Learning presented by Sandeep Kumar M. Ed Spl. Edu.(HI)



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LEARNING
Presented by
Sandeep Kumar
M.Ed Spl.Edu.(HI)
Submitted TO
U.Pratibha (lecturer)
Psychology Dept.
AYJNIHH , Mumbai

Scope of presentation
o
Definition of learning
o
Nature and characteristics of learning
o
Types of learning
o
Domains of learning
o
Factor influencing learning
o
Theory of learning

Definition of Learning

Gardner Murphy (1968)- the term learning covers every modification in behaviour to
meet environmental requirements.

Gates (1946) – learning is the modification of behaviour through experience.

Woodworth (1945) – any activity can be called learning so far as it develops the
individual (in any respect, good or bad) and makes his later behaviour and experiences
different from what they would otherwise have been.

Kingsley and Garry (1957) - learning is the process by which behaviour changed
through practice or training.

Definition: Learning is…

A change in behavior as a result of experience or practice.

The acquisition of knowledge.

Knowledge gained through study.

To gain knowledge of, or skill in, something through study,
teaching, instruction or experience.

The process of gaining knowledge.

A process by which behavior is changed, shaped or controlled.

The individual process of constructing understanding based on
experience from a wide range of sources.

Nature and characteristics of
learning
1.
Learning is the change in behaviour.
2.
Learning is a continuous lifelong process.
3.
Learning is a universal process.
4.
Learning is purposive and goal directed.
5.
Learnring involves reconstruction of experiences.
6.
Learning is the product of activity and environment.

8. Learning is transferable from one situation to another.
9. Learning helps in attainment of teaching – learning
objectives.
10. Learning helps in the proper growth and development.
11. Learning helps in the balanced development of the
personality.
12. Learning helps in proper adjustment.
13. Learning helps in the realization of goals of life.
14. Learning does not necessarily imply improvement.

Types of Learning
Reference- http://www.psychologydiscussion.net/

Types of learning
1. Motor learning
Most of our activities in our day-to-days life refer to motor
activities. The individual has to learn them in order to
maintain his regular life, for example walking, running,
skating, driving, climbing, etc. All these activities involve
the muscular coordination


2. Verbal learning:
This type of learning involves the language we speak, the
communication devices we use. Signs, pictures, symbols,
words, figures, sounds, etc, are the tools used in such
activities. We use words for communication.

3. Concept learning
It is the form of learning which requires higher order mental
processes like thinking, reasoning, intelligence, etc. we learn
different concepts from childhood. For example, when web bsee a dog and attach the term dog, we learn that the word
dog refers to a particular animal. Concept learning involves
two processes, viz. abstraction and generalisation. This
learning is very useful in recognising, identifying things


4. Discrimination learning
Learning to differentiate between stimuli and showing an
appropriate response to these stimuli is called
discrimination learning. Example, sound horns of different
vehicles like bus, car, ambulance, etc.


5. Learning of principles
Individuals learn certain principles related to science,
mathematics, grammar, etc. in order to manage their work
effectively. These principles always show the relationship
between two or more concepts. Example formulae, laws,
associations, correlations, etc.

6. Problem solving
This is a higher order learning process. This learning
requires the use of cognitive abilities-such as thinking,
reasoning, observation, imagination, generalization, etc.
This is very useful to overcome difficult problems
encountered by the people.


7. Attitude learning
Attitude is a predisposition which determines and directs
our behaviour. We develop different attitudes from our
childhood about the people, objects and everything web bknow. Our behaviour maybe positive or negative depending
upon our attitudes. Example attitudes of nurse towards herb bprofession, patients, etc.

