Labour Laws Introduction



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Labour Laws


Introduction:
This course will attempt to synthesize a case-law based understanding of the operation and functioning of industrial labour laws in Pakistan with a critical appraisal of the social forces that are organized by such. The processes of industrial development here and elsewhere have led to forms of reorganization as a response to the inherent instability engendered by the creation of new and opposing social classes. This reorganization has often been accomplished through legal interventions by the state to either regulate the conditions of work at industrial production sites, or, more importantly perhaps, through a facilitation of employer and employee bargaining over the terms and conditions of work itself.

Evaluation:



  1. Class Participation: 10%

  2. Quizzes: 10%

  3. Presentation 20%

  4. Essay 20%

  5. Final Exam 40%



  1. In addition to regular attendance and participation, each student will be responsible for preparing a summary and leading discussion around one theme or class.

  2. There will be two surprise quizzes worth 5% each of your mark.

  3. The presentation evaluation will be based on your performance in structured exercises to take place over the last four classes of the term.

  4. A 12-15 page research paper on an topic that touches on labour laws or labour relations in Pakistan.


Class 1 & 2

Work and Labour


  1. Hannah Arendt Chapter III “Labour” The Human Condition pp. 79-135

  2. Paul Thompson Chapter III “Braverman and the Rediscovery of the Labour Process” in The Nature of Work pp. 65-88

  3. Maria Mies “Housewifization International: Women and the New International Division of Labour” Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale pp. 112-144

  4. Sarosh Kuruvilla “Linkages between Industrialization Strategies and Industrial Relations/Human Resouce Polices: Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and India” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 49, No. 4 (July 1996) pp. 635-657


Class 3 & 4
Individual Employment Contract:

  • pp. 103-123 in The Law of Labour.

  • Hugh Collins, K. D. Ewing, Aileen McColgan Labour Law: Text and Materials pp. 69-77


Cases:

  1. Minister of Social Security v. Ready mixed Concrete (South East) Ltd. And Another [1968] 2 QB 497

  2. Express v. Implied Terms: O’Grady v. M. Saper, Ltd. [1940] 2 KB 469

  3. Armstrong Whitworth Rolls Ltd v Mustard [1971] 1 All ER 598

  4. Bliss v. South East Thames: [1985] IRLR 308,Unilateral change of contractual terms



Class 5 & 6
Rights and Duties
Employer

  1. [1992] 1 QB 333 Johnstone v. Bloomsbury

  2. [1999] ICR 291William Hill v. Tucker



Employee:

  1. [1987] 1 Ch 117 Facenda Chicken Ltd. V. Fowler and others (Confidential information)


Industrial Relations Ordiance 2002 – Rights and Duties of Workers and Employers
Constitutional Protection:
2006 PLC 237 Nazir Ahmed v. Govt. of Punjab

Class 7 & 8
Termination:


  • Roger W. Rideout, “Termination of the Contract of Employment” in Principles of Labour Law pp. 104-126


Cases:

  1. [1999] IRLR 288 Neary v. Dean of Westminster

  2. [1974] ICR 428 Wilson v. Racher

  3. 1998 PLC (C.S.) Liaqat Ali Channa and others v. Federation of Pakistan

  4. 1985 SCMR 1649 Capt Dr. Nabi Ahmad v. The Ministry of Defence PLD 1988 Karachi 489 National Bank of Pakistan v. Ghulam Muhammad Sagarwala (remedies available wrongul termination)

  5. 1999 PLC 273 Fauji Fertilizer Company Ltd. V. Lt. Col. Muhammad Abbas Malik


Class 9 & 10
Employment Relations in Pakistan:
Daily/ Casual Workers:

  1. PLD 1965 Dacca 364 Mumtaz Khan v. Sh. Akbar Ali

  2. . 1997 PLC 446 United Bank Limited v. Sindh Labor Appellate Tribunal



S. 12 Termination/ S. 15 Punishments:

  1. 1992 SCMR 505 Abdul Razzaq v. Messrs Ihsan Sons Ltd.

