LEARNING Presented by Sandeep Kumar M.Ed Spl.Edu.(HI) Submitted TO U.Pratibha (lecturer) Psychology Dept. AYJNIHH , Mumbai
Scope of presentation o Definition of learning o Nature and characteristics of learning o Types of learning o Domains of learning o Factor influencing learning o Theory of learning
Definition of Learning Gardner Murphy (1968)- the term learning covers every modification in behaviour to meet environmental requirements. Gates (1946) – learning is the modification of behaviour through experience. Woodworth (1945) – any activity can be called learning so far as it develops the individual (in any respect, good or bad) and makes his later behaviour and experiences different from what they would otherwise have been. Kingsley and Garry (1957) - learning is the process by which behaviour changed through practice or training.
Definition: Learning is… A change in behavior as a result of experience or practice. The acquisition of knowledge. Knowledge gained through study. To gain knowledge of, or skill in, something through study, teaching, instruction or experience. The process of gaining knowledge. A process by which behavior is changed, shaped or controlled. The individual process of constructing understanding based on experience from a wide range of sources.
Nature and characteristics of learning 1. Learning is the change in behaviour. 2. Learning is a continuous lifelong process. 3. Learning is a universal process. 4. Learning is purposive and goal directed. 5. Learnring involves reconstruction of experiences. 6. Learning is the product of activity and environment.
8. Learning is transferable from one situation to another. 9. Learning helps in attainment of teaching – learning objectives. 10. Learning helps in the proper growth and development. 11. Learning helps in the balanced development of the personality. 12. Learning helps in proper adjustment. 13. Learning helps in the realization of goals of life. 14. Learning does not necessarily imply improvement.
Types of Learning Reference- http://www.psychologydiscussion.net/
Types of learning 1. Motor learning Most of our activities in our day-to-days life refer to motor activities. The individual has to learn them in order to maintain his regular life, for example walking, running, skating, driving, climbing, etc. All these activities involve the muscular coordination
2. Verbal learning: This type of learning involves the language we speak, the communication devices we use. Signs, pictures, symbols, words, figures, sounds, etc, are the tools used in such activities. We use words for communication.
3. Concept learning It is the form of learning which requires higher order mental processes like thinking, reasoning, intelligence, etc. we learn different concepts from childhood. For example, when web bsee a dog and attach the term dog, we learn that the word dog refers to a particular animal. Concept learning involves two processes, viz. abstraction and generalisation. This learning is very useful in recognising, identifying things
4. Discrimination learning Learning to differentiate between stimuli and showing an appropriate response to these stimuli is called discrimination learning. Example, sound horns of different vehicles like bus, car, ambulance, etc.
5. Learning of principles Individuals learn certain principles related to science, mathematics, grammar, etc. in order to manage their work effectively. These principles always show the relationship between two or more concepts. Example formulae, laws, associations, correlations, etc.
6. Problem solving This is a higher order learning process. This learning requires the use of cognitive abilities-such as thinking, reasoning, observation, imagination, generalization, etc. This is very useful to overcome difficult problems encountered by the people.
7. Attitude learning Attitude is a predisposition which determines and directs our behaviour. We develop different attitudes from our childhood about the people, objects and everything web bknow. Our behaviour maybe positive or negative depending upon our attitudes. Example attitudes of nurse towards herb bprofession, patients, etc.
Domains of Learning Cognitive domain of learning Conative domain of learning Affective domain of learning
Factor influencing learning Learner Related Factor – Learner’s physical and mental health The basic potential of the learner The level of aspiration and achievement motivation Goal of life Readiness and willpower
Teacher Related Factor – mastery over the subject matter Art and skill teaching Personality traits and behaviour of the teacher Level of adjustment and mental health of the teacher Type of discipline and interaction maintained by the teacher
Contents Related Factor- Nature of the contents or learning experience Selection of the content or learning experiences Organisation of the contents or learning experience
Theory of learning
Theories of Learning: Psychologists have tried to explain how people learn and why they learn. They have conducted many experiments on animals and children and come to certain definite conclusions which explain the modes of learning. These are called as theories of learning. In many books, these explanations are treated as kinds of learning. Ina sense it is true. But the term learning is very comprehensive. It covers ab bwide range of activities which cannot be explained within ab blimited framework. There are many theories explaining modes of learning. Important among them are:
Trial and Error Method of Learning – Thorndike (1874-1949) http://physicsdiary.com/2014/04/26/trial-and-error-method-of-learning-thorndike-1874- 1949/
Thorndike’s Experiment He used a 24 hours hungry cat. The cat was fully fed 24 hours back. He used a puzzle box which had a door that could be opened by a device – by pressing a lever, the latch or pulling ab bstring. The box had ventilation. The hungry cat was put inside the box and a fish was placed outside. The cat tried to come out by random movements. These random movements and actions are called exploratory movements. By chance it happens to press the lever – the door opens, it comes out and eats the fish. The cat is starved again and put in the box and the whole thing is repeated many times. The cat learns the method to open the door. Now if it is put in the box, it can easily open the door. It is called trial and error.