Domains of Learning

Cognitive domain of learning

Conative domain of learning

Affective domain of learning

Factor influencing learning

Learner Related Factor –

Learner’s physical and mental health

The basic potential of the learner

The level of aspiration and achievement motivation

Goal of life

Readiness and willpower


Teacher Related Factor –

mastery over the subject matter

Art and skill teaching

Personality traits and behaviour of the teacher

Level of adjustment and mental health of the teacher

Type of discipline and interaction maintained by the
teacher


Contents Related Factor-

Nature of the contents or learning experience

Selection of the content or learning experiences

Organisation of the contents or learning
experience

Theory of learning

Theories of Learning:

Psychologists have tried to explain how people learn and why
they learn. They have conducted many experiments on animals
and children and come to certain definite conclusions which
explain the modes of learning.

These are called as theories of learning. In many books, these
explanations are treated as kinds of learning. Ina sense it is
true. But the term learning is very comprehensive. It covers ab bwide range of activities which cannot be explained within ab blimited framework. There are many theories explaining modes
of learning. Important among them are:


Trial and Error Method of
Learning –
Thorndike (1874-1949)
http://physicsdiary.com/2014/04/26/trial-and-error-method-of-learning-thorndike-1874-
1949/

Thorndike’s Experiment

He used a 24 hours hungry cat. The cat was fully fed 24 hours
back. He used a puzzle box which had a door that could be
opened by a device – by pressing a lever, the latch or pulling ab bstring. The box had ventilation. The hungry cat was put inside
the box and a fish was placed outside. The cat tried to come
out by random movements. These random movements and
actions are called exploratory movements. By chance it
happens to press the lever – the door opens, it comes out and
eats the fish. The cat is starved again and put in the box and
the whole thing is repeated many times. The cat learns the
method to open the door. Now if it is put in the box, it can
easily open the door. It is called trial and error.
This is a chance learning or SR. Stimulus Response) learning.This is also called Associative learning

thorndike’s experiment

THE THEORY

Learning means establishing proper bond between
stimulus and response. This theory is also called
connectionism. According to Thorndike Learning
is a mechanical process. We learn from mistakes.
The correct responses are rewarded and they are
stamped in.

“Learning is a process
of acquiring and stabilizing successful orb brewarded responses and of eliminating the
unsuccessful or unrewarded responses.”

Education is the process of acquiring and
stabilizing successful habit pattern through
rewarded responses.

Thorndike's laws of learning
and its educational
implications
http://dgwaymade.blogspot.in/2010/10/thorndikes-laws-of-learning-and-its.html

1)
Law of Readiness:-
First primary law of learning, according to him, is
the Law of Readiness or the Law of Action
Tendency’, which means that learning takes place
when an action tendency is aroused through
preparatory adjustment, set or attitude. Readiness
means a preparation of action. If one is not
prepared to learn, learning cannot be automatically
instilled in him, for example, unless the typist, in
order to learn typing prepares himself to start, he
would not make much progress in a lethargic &
unprepared manner

2)
Law of Exercise:-
The second law of learning is the Law of Exercise,
which means that drill or practice helps in increasing
efficiency and durability of learning and according to
Throndike’s SR Bond Theory, the connections are
strengthened with trail or practice and the connections
are weakened when trial or practice is discontinued. The
‘law of exercise, therefore, is also understood as the
‘law of use and disuse in which case connections orb bbonds made in the brain cortex are weakened orb bloosened. Many examples of this case are found in case
of human learning. Learning to drive a motorcar,
typewriting, singing or memorizing a poem or ab bmathematical table, and music etc. need exercise and
repetition of various movements and actions many times.

3)
Law of Effect:-
The third law is the Law of Effect, according to which
the trial or steps leading to satisfaction stamps in the
bond or connection. Satisfying states lead to
consolidation and strengthening of the connection,
whereas dissatisfaction, annoyance or pain lead to the
weakening or stamping out of the connection. In fact,
the law of effect signifies that if the response satisfy
the subject, they are learnt and selected, while those
which are not satisfying are eliminated. Teaching,
therefore, must be pleasing. The educator must obey
the tastes and interests of his pupils. In other words,
greater the satisfaction stronger will be the motive to
learn. Thus, intensity is an important condition of law
of effect’

4)
Law of Multiple – Response-
According to it the organism varies orb bchanges its response till an appropriate
behaviour is hit upon. Without varying the
responses, the correspondence for the
solution might never be elicited. If the
individual wants to solve a puzzle, he is to try
in different ways rather than mechanically
persisting in the same way. Throndike’s cat in
the puzzle box moved about and tried many
ways to come out till finally it hit the latch
with her paw which opened the door and it
jumped out.