  2. 1972 PLC 298 *

  3. 1994 PLC 729 Gulas Khan v. M/S. Caltex Oil (Pakistan)*

  4. 2002 PLC 25 Fauji Fertilizer v. Punjab

  5. 2006 PLC 39 Allied Bank of Pakistan v. Muhammad Bashir Khan

  6. 1992 PLC 920 Pearl Continental Hotel, Peshawar v. Mukhtar Salim


Establishment Classification:

2004 PLC 1 Nazir Ahmed v. Muslim Commerical Bank
S.O. 3,7,8:

Overtime, Leave, Payment of Wages

-2002 PLC 1 Granulars (Pvt.) Ltd. V. Muhammad Afzal


S.O. 14:

Rights of Retrenched workers: 1990 PLC 428 Muhammad Khan v. Agricultural Engieer, Agricultural Engineering, Larkana


Class 11 & 12


  1. A.N. Agarwala The Social Security Movement in India Economic Journal

  2. E.P. Thompson “Standards and Experiences” The Making of the English Working Class pp. 314-349

  3. Karl Marx The Working Day Capital Vol. 1 Part III

  4. Nikki R. Keddie “Labour Problems of Pakistan” The Journal of Asian Studies 1957


Class 13
Pakistan Labour Force Survey 2003-2004 pp. ii-x, 1-36

Further readings to be assigned *




Class 14 & 15

Workers Compensation /Social Security
Employers Liability:


  1. 1952 PLJ 84 Chaudhri Muhammad Iqbal v. Mst. Sardar Begum:

  2. PLD 1970 Karachi 584 Messrs Datsun Service Station Karachi v. Abdul Azzi: :

  3. 976 PLC 502 Lyallpur Cotton Mills v. Lal Din:

  4. 1976 PLC 218 Trustees of Port of Karachi v. Mst. Hanifa

  5. 1973 PLC 341 Drgum Jalal Din v. Batala Engineering..


Workers Comp and Fatal Accidents:


  1. 1981 SCMR 608 Mst. Bashiran and 4 Others

  2. 2001 PLC 59 Mst. Nasreen Akhtar v. Messrs Khair Din


WC and Social Security:


  1. 1992 PLC 348 Safura Textile Mills Ltd. V. Naik Mohd.

  2. 1997 PLC 729 Sacred Heart v. Director, Social Security and others


WC and Group Insurance under Standing Orders:


  1. 1984 PLC 870 Divisional Superintendent, Pakistan Railways v. Imamuddin


Calculation of Wages:


  1. 1993 PLC 691 [Supreme Court of Pakistan] National Embroidery Mills Ltd. And others v. Punjab Employed Social Security


Class 16 & 17
Labour Movements and Industrial Relations


  1. Combination Acts 1799/1800

  2. O. Kahn Freund The Illegality of a Trade Union The Modern Law Review, Vol. 7, No. 4 (Nov. 1944) pp. 192-205

  3. Bob Simpson “The Changing Face of British Collective Labour Law” Oxford Journal Of Legal Studies December 2001

  4. Badiuddin A. Khan Structure of Industrial Relations in Pakistan pp. 90-107 -- photocopy



Class 18

Freedom of Association I: The Right to Unionize




      • ILO Convention 87

      • IRO s. 3

      • P L D 1997 Supreme Court 781 Civil Aviation Authority v. Union of Civil Aviation Employees.

      • 2006 PLC 186 K.E.S.C Labour Union v. Federation of Pakistan

      • ILO Report No. 323, Case(s) No(s). 2006 – Complaint Against Federation of Pakistan

Class 19 & 20
Collective Bargaining Framework:
Collins, pp. 723-29
Coverage and Exemptions:
1974 PLC 98

1989 PLC 969

1981 P L C 403
Trade Unions and Collective Bargaining Units under the IRO:

  1. Registration:

  1. 1990 PLC 351 Messers Khas Traders v. Registrar Trade Unions and Another

  2. 1998 PLC 39 Sher Field Officers Association et al v. State Life Insurance Corporation

  3. 1971 PLD 220 (ER trade union)

  4. 1989 PLC 969 Workers Front, Habib Bank Ltd. V. Registrar of Trade Unions, Multan

  5. 1981 PLC 154 Employees Union v. State Bank of India.


Role and limitations in bargaining

  1. 1989 PLC 576 Pakistan Burmah Shell Ltd. V. Wazir Ahmad and 17 others (company quarters)

  2. 1986 PLC 540 Ali Muhammad v. Chief Mining Engineer

  3. 1984 PLD 503 Karachi Pipe Mills v. Sindh Labour Appellate Tribunal and 2 others.

