Learning Goal: How did us foreign policy change between the years 1914-1914? Review Question

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Learning Goal:

  • How did US foreign policy change between the years 1914-1914?

Review Question

  • Compare and contrast US foreign policy from 1914-1918 with US foreign policy from 1801 – 1812.
  • Isolationism and the Road to World War II
  • The Treaty of Versailles: Senate rejected it & the US did not join the League of Nations
  • The Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations
  • No control of major
  • conflicts.
  • No progress in
  • disarmament.
  • No effective military
  • enforcement.

Foreign Policy Tensions

  • Interventionism
  • Collective security
  • “Wilsonianism”
  • World Police
  • Business interests
  • Democrats
  • Nativists
  • Anti-War movement
  • Conservative Republicans: Lodge & Taft
  • Cited Washington’s Ideas
  • Isolationist
  • Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. [R-MA]

I. Peace attempts in the 1920s and the Great Depression

  • Dawes Plan (1924)
  •          a. U.S. bankers gave Germany loans; Germany paid Britain & France, who in turn paid back the U.S.       b. U.S. credit continued to help this finance issue until crash of 1929.
  • Hoover declared debt moratorium in 1931 and before long, all debtors defaulted (except Finland which paid its loan ending in 1976).   

Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) --

  • Ratified by 62 nations: made war illegal except for defensive purposes.
  • Major flaws: No enforcement mechanism; aggressors could use "defensive purposes" argument when attacking.
  • Gave Americans a false sense of security in the 1930s.

*Great Depression a major cause of totalitarianism in Japan and Germany

  • The Great Depression

Hyper-Inflation in Germany: 1923

  • Hyper-Inflation

Major Dictators

  • Economic collapse opened door for extremists
    • Germany = Hitler (fascist)
    • Japan = militarists (fascist)
    • Italy = Mussolini (fascist)
    • Spain = Franco (fascist)
    • USSR = Stalin (communist)

American Foreign policy in early 1930s

Failure of collective security

  • 1931 -- Japan invades Manchuria
  • League of Nations condemns action; no enforcement
  • a. Japan violated Kellogg-Briand Pact       b. Hoover-Stimson Doctrine: President Hoover refused economic or political sanctions but did not recognize Japanese conquest       c. Japan withdraws from League of Nations
  • The Manchurian Crisis, 1931
  • Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931

American Isolationism in the face of fascist aggression

  • Americans concerned with their own economic depression
  • Sought to avoid involvement in Europe in the face of rising dictatorships
  • Not immediately alarmed at totalitarianism.
  • American sentiment cried for a constitutional amendment to forbid a declaration of war by Congress -- except in case of invasion -- unless there was first a favorable public referendum.
  • -- Ludlow Amendment

Nye Committee (headed by ND Sen. Gerald Nye)

  • Many believed US entered WWI so munitions makers could profit       a. Nye Committee investigated this charge.       b. Munitions manufacturers dubbed
  • "merchants of death"
  • Committee claimed bankers wanted war to protect loans to Europe and Wilson had provoked Germany by sailing in to warring nation's waters.
  • Today many believe the committee was flawed and excessively anti-business
  • Resulted in the Neutrality Acts between 1935 & 1937

Read Smedley Butler

Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937

  • When president proclaimed existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect:
  • a. Prohibited sale of arms to belligerent nations
  • b. Prohibited loans and credits to belligerent nations c. Forbade Americans to travel on vessels of nations at war
  • (in contrast to WWI)
  • d. Non-military goods must be purchased on a cash and carry basis
  • -pay when goods are picked up e. Banned involvement in the Spanish Civil War

In effect, limited options of President in a crisis

  • In effect, limited options of President in a crisis
  • America declined to build up its armed forces where it could deter aggressors.     a. Navy declined in relative strength.         -- Believed huge navies caused wars.     b. Did not want to burden taxpayers during the depression
  • Japan launches full-scale attack on southern China (1937)
  • The 1937 Japanese Invasion of China & the Rape of Nanking

Panay Incident

  • Dec. 1937, Japanese bombed and sank a U.S. gunboat (the Panay) and three Standard Oil tankers on the Yangtze River.
  • i. Two killed; 30 wounded       ii. Yantzee River was by treaty an international waterway (Open Door)      iii. Japan was testing U.S. resolve (like Hitler in the Rhineland in 1936)

Roosevelt reacted angrily: planned to seize U.S.-held property in China.

