

former and still living:



his ex-wife

an ex-England cricketer
ex- prefix

used to show that someone is no longer what they were



ex-prisoners

ex-policemen

my ex-husband

my ex-girlfriend

Az űrlap alja

ex-

prefix British English pronunciation: ex- /eks/


used with nouns that describe someone’s job, rank, or relationship to someone, for showing that they no longer have that job, rank, or relationship

Tony is an ex-boyfriend of Jane’s.

an ex-governor of New York
ex-

Pronounced:

/ɛks/


Function:

prefix


Meaning:

: former ▪ ex-president ▪ ex-girlfriend ▪ ex-husband

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



-free

-free (in adjectives) without the thing mentioned



virtually fat-free yogurt

tax-free earnings

a trouble-free life
-free suffix [in adjectives and adverbs]

without something that you do not want:



a trouble-free journey

duty-free cigarettes

a salt-free diet

They live in the house rent-free.
-free suffix ( NO CHARGE )

used at the end of words to mean 'without having to pay'



They agreed to let us live there rent-free.

Many banks are now offering interest-free overdrafts to students.

-free suffix ( WITHOUT )

used at the end of words to mean 'without'



lead-free fuel

No working environment is entirely stress-free.

The journey was surprisingly hassle-free.
-free

1. used with many nouns to make adjectives meaning without a particular thing



foods that are almost fat-free

Any money you earn would be tax-free (=you would not pay tax on it).
free

Function:

adjective

Inflected forms:

fre·er fre·est



Meaning:

6 : not having, including, or suffering from something unpleasant, painful, or unwanted —usually + from or of ▪ free from worry/disease ▪ The product is guaranteed to be free of/from major defects. ▪ The speech was free of political rhetoric. ▪ writing that is free of jargon —sometimes used in combination ▪ jargon-free writingsugar-free chewing gum After struggling with her addiction for many years, she is finally drug-free. [=she has finally stopped using drugs]


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-ful

suffix


1 (in adjectives) full of; having the qualities of; tending to

sorrowful

masterful

forgetful

2 (in nouns) an amount that fills something



handful

spoonful
-ful suffix [in adjectives]

1 full of something



an eventful day

2 having the quality of something or causing something



restful colours

Is it painful?

-ful suffix [in nouns]

1 the amount of a substance needed to fill a particular container

two cupfuls of milk

2 as much as can be carried by or contained in a particular part of the body



an armful of flowers
-ful suffix (HAVING)
having the stated quality to a high degree, or causing it:
colourful
powerful
painful
truthful
beautiful

-ful suffix (AMOUNT)
the amount of something needed to fill the stated container or place:
a spoonful of sugar
a mouthful of tea
a houseful of people
--- [not in Macmillan]
1 -ful

Pronounced:

/fəl/


Function:

adjective suffix



Meaning:

1 : full of ▪ prideful ▪ eventful


2 : characterized by ▪ peaceful ▪ successful
3 : having the qualities of ▪ masterful
4 : tending or likely to ▪ forgetful ▪ helpful

2 -ful

Pronounced:

/fʊl/


Function:

noun suffix



Meaning:

: the number or amount that fills or would fill ▪ a roomful ▪ a cupful ▪ a spoonful
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
gastr(itis)
--- [not found in any of the dictionaries]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


giga-

combining form

(in nouns; used in units of measurement)

1 109, or 1000000000



gigahertz

2 230, or 1073741824


giga- prefix [in nouns]

a billion - used with units of measurement


giga- prefix
used to form words with the meaning 1 000 000 000:
gigavolt
gigahertz
gigawatt
giga-

prefix British English pronunciation: giga- /ɡɪɡə/

1 computing a billion (2): used with some nouns

gigahertz

2 a thousand million (10): used with some nouns



gigawatt
--- [not in Merriam-Webster’s]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1   2   3   4   5   6


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page