1982 P L C 817*
Class 21 & 22
Unfair Labour Practices I

Collins, pp. 729-752



PLJ 12 Tr. C. HofL.(rights to engage in activities on ER premises, office hours, etc.)
Employer: IRO S. 15


  1. PLD 1976 Lahore 170 Mohd. Khalid Saigol and Another v. Chairman NIRC

  2. PLD 1978 Karachi 109 Pakistan Burmah Shell Ltd. Karachi and Three others v. Sindh Labour Court No. 4, Karachi.

  3. 1984 PLC 259 Javed Akhtar and 11 Others v. Daily Jang Lahore

  4. 2006 PLC 404 Mazdoor Union Faran Sugar Mills v. Faran Sugar Mills Ltd.

  5. 2005 PLC 268 Mohd. Ajmal Khan and Another v. Allied Bank of Pakistan through EVP.

  6. 2006 PLC 217 Mazdoor Union Neelum Glass Industries Ltd. v. Neelum Glass Industries

  7. 1984 PLC 115 Lever Bros. Pakistan Ltd. v. Muhammad Suleiman and Others


Class 23
Sheldon Leader Freedom of Association; A Study in Labor Law and Political Theory pp. 80-110

Unfair Labour Practices II
 The Right not to Join a Union
Sheldon Leader Chapter

Religious Objections
Employee:

  1. PLD 1977 Karachi 145 Hoot Khan v. National Industrial Relations Commission, Islamabad

  2. 1978 PLC 328 Adamjee Paper and Board Mills Ltd. Nowhera v. Sher Mohammad

  3. 1982 PLC 1084 Rana Mohammad Akram v. Syed Tahir Abbas and Others

  4. 1995 PLC 219 Mohd. Altaf Technician v. Khalid Jamil and Another

  5. 1974 PLC 46 Idrees Fatima and Four Others v. Israr and another


Class 24 &25
Dispute


  • Collins, pp. 904-915

Notice and Procedure:




  1. 2006 PLC 269 Pearl Continental Hotel, Karachi v. Muhammad Yasin

  2. 1993 PLC 1030 Mehran Sugar Mills Mazdoor Union v. Mehran Sugar Mills Ltd.

  3. 1994 PLC 62 C. Itoh and Company Ltd. Employees, Union Karachi v. M/S. Itoh Company Ltd.

  4. 1967 PLD 179 The Colony Textile Mills Ltd. v. The Assistant Director, Labour Welfare (Conciliation) Lahore Region, Lahore

  5. 1985 PLC 884 Pakistan Tobacco Company Ltd. v. Full Bench of the NIRC Islamabad and Three Others

Settlements and Disputes:



  1. PLD 1970 122 Messers the Attock Oil Company Ltd. v. The Supreme Body of Oil Fields Leak and Refinery Union

  2. 1976 PLC 533 Tribunal Capital Industries Ltd. v. Trade Union

  3. 1994 PLC 119: Mitsui Employees Union, Karachi v. Mitsui and Co. Ltd. Karachi


Class 26
Industrial Action:
Collins pp. 915-928

Strike:


  1. 1972 P L C 190 Pakistan Tobacco v. Chairman, Second Labour Court and Others

  2. GO-Slow: 1977 PLC 584 Messers Hayat Industries Ltd. v. The Fourth Sindh Labour Court and two others.

  3. Sympathetic Strike: 1974 PLC 213 Adamjee Cotton Mills Karachi v. Sindh Employees Social Security Institutions.

  4. Illegal strike: 1989 PLC 519 Messers Crescent Garment Industries Ltd. v. Workers Union and Another

  5. 1973 PLC 376 Star Textile Mills Ltd. V. Third Sindh Labour Court s. 46-A added by Ammendment t Act XXIX 1973


Lock-out:
1973 PLC 45 Muhammad Yusuf v. Masses Pak Industries Ltd.

1973 PLC 104 Messers Café Millat v. Karachi Hotel Workers Union

1972 PLC 220 Workers Union v. Indus Chemicals and Alkalis Ltd.


Unfair Labour Practice during a Strike
1984 P L C 538 Zaheeruddin Ansari v. Mashoodul Hassan

1973 P L C 396 Abdul Qadir v. Syed Nazir Ali and Two Others





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