  • Roosevelt reacted angrily: planned to seize U.S.-held property in China.
  • Japan apologized, paid U.S. an indemnity, and promised no further attacks.
  • US public called for withdrawal of all US forces from China.      i. Most Americans satisfied and relieved at Japan’s apology
  • Results  Japanese interpreted US tone as a license for further aggression against US interests.

Roosevelt’s "Quarantine Speech" (1937)

  • Condemned Japan and Italy for their aggressive actions.
  • Urged democracies to "quarantine" the aggressors by economic embargoes.
  • Criticized by isolationists fearing FDR might lead US into war.
  • FDR retreated and sought less direct means to address totalitarianism.

President Roosevelt: 10/05/1937 "Quarantine" Speech

  • If those days are not to come to pass, if we are to have a world in which we can breathe freely and live in amity without fear-the peace-loving nations must make a concerted effort to uphold laws and principles on which alone peace can rest secure. The peace-loving nations must make a concerted effort in opposition to those violations of treaties and those ignorings of humane instincts which today are creating a state of international anarchy and instability from which there is no escape through mere isolation or neutrality. Those who cherish their freedom and recognize and respect the equal right of their neighbors to be free and live in peace, must work together for the triumph of law and moral principles in order that peace, justice and confidence may prevail in the world. There must be a return to a belief in the pledged word, in the value of a signed treaty. There must be recognition of the fact that national morality is as vital as private morality.
  • The “Problem” of the Sudetenland

German aggression

  • British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, adopted policy appeasement toward Germany; sought to avoid war.     i. Rejected joining alliance with France & Russia claiming it would destroy possibility of future negotiations.      ii. Appeasement: Giving in to an aggressor in order to preserve peace
  • Hitler demands Sudetenland (German-speaking province in Czechoslovakia
  • Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938
  • Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.

Munich Conference (Sept. 1938): Attended by Germany, France, Britain & Italy.

  • Munich Conference (Sept. 1938): Attended by Germany, France, Britain & Italy.
  • ii. Terms: Czechoslovakia lost the Sudetenland (could have waged successful defense)  -- Hitler claimed he would not make any more territorial demands in Europe.
  • Invasion of Poland starts WWII
  • Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact--Aug. 23rd, 1939
  • -- Secret clause: Division of Poland between Hitler & Stalin
  • Sept. 5, 1939: FDR officially proclaimed U.S. neutrality.
  • The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, 1939
  • Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop & Molotov
  • Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939
  • Blitzkrieg [“Lightening War”]

Neutrality Act of 1939

  • (response to German invasion of Poland)
  • 1. Britain and France desperately needed U.S. airplanes and other weapons.     -- Neutrality Act of 1937 forbade sale of weapons to warring countries.
  • 2. Sept. 5, 1939: FDR proclaimed U.S. neutrality (but not neutrality in thought).    -- 84% of public supported Britain and France
  • 3. Sept. 21, FDR persuaded Congress to allow U.S. to aid European democracies in limited fashion.