5)
The Law of Set or Attitude-
Learning is guided by a total set or attitude of
the organism, which determines not only what
the person will do but what will satisfy orb bannoy him. For instance, unless the cricketer
sets himself to make a century, he will not be
able to score more runs. A student, similarly,
unless he sets to get first position and has the
attitude of being at the top, would while away
the time and would not learn much. Hence,
learning is affected more in the individual if
he is set to learn more or to excel.

6)
The Law of Associative
Shifting-
According to this law we may get an
response, of which a learner is capable,
associated with any other situation to
which he is sensitive. Thorndike illustrated
this by the act of teaching a cat to stand
up at a command. A fish was dangled
before the cat while he said ‘ stand up.
After a number trails by presenting the fish
after uttering the command stand up, he
later ousted the fish and the overall
command of stand up was found sufficient
to evoke the response in the cat by
standing up or her hind legs.


According to this theory the task can be started from the easier aspect towards its
difficult side. This approach will benefit the weaker and backward children.

A small child learns some skills through trial and error method only such as sitting,
standing, walking, running etc. In teaching also the child rectifies the writing after
commiting mistakes.

In this theory more emphasis has been laid on motivation. Thus, before starting teaching
in the classroom the students should be properly motivated.

Practice leads a man towards maturity. Practice is the main feature of trial and error
method. Practice helps in reducing the errors committed by the child in learning any
concept.

Habits are formed as a result of repeitition. With the help of this theory the wrong habits
of the children can be modified and the good habits strengthened.


The effects of rewards and punishment also affect the learning of the child. Thus, the
theory lays emphasis on the use of reward and punishment in the class by the teacher.

The theory maybe found quite helpful in changing the behaviour of the delinquent
children. The teacher should cure such children making use of this theory.

With the help of this theory the teacher can control the negative emotions of the
children such as anger, jealousy etc.

The teacher can improve his teaching methods making use of this theory. He must
observe the effects of his teaching methods on the students and should not hesitate to
make necessary changes in them, if required.

The theory pays more emphasis on oral drill work. Thus, a teacher should conduct oral
drill of the taught contents. This help in strengthening the learning more.

Pavlov’s theory of
classical conditioning

ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov was a famous
Russian psychologist

He lived from 1849 to 1936

He made many discoveries in
the psychology field

Pavlov won the Nobel Prize in
psychology in 1904

What is Classical Conditioning?

Classical Conditioning- A learned
reflex/response that you do when
evoked by a stimulus

Pavlov performed experiments
with dogs onto collect saliva

He noticed that the dogs would
salivate when powdered meat was
present


Pavlov associated the ringing of
a bell with the presence of
powdered meat

He rang the bell every time the
dogs were served food

Pavlov started ringing the bell
and the dogs would salivate
without the powdered meat
being present

Thus, a learned reflex

In the Classroom

Teachers can use classical conditioning to quiet down
the students

Example:

First day of class, students walk into class and teacher
sits at desk

Teacher goes towards board when ready to teach and
children quiet down

Second day of class, students are chatty when the
teacher goes to the board. Teacher asks to be quiet.

Third day of class, students are automatically quiet
when the teacher walks to the board
Students will be conditioned in a positive manner

Students will learn the expectations of their teachers

Students will learn the expectations of their school

Operant Conditioning theory
(Skinner)

Experiment with Rats

MATERIALS: Skinner Box which is a small
chamber in which an animal learns how to make ab bparticular response for which the consequence
can be controlled by the researcher, it contains ab bspeaker, signal lights, lever, food dispenser which
dispenses pellets, and grid floors which can
deliver a mild electric shock. There is also ab bcumulative recorder which records the frequency
and speed of the desired response which is made
by the pressing of a lever.


