Leadership research has tried to answer: What is an effective leader?
Early Leadership Theories
Trait Theories (1920s-30s)
Research focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders from nonleaders was unsuccessful.
Later research on the leadership process identified seven traits associated with successful leadership:
Drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, and extraversion.
Exhibit 17–1 Seven Traits Associated with Leadership
Source: S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke, “Leadership: Do Traits Really Matter?” Academy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48–60; T. A. Judge, J. E. Bono, R. llies, and M. W. Gerhardt, “Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review,” Journal of Applied Psychology, August 2002, pp. 765–780.
Exhibit 17–2 Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Exhibit 17–2 (cont’d) Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence.
A certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations.
Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.
Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.
Contingency Theories… (cont’d)
The Fiedler Model (cont’d)
Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire
Determines leadership style by measuring responses to 18 pairs of contrasting adjectives.
High score: a relationship-oriented leadership style
Low score: a task-oriented leadership style
Situational factors in matching leader to the situation:
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)
Posits four stages follower readiness:
R1: followers are unable and unwilling
R2: followers are unable but willing
R3: followers are able but unwilling
R4: followers are able and willing
Contingency Theories… (cont’d)
Leader Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton)
Posits that leader behavior must be adjusted to reflect the task structure—whether it is routine, nonroutine, or in between—based on a sequential set of rules (contingencies) for determining the form and amount of follower participation in decision making in a given situation.
The power of a leader that arise because of a person’s desirable resources or admired personal traits.
Developing Credibility and Trust
Credibility (of a Leader)
The assessment of a leader’s honesty, competence, and ability to inspire by his or her followers
Is the belief of followers and others in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader.
Dimensions of trust: integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and openness.
Is related to increases in job performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, job satisfaction, and organization commitment.
Exhibit 17–9 Suggestions for Building Trust
Speak your feelings.
Tell the truth.
Fulfill your promises.
Providing Ethical Leadership
Ethics are part of leadership when leaders attempt to:
Foster moral virtue through changes in attitudes and behaviors.
Use their charisma in socially constructive ways.
Promote ethical behavior by exhibiting their personal traits of honesty and integrity.
Involves addressing the means that a leader uses to achieve goals as well as the moral content of those goals.
Involves increasing the decision-making discretion of workers such that teams can make key operating decisions in develop budgets, scheduling workloads, controlling inventories, and solving quality problems.
Why empower employees?
Quicker responses problems and faster decisions.
Addresses the problem of increased spans of control in relieving managers to work on other problems.
Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees.
Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak.
Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently.
Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass, not energize, those individuals.
Effective leaders in Malaysia are expected to show compassion while using more of an autocratic than a participative style.
Effective German leaders are characterized by high performance orientation, low compassion, low self-protection, low team orientation, high autonomy, and high participation.
Source: Based on J. C. Kennedy, “Leadership in Malaysia: Traditional Values, International Outlook,” Academy of Management Executive, August 2002, pp. 15–17; F.C. Brodbeck, M. Frese, and M. Javidan, “Leadership Made in Germany: Low on Compassion, High on Performance,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, pp. 16–29; M. F. Peterson and J. G. Hunt, “International Perspectives on International Leadership,” Leadership Quarterly, Fall 1997, pp. 203–31; R. J. House and R. N. Aditya, “The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?” Journal of Management, vol. 23, no. 3, (1997), p. 463; and R. J. House, “Leadership in the Twenty-First Century,” in A. Howard (ed.), The Changing Nature of Work (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995), p. 442.
Gender Differences and Leadership
Males and females use different styles:
Women tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style unless in a male-dominated job.
Women tend to use transformational leadership.
Men tend to use transactional leadership.
Exhibit 17–11 Where Female Managers Do Better: A Scorecard
Source:R. Sharpe, “As Leaders, Women Rule,” BusinessWeek, November 20. 2000, p. 75.
Basics of Leadership
Give people a reason to come to work.
Be loyal to the organization’s people
Spend time with people who do the real work of the organization.
Be more open and more candid about what business practices are acceptable and proper and how the unacceptable ones should be fixed.
Leadership Can Be Irrelevant!
Substitutes for Leadership
Experience, training, professional orientation, or the need for independence
Routine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobs
Explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, or cohesive work groups