Provisions of Neutrality Act of 1939

  • Provisions of Neutrality Act of 1939
  • a. Sale of weapons to European democracies on a "cash-and-carry" basis.
  • -- U.S. would avoid loans, war debts, and torpedoing of U.S. arms- carriers.
  • b. FDR proclaimed danger zones which U.S. ships & citizens could not enter
  • (contrast to Wilson’s WWI policy)


  • Democracies benefited as they controlled the Atlantic     -- Aggressors could not send ships to buy U.S. munitions.
  • U.S. economy improved as European demand for war goods helped bring the country out of the recession of 1937-1938.      -- Unemployment crisis solved.
  • Germany invades Soviet Union in June, 1941
  • Axis Powers in 1942

U.S. response to the war in Europe

  • FDR’s "Arsenal of Democracy" speech (Dec 29, 1939)      1. Proclaimed U.S. could not remain neutral: its independence had never been in such danger     2. Nazi war aim was world domination      3. Many feel this speech marked entrance of U.S. into the war.
  • 4. The U.S. would become the "Great Warehouse" of the Allies

U.S. response to fall of France and Battle of Britain

  • U.S. response to fall of France and Battle of Britain
  • 1. Fall of France forced a major change in strategy for U.S.-- now U.S. would probably have to fight in the war; not just be a "great warehouse“
  • 2. FDR called on America to build a huge air force and 2-ocean navy.
  • 3. Congress appropriated $37 billion (more than total cost of WWI) and 5X larger than any New Deal annual budget.
  • 4. Sept. 1940, Congress passed Selective Service and Training Act a. America’s first peace-time draft    -- Men 21 to 35 were registered and many were called for one year of military training. b. Act later expanded when U.S. entered the war.


  • America First Committee      a. Slogan: "England will fight to the last American."      b. Advocated U.S. protection of its own shores if Hitler defeated Britain.      c. Charles Lindbergh most famous of isolationists.
  • Senator Robert A. Taft:
  • urged "Fortress America"; defense not intervention
  • America-First Committee
  • Charles Lindbergh

Theodor Seuss Geisel

  • Born March 2, 1904
  • As World War II began, Geisel turned to political cartoons, drawing over 400 in two years as editorial cartoonist for the left-leaning New York City daily newspaper, PM.
  • Geisel's political cartoons, later published in Dr. Seuss Goes to War, denounced Hitler and Mussolini and were highly critical of non-interventionists ("isolationists"), most notably Charles Lindbergh, who opposed US entry into the war.

Drawbacks to Isolationism

Destroyer-Bases Deal

  • Sept. 2, 1940, FDR agreed to transfer to Britain 50 WWI-class destroyers
  • Britain promised U.S. 8 valuable defensive base sites from Newfoundland to South America.    -- These bases would remain in U.S. control for 99 years.
  • Agreement achieved by simple presidential agreement.    -- Critics charged FDR had circumvented Congress and was trying to get U.S. into the war.
  • Now Britain Is All Alone!

"Four Freedoms" speech (January 6, 1941) -- made to Congress

  • "Four Freedoms" speech (January 6, 1941) -- made to Congress
  • Now elected, FDR did not have to worry as much about critics.
  • FDR asked Congress for increased authority to help Britain.
  • Four Freedoms:      a. Speech and expression    b. Religion      c. Freedom from Want      d. Freedom from fear
  • Congress responded with Lend-Lease


  • Lend-Lease
  • (April 1941) and increase U.S. involvement in the war.
  • 1. Considered one of most momentous laws ever passed by Congress.
  • 2. Provisions: a. Authorized President to give military supplies to any nation he deemed "vital to the defense of the US."                 -- British rapidly exhausting their cash reserves with which to buy U.S. goods.  b. Accounts would be settled after the war.         -- FDR: "Loan a neighbor your hose to save his house from fire; worry about the hose later."
  • 3. Criticism a. Isolationists and anti-Roosevelt Republicans saw it as "the blank check bill."
  • b. Some saw it as getting the U.S. even closer to involvement in the war.
  • Lend-Lease aide for just 1942
  • Great Britain.........................$31 billion Soviet Union...........................$11 billion France......................................$ 3 billion China.......................................$1.5 billion Other European.................$500 million South America...................$400 million The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000
  • U. S. Lend-Lease Act totals