This is a chance learning or SR. Stimulus Response) learning.This is also called Associative learning
THE THEORY Learning means establishing proper bond between stimulus and response. This theory is also called connectionism. According to Thorndike Learning is a mechanical process. We learn from mistakes. The correct responses are rewarded and they are stamped in. “Learning is a process of acquiring and stabilizing successful orb brewarded responses and of eliminating the unsuccessful or unrewarded responses.” Education is the process of acquiring and stabilizing successful habit pattern through rewarded responses.
Thorndike's laws of learning and its educational implications http://dgwaymade.blogspot.in/2010/10/thorndikes-laws-of-learning-and-its.html
1) Law of Readiness:- First primary law of learning, according to him, is the Law of Readiness or the Law of Action Tendency’, which means that learning takes place when an action tendency is aroused through preparatory adjustment, set or attitude. Readiness means a preparation of action. If one is not prepared to learn, learning cannot be automatically instilled in him, for example, unless the typist, in order to learn typing prepares himself to start, he would not make much progress in a lethargic & unprepared manner
2) Law of Exercise:- The second law of learning is the Law of Exercise, which means that drill or practice helps in increasing efficiency and durability of learning and according to Throndike’s SR Bond Theory, the connections are strengthened with trail or practice and the connections are weakened when trial or practice is discontinued. The ‘law of exercise, therefore, is also understood as the ‘law of use and disuse in which case connections orb bbonds made in the brain cortex are weakened orb bloosened. Many examples of this case are found in case of human learning. Learning to drive a motorcar, typewriting, singing or memorizing a poem or ab bmathematical table, and music etc. need exercise and repetition of various movements and actions many times.
3) Law of Effect:- The third law is the Law of Effect, according to which the trial or steps leading to satisfaction stamps in the bond or connection. Satisfying states lead to consolidation and strengthening of the connection, whereas dissatisfaction, annoyance or pain lead to the weakening or stamping out of the connection. In fact, the law of effect signifies that if the response satisfy the subject, they are learnt and selected, while those which are not satisfying are eliminated. Teaching, therefore, must be pleasing. The educator must obey the tastes and interests of his pupils. In other words, greater the satisfaction stronger will be the motive to learn. Thus, intensity is an important condition of law of effect’
4) Law of Multiple – Response- According to it the organism varies orb bchanges its response till an appropriate behaviour is hit upon. Without varying the responses, the correspondence for the solution might never be elicited. If the individual wants to solve a puzzle, he is to try in different ways rather than mechanically persisting in the same way. Throndike’s cat in the puzzle box moved about and tried many ways to come out till finally it hit the latch with her paw which opened the door and it jumped out.
5) The Law of Set or Attitude- Learning is guided by a total set or attitude of the organism, which determines not only what the person will do but what will satisfy orb bannoy him. For instance, unless the cricketer sets himself to make a century, he will not be able to score more runs. A student, similarly, unless he sets to get first position and has the attitude of being at the top, would while away the time and would not learn much. Hence, learning is affected more in the individual if he is set to learn more or to excel.
6) The Law of Associative Shifting- According to this law we may get an response, of which a learner is capable, associated with any other situation to which he is sensitive. Thorndike illustrated this by the act of teaching a cat to stand up at a command. A fish was dangled before the cat while he said ‘ stand up. After a number trails by presenting the fish after uttering the command stand up, he later ousted the fish and the overall command of stand up was found sufficient to evoke the response in the cat by standing up or her hind legs.
