Leftovers Bioengineering/Physiology 6000 Altitude and Pulmonary Edema



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Leftovers

  • Bioengineering/Physiology 6000

Altitude and Pulmonary Edema

Comments on Anatomy Lab

  • Bioengineering/Physiology 6000

Comments

Frog Lab: Control of the Heart

  • Bioengineering/Physiology 6000

Regulation of Heart Rate

  • SA Node
  • ACh
  • ACh: • increases pK • reduces If (muscarinic receptor)
  • Epi,
  • NE
  • Epi/NE; • increases If (1-adrenergic receptor)

Regulation of Cardiac Contractility

  • Increase in amplitude or rate of rise of isometric tension at fixed length,
  • Free [Ca+2]i is key component
  • Positive inotropic agents:
    • epinephrine: stimulate  receptors and increase Ca+2 influx and uptake (load SR)
    • Caffeine: increases sensitivity of myofilaments and causes release of SR Ca+2
  • Negative inotropic agents:
    • ACh: acts mostly on atria to shorten AP and reduce [Ca+2]i
    • Cadmium: resembles Ca+2 enough to block channel
  • Muscle tension
  • Passive (rest) tension
  • Total tension
  • Twitch tension
  • Muscle length
  • Effect of NE/E

Effect of E/NE on Contraction

  • constant pretension
  • reduced shortening (limited by max tension curve)
  • reduced stroke volume
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • tension [g]
  • muscle length
  • maximum isotonic tension
  • Pressure
  • Volume
  • Left Ventricle
  • stroke volume

Amphibians (e.g., Frog)

  • Shared ventricle but blood separated
    • Spiral fold
    • Initial flow through pulmonary because of reduced pressure
    • Resistance to flow varies with breathing (inhale reduces resistance)

Lab Interventions

  • Cold Ringer’s solution
  • ACh
  • Epinephrine
  • Isoproterenol
  • Ca2+-free solution
  • Caffeine
  • Cadmium chloride
  • Potassium chloride

Midterm

  • Bioengineering/Physiology 6000

Midterm Information



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