  • Effectively ended U.S. neutrality; in effect, an economic declaration of war against Germany
  • U.S. war production immediately increased
  • Hitler began sinking U.S. ships on a limited scale with German submarines

Escalating tensions with Japan

  • Japan’s conquest of Asia resulted in tensions with U.S.
  • 2. Japan outlined the proposed Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
  • A. Sought a vast empire in east Asia and Western Pacific. B. Declared the Open Door policy ended and forced American and other business interests from occupied China.
  • 3.
  • 3. Embargo of 1940 passed by Congress against Japan (July)             a. Following Fall of France, Japan got the right from Vichy France to build air bases and to station troops northern French Indochina.             b. U.S. placed embargo on export of aviation gasoline, lubricants, scrap iron and steel to Japan and granted an additional loan to China.             c. In December, extended embargo to include iron ore and pig iron, some chemicals, machine tools, and other products.

4. Sept 1940, Japan signed Tripartite Pact: Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis      -- All agreed to support each other if attacked by the U.S.

  • 4. Sept 1940, Japan signed Tripartite Pact: Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis      -- All agreed to support each other if attacked by the U.S.
  • 5. Early 1941, FDR moved U.S. Pacific Fleet from West Coast to Pearl Harbor to demonstrate military readiness
  • 6. Embargo of 1941        a. July, Japan gained new concession from Vichy France by obtaining military control of southern Indochina.
  •         b. U.S. froze Japanese assets in the U.S., closed the Panama Canal to Japan, activated the Philippine militia, and placed embargo on export of oil and other vital products to Japan.
  • Pearl Harbor
  • Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
  • Pearl Harbor from the Cockpit of a Japanese Pilot
  • Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941
  • A date which will live in infamy!
  • USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor
  • Pearl Harbor Memorial
  • 2,887 Americans Dead!

Pearl Harbor--Dec. 7th, 1941 (7:55 A.M. Sunday -- second wave at 8:50 A.M.)

  • Pearl Harbor--Dec. 7th, 1941 (7:55 A.M. Sunday -- second wave at 8:50 A.M.)
  • Damage:        a. Japanese sank or badly damaged all 8 battleships inside the Harbor including the Oklahoma and the Arizona.         b. Damaged 10 other ships; destroyed 188 planes         c. Over 2,500 Americans killed; 1,100 wounded         d. 3 aircraft carriers escaped destruction--out at sea         e. Japanese losses much smaller
  • Roosevelt asked Congress for Declaration of War against Japan (Dec. 8)          a. "a date that will live in infamy."          b. Congress quickly complies with only 1 dissenting vote.

3. Germany & Italy declare war against U.S. (three days later)        a. Ally with Japan        b. Hitler's 3rd fatal blunder: Germany didn't have to declare war on U.S.; FDR and Churchill agreed to defeat "Germany first" rather than concentrating on Japan

  • 3. Germany & Italy declare war against U.S. (three days later)        a. Ally with Japan        b. Hitler's 3rd fatal blunder: Germany didn't have to declare war on U.S.; FDR and Churchill agreed to defeat "Germany first" rather than concentrating on Japan
  • 4. U.S. increase of troops--2 to 12 million
  • The “Big Three”
  • Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin

The Home Front

  • The Home Front

Economic mobilization

  •    OWM (Office for War Mobilization) established to supervise
  • various agencies intended to increase war production.
  • War Production Board:
  • a. WPB est. in 1942 by FDR to regulate the use of raw materials
  •  b. 1/2 of factory production went into war materials.
  • 1943, US producing twice as many goods as all enemy countries combined.

"Rosie the Riveter"

  • a. Over 5 million women joined labor force during the war, often moving to new communities to work in aircraft, munitions, and automobile industries.
  •   b. Propaganda urged women to fill ranks of the nation’s assembly lines   i. Films characterized "Rosie the Riveter" as an American heroine ii. Women’s magazines and newspapers discussed the
  • suitability of women's smaller hands for "delicate" tasks.

c. Women’s increased wages from industrial jobs increased family incomes and pave the way for postwar consumer demand.