According to this theory the task can be started from the easier aspect towards its difficult side. This approach will benefit the weaker and backward children. A small child learns some skills through trial and error method only such as sitting, standing, walking, running etc. In teaching also the child rectifies the writing after commiting mistakes. In this theory more emphasis has been laid on motivation. Thus, before starting teaching in the classroom the students should be properly motivated. Practice leads a man towards maturity. Practice is the main feature of trial and error method. Practice helps in reducing the errors committed by the child in learning any concept. Habits are formed as a result of repeitition. With the help of this theory the wrong habits of the children can be modified and the good habits strengthened.
The effects of rewards and punishment also affect the learning of the child. Thus, the theory lays emphasis on the use of reward and punishment in the class by the teacher. The theory maybe found quite helpful in changing the behaviour of the delinquent children. The teacher should cure such children making use of this theory. With the help of this theory the teacher can control the negative emotions of the children such as anger, jealousy etc. The teacher can improve his teaching methods making use of this theory. He must observe the effects of his teaching methods on the students and should not hesitate to make necessary changes in them, if required. The theory pays more emphasis on oral drill work. Thus, a teacher should conduct oral drill of the taught contents. This help in strengthening the learning more.
Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning
ivan Pavlov Ivan Pavlov was a famous Russian psychologist He lived from 1849 to 1936 He made many discoveries in the psychology field Pavlov won the Nobel Prize in psychology in 1904
What is Classical Conditioning? Classical Conditioning- A learned reflex/response that you do when evoked by a stimulus Pavlov performed experiments with dogs onto collect saliva He noticed that the dogs would salivate when powdered meat was present
Pavlov associated the ringing of a bell with the presence of powdered meat He rang the bell every time the dogs were served food Pavlov started ringing the bell and the dogs would salivate without the powdered meat being present Thus, a learned reflex
In the Classroom Teachers can use classical conditioning to quiet down the students Example: First day of class, students walk into class and teacher sits at desk Teacher goes towards board when ready to teach and children quiet down Second day of class, students are chatty when the teacher goes to the board. Teacher asks to be quiet. Third day of class, students are automatically quiet when the teacher walks to the board
Students will be conditioned in a positive manner Students will learn the expectations of their teachers Students will learn the expectations of their school
Operant Conditioning theory (Skinner)
Experiment with Rats MATERIALS: Skinner Box which is a small chamber in which an animal learns how to make ab bparticular response for which the consequence can be controlled by the researcher, it contains ab bspeaker, signal lights, lever, food dispenser which dispenses pellets, and grid floors which can deliver a mild electric shock. There is also ab bcumulative recorder which records the frequency and speed of the desired response which is made by the pressing of a lever.
PROCEDURE: A hungry rat was placed in the Skinner box and every time it pressed the lever it was rewarded with a food pellet in the food dish which was used to reinforce its behaviour.
RESULTS: Rats scurried around the box randomly touching parts of the floor and wall. Eventually the rat accidently touched the lever and a food pellet was released. The same sequence was repeated and with more trials the time taken to press the lever eventually decreased. The random movements of the rat eventually became deliberate, rats then ate the food as fast as they could press the lever.
Operant conditioning can be described as ab bprocess that attempts to modify behaviour through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. Through Operant conditioning, an individual makes a association between ab bparticular behaviour and a consequence. Example- parents rewarding a child’s excellent grade with candy or some other prize
Reinforcement is any event that strengthens or increases the behaviour it follows. There are two kinds of reinforcers: Positive reinforcers are favourable events or outcomes that are presented after the behaviour. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, ab bresponse or behaviour is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise or a direct reward. Negative reinforcers involve the removal of an unfavourable events or outcomes after the display of a behaviour. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behaviour increases.
Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement schedule Fixed interval reinforcement schedule Fixed ratio reinforcement schedule Variable reinforcement schedule
Punishment , on the other hand, is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behaviour it follows. There are two kinds of punishment: Positive punishment , sometimes referred to as punishment by application, involves the presentation of an unfavourable event orb boutcome in order to weaken the response it follows. Negative punishment , also known as punishment by removal, occurs when a favourable event or outcome is removed after a behaviour occurs. In both of these cases of punishment, the behaviour decreases.
Cognitivist Theory of Learning Robert Gagne
Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning 1) Signal Learning Learn how to respond to a signal, like Pavlov’s dog (Pavlov’s classical conditioned response) Usually the response is emotional 2) Stimulus(S) – Response(R) Learning Learn precise response to precise signal / stimulus Different from signal learning, signal learning leads to involuntary responses, whereas the responses in SR learning are voluntarily controlled.