PROCEDURE: A hungry rat was
placed in the Skinner box and every
time it pressed the lever it was
rewarded with a food pellet in the
food dish which was used to reinforce
its behaviour.


RESULTS: Rats scurried around the box
randomly touching parts of the floor and
wall. Eventually the rat accidently touched
the lever and a food pellet was released. The
same sequence was repeated and with more
trials the time taken to press the lever
eventually decreased. The random
movements of the rat eventually became
deliberate, rats then ate the food as fast as
they could press the lever.

Operant conditioning can be described as ab bprocess that attempts to modify behaviour
through the use of positive and negative
reinforcement. Through Operant conditioning, an
individual makes a association between ab bparticular behaviour and a consequence.
Example- parents rewarding a child’s excellent grade
with candy or some other prize


Reinforcement
is any event that strengthens or increases the behaviour it follows.
There are two kinds of reinforcers:
Positive reinforcers
are favourable events or outcomes that are presented after the
behaviour. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, ab bresponse or behaviour is strengthened by the addition of something,
such as praise or a direct reward.
Negative reinforcers
involve the removal of an unfavourable events or outcomes after the
display of a behaviour. In these situations, a response is
strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant
In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behaviour increases.

Schedules of Reinforcement

Continuous reinforcement schedule Fixed interval reinforcement schedule

Fixed ratio reinforcement schedule

Variable reinforcement schedule


Punishment
, on the other hand, is the presentation of an adverse
event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behaviour it follows.
There are two kinds of punishment:
Positive punishment
, sometimes referred to as punishment by
application, involves the presentation of an unfavourable event orb boutcome in order to weaken the response it follows.
Negative punishment
, also known as punishment by removal, occurs
when a favourable event or outcome is removed after a behaviour
occurs.
In both of these cases of punishment, the behaviour decreases.

Cognitivist Theory of Learning
Robert Gagne

Robert Gagne’s Hierarchy of Learning
1) Signal Learning

Learn how to respond to a signal, like Pavlov’s dog
(Pavlov’s classical conditioned response)

Usually the response is emotional
2) Stimulus(S) – Response(R) Learning

Learn precise response to precise signal / stimulus

Different from signal learning, signal learning leads to
involuntary responses, whereas the responses in SR
learning are voluntarily controlled.

3) Psychomotor Connection Learning

Occurs when a chain of stimuli and responses are formed

Able to chain 2 or more stimulus-response
4) Verbal Association Learning

Use terminology in verbal chains
5) Multiple Discrimination Learning

Learn how to distinguish between similar stimuli

Make different responses to each type of stimulus, even when they
may be perceptually similar.

6) Concept Learning

Singular / common response to an entire class of stimuli
7) Principle Learning

Viewed as a chain of two or more concepts.

Learn to apply rules
8) Problem Solving

Highest learning type which lead to the discovery of higher order rules

All other types of learning must have been completed for it to be present.

Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction

Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction
1) Gain Attention

Use an interest device that grabs learner’s attention

2)
Inform Learner of Objective

Initiates the internal process of expectancy and helps
motivate the learner to complete the lesson
3) Stimulate Recall Prior Knowledge

Associating new information with prior knowledge /
experiences can facilitate the learning process

Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction
4)Present The Material

new content is actually presented to the learner.

Content should be chunked and organized meaningfully,
and typically is explained and then demonstrated.
5)Provide Guidance For Learning

To help learners encode information for long-term
storage, additional guidance should be provided along
with the presentation of new content

Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction
6) Elicit Performance

Practice by letting the learner do something with the newly acquired
behavior, skills, or knowledge
7) Provide Feedback

Show correctness of the learner's response, analyze learner's
behavior.
8) Assess Performance

Test / assessment to determine if the lesson has been learned.