  • c. Women’s increased wages from industrial jobs increased family incomes and pave the way for postwar consumer demand.
  • d. Despite gains, 1945 average woman’s pay was still less than 2/3 that of a male worker, and at war’s end, pressures increased on women to return to homemaking rather than to stay in the work force.

Controlling inflation

  • - More people were working but less consumer goods were available.
  • - Too much $ = inflation; cost of living increased
  • - War Labor Board: sought to maintain (but not improve)
  • workers' standard of living; wages kept pace with rise in cost of living.
  • -- Contrast to WWI where inflation reduced earning power of workers causing thousands of strikes.

Office of Price Administration (OPA)

  • Economic Stabilization --            
  • a. Froze prices and rents at March 1942 levels
  • b. Rationing     i. Certificate Plan: buy cars, tires, typewriters, etc.:            -- Apply to a local rationing board. I accepted, you received a certificate allowing you to buy the item.
  •          ii. Coupon Plan -- more widely used            -- Families issued coupon books to buy of meat, coffee, sugar, gas, etc.            -- Number of coupons based on family size. No coupons, no purchase.

Anti-inflation measures successful             a. WWI cost of living up 170%             b. WWII -- less than 29%

  • Anti-inflation measures successful             a. WWI cost of living up 170%             b. WWII -- less than 29%
  • Taxes were increased to finance the war
  • 1. Many who had never had to pay taxes were now required to.
  • 2. 1939 -- 4 million filed tax returns; in 1945 --50 million!

Beginning of National Debt

  • 1. 1941 = $49 billion; 1945 = $259 billion
  • 2. 2/5 was pay as we go; 3/5 was borrowed!
  • 3. New Deal + WWII = "warfare welfare" state
  • - Volunteerism
  • 1. During WWII, few restrictions were put into place
  • 2. In contrast with WWI, there was little hysteria and pressure to conform.
  • Paying for the War
  • Paying for the War

Smith-Connolly Antistrike Act (1943)

  • -- expired in 1947
  • 1. Authorized gov’t seizure of plant or mine idled by a strike if war effort affected.
  • 2. Response to strikes especially by John Lewis.    --1943, 450,000 United Mine Workers members went on strike who were denied a raise by the National War Labor Board.

Science goes to war: Manhattan Project--1942

  • a. Established to research all aspects of building A-bomb.
  • b. Formed after Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi warned FDR in a letter in 1939 that Germany was working on building a bomb through nuclear fission.
  • c. Los Alamos, New Mexico -- group charged with building the bomb itself        -- Headed by Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer
  • d. Trinity -- first test July 16, 1945 in desert outside Alamogordo, New Mexico.

Discrimination during the war

  • 1. During war years, there was massive migration of minorities to industrial centers. (Larger than the Great Migration of 1914-1919 in WWI)
  • 2. Violence plagued 47 cities, the worst example occurring in Detroit.
  • A. Detroit Race Riot in June, 1943; 25 blacks dead; 9 whites;
  •  i. 6,000 federal troops needed to restore order ii. $2 million in property damage
  • A. African American civil rights issues

A. Philip Randolph (Father of the Civil Rights Movement)

  • president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
  • a. Blacks were excluded from well-paying jobs in war-related industries.
  • b. Randolph made three demands of the president.
  •  i. Equal access to defense jobs  ii. Desegregation of the armed forces iii. End to segregation in federal agencies


  • Randolph promised a march on Washington, with 100,000 plus people if demands not meet
  • FDR scared of violence and political embarrassment

FDR issued Executive Order 8802 in 1941

  • FDR issued Executive Order 8802 in 1941
  • establishing Fair Employment Practices
  • Committee (FEPC) to investigate violations in
  • defense industries.
  • Result:
  • i. Gov’t agencies, job training programs, & defense contractors ended segregation
  • ii. Randolph dubbed "father of the Civil Rights movement"
  • NAACP grew from 50,000 before the war, to 500,000 members by war’s end
  • CORE created by James Farmer
  • Civil Rights movement becomes a major issue after the war