3) Psychomotor Connection Learning Occurs when a chain of stimuli and responses are formed Able to chain 2 or more stimulus-response 4) Verbal Association Learning Use terminology in verbal chains 5) Multiple Discrimination Learning Learn how to distinguish between similar stimuli Make different responses to each type of stimulus, even when they may be perceptually similar.
6) Concept Learning Singular / common response to an entire class of stimuli 7) Principle Learning Viewed as a chain of two or more concepts. Learn to apply rules 8) Problem Solving Highest learning type which lead to the discovery of higher order rules All other types of learning must have been completed for it to be present.
Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction
Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction 1) Gain Attention Use an interest device that grabs learner’s attention 2) Inform Learner of Objective Initiates the internal process of expectancy and helps motivate the learner to complete the lesson 3) Stimulate Recall Prior Knowledge Associating new information with prior knowledge / experiences can facilitate the learning process
Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction 4)Present The Material new content is actually presented to the learner. Content should be chunked and organized meaningfully, and typically is explained and then demonstrated. 5)Provide Guidance For Learning To help learners encode information for long-term storage, additional guidance should be provided along with the presentation of new content
Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction 6) Elicit Performance Practice by letting the learner do something with the newly acquired behavior, skills, or knowledge 7) Provide Feedback Show correctness of the learner's response, analyze learner's behavior. 8) Assess Performance Test / assessment to determine if the lesson has been learned.
Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction 9)Enhance Retention & Transfer Inform the learner about similar problem situations, provide additional practice, put the learner in a transfer situation, review the lesson.
Ausubel’s Meaningful Verbal Learning Theory
meaningful learning takes place when an idea to be learned is related in some sensible way to ideas that the learner already possess. Ausubel believed that before new materials can be presented effectively, the student’s cognitive structure should be strengthened.
• Helps introduce anew lesson, unit, or course. • Helps summarize major ideas in new lesson or unit. • Based on student’s prior knowledge. • Show similarities between old material and new material. • Allows student to transfer or apply knowledge. • Provides structure for new information. • Helps teach complex concept that is similar to information learned previously.
The process of meaningful learning Ausubel proposed four processes of meaningful learning - Derivative subsumption - Correlative subsumption - Superordinate learning - Combinatorial learning Subsumption- is a process by which new materials related to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure.
Derivative Subsumption New material or relationships can be derived from the existing structure. Information can be moved in the hierarchy, or linked to other concepts or information to create new interpretations or meaning. • Suppose I have acquired a basic concept such as tree trunk, branches, green leaves, and may have some kind of fruit Now, I learn about a kind of tree that I have never learn before persimmon tree conforms to my previous understanding of tree My new knowledge of persimmon trees is attached to my concept of tree, without substantially altering that concept in anyway So, I had learned about the persimmon trees through the process of derivative subsumption. Example (Stage 1)
Correlative Subsumption New material is an extension or elaboration of what is already known. • Suppose I encounter anew kind of tree that has red leaves, rather than green In order to accommodate this new information, I have to alter or extend my concept of tree to include the possibility of red leaves I have learned about this new kind of tree through the process of correlative subsumption. • Ina sense, you might say that this is more valuable learning than of derivative subsumption, since it enriches the higher-level concept. Example (Stage 2)
Superordinate learning An individual is able to give a lot of examples of the concept but does not know the concept itself until it is taught. • Imagine that I was well acquainted with maples, oaks, apple trees, etc, but I did not know, until I was taught, that these were all examples of deciduous trees In this case, I already knew a lot of examples of the concept, but I did not know the concept itself until it was taught tome This is superordinate learning. Example (Stage 3)
Combinatorial learning The first three learning processes all involve new information that "attaches" to a hierarchy at a level that is either below orb babove previously acquired knowledge. Combinatorial learning is different it describes a process by which the new idea is derived from another idea that is neither higher nor lower in the hierarchy, but at the same level.
• Now, suppose I learn about how fish eggs are fertilized. • I might relate it to previously acquired knowledge about pollination in plants. • Both of the ideas are different, but it is related to the process of breeding”. Example (Stage 4)
Conclusion Ausubel’s theory is concerned with how individuals learn large amounts of meaningful material from verbal textual (lecture books) presentations in a school setting as opposed to theories developed based on experimental settings.