Robert Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction
9)Enhance Retention & Transfer

Inform the learner about similar problem
situations, provide additional practice, put
the learner in a transfer situation, review the
lesson.

Ausubel’s
Meaningful Verbal
Learning Theory

meaningful learning takes place when an idea to be learned is related in some sensible way to ideas that the learner already possess.
Ausubel believed that before new materials can be presented effectively, the student’s
cognitive
structure
should be strengthened.

• Helps introduce anew lesson, unit, or course.
• Helps summarize major ideas in new lesson or unit.
• Based on student’s prior knowledge.
• Show similarities between old material and new material.
• Allows student to transfer or apply knowledge.
• Provides structure for new information.
• Helps teach complex concept that is similar to information
learned previously.

The process of meaningful learning

Ausubel proposed four processes of meaningful learning
- Derivative subsumption
- Correlative subsumption
- Superordinate learning
- Combinatorial learning

Subsumption- is a process by which
new materials
related to
relevant ideas in the existing
cognitive structure.
Derivative Subsumption

New material or relationships can be derived from the existing structure. Information can
be moved in the hierarchy, or linked to other concepts or information to create new
interpretations or meaning.
• Suppose I have acquired a basic concept such as tree trunk, branches, green leaves, and may have some kind of fruit Now, I learn about a kind of tree that I have never learn before persimmon tree conforms to my previous understanding of tree My new knowledge of persimmon trees is attached to my concept of tree, without substantially altering that concept in anyway So, I had learned about the persimmon trees through the process of derivative subsumption.
Example
(Stage 1)
Correlative Subsumption

New material is an extension or elaboration of what is already known.
• Suppose I encounter anew kind of tree that has red leaves, rather than green In order to accommodate this new information, I have to alter or extend my concept of tree to include the possibility of red leaves I have learned about this new kind of tree through the process of correlative subsumption.
• Ina sense, you might say that this is more valuable learning than of derivative subsumption, since it enriches the higher-level concept.
Example
(Stage 2)

Superordinate learning

An individual is able to give a lot of examples of the concept but does not know the concept
itself until it is taught.
• Imagine that I was well acquainted with maples, oaks, apple trees, etc, but I did not know, until I was taught, that these were all examples of deciduous trees In this case, I already knew a lot of examples of the concept, but I did not know the concept itself until it was taught tome This is superordinate learning.
Example
(Stage 3)

Combinatorial learning

The first three learning processes all
involve new information that "attaches" to
a hierarchy at a level that is either below orb babove previously acquired knowledge.
Combinatorial learning is different it
describes a process by which the new idea
is derived from another idea that is neither
higher nor lower in the hierarchy, but at the
same level.

• Now, suppose I learn about how
fish eggs are fertilized.
• I might relate it to previously
acquired knowledge about
pollination in plants.
• Both of the ideas are different, but
it is related to the process of
breeding”.
Example
(Stage 4)

Conclusion

Ausubel’s theory is concerned with how
individuals learn large amounts of meaningful
material from verbal textual (lecture books)
presentations in a school setting as opposed to
theories developed based on experimental
settings.

Bruner’s constructivist
theory
of learning

OBJECTIVE

explain the individual’s ability and development
to represent knowledge.

differentiate and discuss the kinds of
categories of identity, equivalence and coding.

Explain how spiral curriculum works.

Constructivism
Constructivism is an epistemological belief
about what "knowing" is and how one
"comes to know"

Definition

Learning is an active process in
which learners construct new
ideas orb bconcepts based upon their
current/past
knowledge’’

Bruner’s main concepts
1.
Representation
Modes of Presenting Understanding:
a
. Enactive representation- children learn about the world through actions on physical objects and the outcomes of these actions.
b. Iconic obtained through using models and pictures- the learner can now use mental images to stand for certain objects or events.
c. Symbolic representation- the learner has developed the ability to think abstract terms.