Mexican Americans

  • 1. Bracero Program
  • -- During the war, need for increased farm production led to a
  • U.S. gov't policy for short-term work permits to be issued to Mexican workers.
  • 2. Zoot Suit riots in L.A. (1943)         
  •  a. Young Mexican-Americans became object of frequent violent attacks in LA.
  •  b. Sailors roamed streets beating "zooters," tearing their clothes, cutting their hair.
  •  c. Radio reports blamed zooters but a city committee under Earl Warren revealed the truth and need for improved housing.

Internment of Japanese Americans -- Japanese relocation

  • 1. Executive Order 9066 (Feb. 19, 1942) -- FDR authorized the War Dept. to declare the West Coast a "war theater".
  • 2. 110,000 people of Japanese ancestry forcibly interned. Pearl Harbor left public paranoid that people of Japanese ancestry living in California might help Japan.
  •   a. 1/3 were Issei -- foreign born
  •   b. rest were Nisei -- American born usually too young to vote

General John DeWitt organized the removal of people of Japanese ancestry to 10 locations in 7 states

  • General John DeWitt organized the removal of people of Japanese ancestry to 10 locations in 7 states
  • a. They were given 48 hours to dispose of their belongings
  • Most families received only about 5% of their possessions’ value.
  • b. Camps were in desolate areas
  •      c. Conditions harsh, yet many remained loyal to US; after 1943, 17,600 Nisei fought in US Army. d. Relocation became "necessary" when other states would not accept Japanese residents from California.
  •   e. Although gov’t considered relocation of Germans and Italians, the Japanese were the only ethnic group singled out by the gov’t for action.
  •   - Army considered Japanese potential spies.

Korematsu v. US Supreme Court upholds internment

  • i. Court could not second-guess military decisions
  • ii. Court also ruled that persons couldn’t be held once loyalty was established. -- By then, camps were being closed down.
  • 5. Labor and business wanted Japanese removed to help themselves
  • 6. Represented the greatest violation of civil liberties during WWII.             a. $105 million of farmland lost
  • b. $500 million in yearly income; unknown personal savings.
  • 7. No act of sabotage was ever proven against any Japanese American.
  • 8. Camps closed in March, 1946
  • 9. 1988, President Reagan officially apologized for its actions and approved in principle the payment of reparations to camp survivors totaling $1.25 billion.
  • 10. In 1990 Congress appropriated funds to pay $20,000 to each internee.

From 2009

  • Analyze the home-front experiences of TWO of the following groups during the Second World War
    • African Americans
    • Japanese Americans
    • Jewish Americans
    • Mexican Americans


  • 500,000 fight in the war
  • Tight immigration restrictions, 30,000 a year allowed to immigrate, usually the best and brightest
  • SS St. Louis turned away
  • Tried to draw attention to the Holocaust
  • In 1943, just before Yom Kippur, 400 rabbis marched in Washington, D.C. to draw attention to the plight of Holocaust victims
  • Albert Einstein letter to FDR started the A-bomb race
  • Manhattan Project- Robert Oppenheimer and many other scientists create the Atomic Bomb
  • Israel created after the war
  • Compare and contrast the home fronts in World War one to World War II.
  • To what extent and why did the United States adopt an isolationist policy in the 1920’s and 1930’s?

From 1982

  • Prior to American involvement in both the First and Second World Wars, the United States adopted an official policy of neutrality. Compare the policy and its modifications during the periods; 1914-1917 to the policy and its modifications during 1939 -1941.

From 2000

  • To what extent did the United States achieve the objectives that led it to enter the First World War?