Bruner’s constructivist theory of learning
OBJECTIVE explain the individual’s ability and development to represent knowledge. differentiate and discuss the kinds of categories of identity, equivalence and coding. Explain how spiral curriculum works.
Constructivism Constructivism is an epistemological belief about what "knowing" is and how one "comes to know"
Definition “ Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas orb bconcepts based upon their current/past knowledge’’
Bruner’s main concepts 1. Representation Modes of Presenting Understanding: a . Enactive representation- children learn about the world through actions on physical objects and the outcomes of these actions.
b. Iconic obtained through using models and pictures- the learner can now use mental images to stand for certain objects or events. c. Symbolic representation- the learner has developed the ability to think abstract terms.
2. Spiral Curriculum- instruction needs to be anchored on the learner’s cognitive capabilities. Principles of instruction. Readiness. Spiral Organization. Going beyond the information given 3. Discovering Learning- refers to obtaining knowledge for oneself.
Major Aspects in the Theory of Instruction: a. Predisposition to learn- “ readiness for learning. b. Structure of Knowledge- the ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner. c. Effective Sequencing- presentation of lessons in increasing difficulty.
d. Reinforcement- rewards and punishment that should be selected and paced appropriately. Categorization- Bruner believed that perception, conceptualization, learning, decision making, and making inferences all involves categorization.
Social learning theory Albert Bandura
Basic Social Learning Concepts There are three core concepts at the heart of social learning theory. First is the idea that people can learn through observation. Next is the notion that internal mental states are an essential part of this process. Finally, this theory recognizes that just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior. Let's explore each of these concepts in greater depth.
1. People can learn through observation Observational Learning In his famous Bobo doll experiment, Bandura demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people. The children in Bandura’s studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed.
Bandura identified three basic models of observational learning: A live model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior. A verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior. A symbolic model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, television programs, or online media.
2. Mental states are important to learning Intrinsic Reinforcement Bandura noted that external, environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behavior. He described intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. This emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive developmental theories. While many textbooks place social learning theory with behavioral theories, Bandura himself describes his approach as asocial cognitive theory.
3. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior While behaviorists believed that learning led to a permanent change in behavior, observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviors.
The Modeling Process Not all observed behaviors are effectively learned. Factors involving both the model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Certain requirements and steps must also be followed. The following steps are involved in the observational learning and modeling process:
Attention: In order to learn, you need to be paying attention. Anything that distracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, you are far more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning.
Retention: The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning.
Reproduction: Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement.
Motivation: Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day
Kohler’s Insight Learning
What is insight learning Insight learning is the abrupt realization of a problem's solution. Insight learning is not the result of trial and error, responding to an environmental stimulus, or the result of observing someone else attempting the problem. It is ab bcompletely cognitive experience that requires the ability to visualize the problem and the solution internally - in the mind's eye, so to speak - before initiating a behavioural response.
Experiment 1 1. In one experiment, Kohler put the chimpanzee, “Sulthan” inside a cage and a banana was hung from the roof of a cage. A box was placed inside the cage. The chimpanzee tried to reach the banana by jumping but could not succeed. Suddenly he got an idea and used the box as ab bjumping platform by placing it just below the hanging banana. 2. In another experiment Kohler made this problem complicated that two or three boxes were required to reach the banana
3. Ina more complicated experiment, ab bbanana was kept far outside the cage and two sticks – one larger than the other- were kept inside the box. When failed to reach the banana by one stick, with a sudden bright idea the chimpanzee tried to reach the banana by joining the two sticks.
STEPS IN INSIGHT LEARNING 1 . Identifying the problem: The learner recognizes the presence of an intervening obstacles on his way to the goal. 2. Understanding the Problem: The learner observes the problematic situation, analyse it and perceive the relation between the goal and the obstacles. 3. Incubation of Ideas: After analyzing the total situation he reaches in conclusions by means of hesitation, pause, concentrated attention etc.
4. Sustained Attention: The learner maintains frequently recurrent attention to the goal and motivation. 5. Insight Development: In a certain moment there is a sudden perception of the relationship in the total situation and the organism directly performs the required acts.
7 . Steady Repetition of Adaptive Behaviour: After getting an insightful solution, the individual tries to implement it in another situation. 8. Comprehension of Ability: The learner reaches the ability to understand the relevant parts of the situation and overlooking the irrelevant ones .