2. Spiral Curriculum-
instruction needs to be anchored on the learner’s cognitive capabilities.
Principles of instruction. Readiness. Spiral Organization. Going beyond the information given
3. Discovering Learning-
refers to obtaining knowledge for oneself.

Major Aspects in the Theory of
Instruction:
a. Predisposition to learn- “ readiness for learning. b. Structure of Knowledge- the ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner.
c. Effective Sequencing- presentation of lessons in increasing difficulty.
d. Reinforcement- rewards and punishment that should be selected and paced appropriately. Categorization-
Bruner believed that perception, conceptualization, learning, decision making, and making inferences all involves categorization.

Social learning theory
Albert Bandura

Basic Social Learning
Concepts

There are three core concepts at the heart of social learning theory. First is the idea that people can learn through observation. Next is the notion that internal mental states are an essential part of this process. Finally, this theory recognizes that just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior.
Let's explore each of these concepts in greater depth.

1. People can learn through
observation

Observational Learning
In his famous
Bobo doll experiment, Bandura demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people. The children in Bandura’s studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed.

Bandura identified three basic
models of observational learning:

A live model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior.

A verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior.

A symbolic model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, television programs, or online media.

2. Mental states are
important to learning

Intrinsic Reinforcement
Bandura noted that external, environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behavior. He described intrinsic
reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. This emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive developmental theories. While many textbooks place social learning theory with behavioral theories, Bandura himself describes his approach as asocial cognitive theory.

3. Learning does not necessarily
lead to a change in behavior

While behaviorists believed that learning led to a permanent change in behavior, observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviors.

The Modeling Process

Not all observed behaviors are effectively learned. Factors involving both the model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Certain requirements and steps must also be followed. The following steps are involved in the observational learning and modeling process:

Attention:

In order to learn, you need to be paying attention. Anything that distracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, you are far more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning.

Retention:

The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning.

Reproduction:

Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement.

Motivation:

Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day

Kohler’s Insight
Learning

What is insight learning
Insight learning is the abrupt realization of a problem's
solution. Insight learning is not the result of trial and error,
responding to an environmental stimulus, or the result of
observing someone else attempting the problem. It is ab bcompletely cognitive experience that requires the ability to
visualize the problem and the solution internally - in the
mind's eye, so to speak - before initiating a behavioural
response.

Experiment 1
1. In one experiment, Kohler put the chimpanzee,
“Sulthan” inside a cage and a banana was hung
from the roof of a cage. A box was placed
inside the cage. The chimpanzee tried to reach
the banana by jumping but could not succeed.
Suddenly he got an idea and used the box as ab bjumping platform by placing it just below the
hanging banana.
2.
In another experiment Kohler made this
problem complicated that two or three boxes
were required to reach the banana

3. Ina more complicated experiment, ab bbanana was kept far outside the cage
and two sticks – one larger than the
other- were kept inside the box. When
failed to reach the banana by one stick,
with a sudden bright idea the
chimpanzee tried to reach the banana by
joining the two sticks.

STEPS IN INSIGHT LEARNING
1
. Identifying the problem:
The learner recognizes the
presence of an intervening obstacles on his way to the goal.
2.
Understanding the Problem:
The learner observes the
problematic situation, analyse it and perceive the relation
between the goal and the obstacles.
3.
Incubation of Ideas:
After analyzing the total
situation he reaches in conclusions by means of hesitation,
pause, concentrated attention etc.

4.
Sustained Attention:
The learner maintains
frequently recurrent attention to the goal and motivation.
5.
Insight Development:
In a certain moment there is
a sudden perception of the relationship in the total
situation and the organism directly performs the required
acts.

7
. Steady Repetition of Adaptive Behaviour:
After
getting an insightful solution, the individual tries to
implement it in another situation.
8.
Comprehension of Ability:
The learner reaches the
ability to understand the relevant parts of the situation
and overlooking the irrelevant ones
.
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