From 1995

  • Assess the relative influence of THREE of the following in the American decision to declare war on Germany in 1917.
  • German naval policy
  • American economic interests
  • Woodrow Wilson’s idealism
  • Allied Propaganda
  • America’s claim to world power
  • Compare and contrast the debates that took place over American expansion in the 1840's with those that took place in the 1890's
  • Account for the increased urbanization of Black Americans in the period 1914 to 1945.
  • “Yellow Journalism caused the Spanish American War”
    • Assess the validity of this statement

From 1989

  • “The United States entered the First World War not ‘ to make the world safe for democracy’, as President Wilson claimed, but to safeguard American economic interests.”
  • Assess the validity of this statement.

The end

Washington Disarmament Conference (1921-1922)

  • Long-standing Anglo-Japanese alliance (1902) obligated Britain to aid Japan in the event of a Japanese war with the United States.
  • Goals  naval disarmament and the political situation in the Far East.

Five-Power Treaty (1922)

  • A battleship ratio was achieved through this ratio: US Britain Japan France Italy 5 5 3 1.67 1.67
  • Japan got a guarantee that the US and Britain would stop fortifying their Far East territories [including the Philippines].
  • Loophole  no restrictions on small warships

European Debts to the US

How and for what reasons did United States foreign policy change between 1920 to 1941?

Overall, the essay should focus on the change from isolationism to involvement & fighting in WWII

  • Overall, the essay should focus on the change from isolationism to involvement & fighting in WWII
  • Isolationism (Neutrality)
    • How
      • Rejecting the League of Nations
      • Washington Naval Conference & Kellogg Briand Pact
      • Appeasement with German and Japanese Expansion (American not even involved)
        • Let Japan violate the Open Door Policy, did nothing about the Rape of Nanking or the Panay incident,
        • Munich Pact: Rhineland, Austria, Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia, Poland
      • Neutrality Acts, Embargo,
      • Isolationist Republicans- Lodge, Taft, Self-Defense- Fortress of America, Monroe Doctrine, Ludlow Amendment, American First Committee,
    • Why
      • Great Depression, debt concerns, upset about WWI results-Nye Committee, Washingtonian Tradition,
  • Aiding the Allied Powers
    • How:
      • Cash and Carry principle, Destroyers for Base Deal, Lend-Lease Act, Arsenal of Democracy
    • Why
      • Success of Axis Powers, Fall of France, only Britain is left, Soviet Union invaded

Fighting with the Allied Powers

    • How
    • Why
      • Pearl Harbor, US attacked, Germany declares War on the US

To what extent was late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century United States expansionism a continuation of past United States expansion and to what extent was it a departure?

Manifest Destiny vs. Imperialism

  • Manifest Destiny vs. Imperialism
  • Economics
    • Fur trade, Agrarian Empire, the spread of plantation slavery in Texas, vs. global trade & oversea markets for American producers, China & Open Door Policy, Mahan and Naval interests
  • Fabricated Wars as a pretext for land grabs
    • Polk and Texan border-Mexican War vs. yellow journalism and Maine –SpAm
    • Foment Rebellions
      • Texas and Hawaiian Revolutions and Annexations
      • Adams Onis Treaty vs. Panama Canal
    • Purchases: Louisiana, Gadsden, Alaska
  • Protest
    • Stop the spread of slavery (Spot Resolution, Wilmot Proviso, Thoreau, Free Soil Party) vs. Anti-Imperialist League, Teller Amendment


  • Racism
    • Native Americans vs. Island people
  • Religion
    • Manifest Destiny vs. modern science & racial superiority, social Darwinism
  • Geography
    • Continental North America vs. islands
  • Citizenship Rights
    • Texas, Oregon, Mexican Cessation incorporated vs. island territories or protectorates, not full citizenship rights, slow to let Hawaii and Alaska to join US, 1950’s, insular cases, colonized land vs. subjugated island peoples
    • Involvement in world affairs
      • Washington & Isolationism, Monroe Doctrine as protection, vs. intervention with Roosevelt Corollary, Russo Japanese Portsmouth Treaty, China & Open Door Policy,

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