† = poetic or archaic word (e.g. †él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word (e.g. russë "corruscation, †swordblade"), * = unattested form, ** = wrong form, # = word that is only attested in a compound or as an inflected form (e.g. #ahya-). Brackets indicate forms struck out by Tolkien. Abbreviations: LotR = The Lord of the Rings, Silm = The Silmarillion , MC = The Monsters and the Critics and other Essays, MR = Morgoth's Ring, LR = The Lost Road, Etym = The Etymologies (in LR:347-400), FS = Fíriel's Song (in LR:72), RGEO = The Road Goes Ever On (Second Edition), WJ = The War of the Jewels, PM = The Peoples of Middle-earth, Letters = The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, LT1 = The Book of Lost Tales 1, LT2 = The Book of Lost Tales 2, Nam = Namárië (in LotR:398), CO = Cirion's Oath and its commentary in UT:305, 317, EO = Elendil's Oath in LotR:1003, 1004; Arct = "Arctic" sentence (in The Father Christmas Letters), Markirya = the Markirya Poem and its commentary in MC:221-223; GL = Gnomish Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #11), QL = Qenya Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #12), PE = Parma Eldalamberon, VT = Vinyar Tengwar (PE and VT being journals publishing Tolkien material edited by C. Gilson, C.F. Hostetter, A.R. Smith, W. Welden and P. Wynne; please refer to the individual journals here referenced to determine which editors are involved in any given case), vb = verb, adj = adjective, interj = interjection, pa.t. = past tense, fut = future tense, perf = perfect tense, freq = frequentative form, inf = infinitive, gen = genitive, pl = plural form, sg = singular form. The spelling used in this wordlist is regularized (c for k except in a few names, x for ks, long vowels marked with accents rather than macrons or circumflexes; the diaeresis is used as in most of LotR). The spelling used in the source is usually indicated; for instance, ("k") following a word indicates that the word is spelt with a k instead of a c in Tolkien's text. When s in a word represents earlier Þ (th as in "thing") and it should be spelt with the letter súlë instead of silmë in Tengwar writing (though Tolkien himself sometimes ignored or forgot this), this is indicated by (Þ) immediately following the word in question (see for instance asëa aranion). When n in a word represents earlier ñ (ng as in "thing") and should be spelt with the letter noldo rather than númen in Tengwar writing, this is indicated by (ñ) immediately following the word in question (see for instance Noldomar). When the word is actually spelt with ñ instead of noun in the source, this is indicated by ("ñ") immediately following the word in question (see for instance nandë #2).
Wordlist last updated March 1, 2006
a (1) vocative particle "O" in a vanimar "O beautiful ones" (LotR3:VI ch. 6, translated in Letters:308); also attested repeatedly in VT44:12 (cf. 15): A Hrísto *"o Christ", A Eruion *"o God the son/son of God", a Aina Fairë *"o Holy Spirit", a aina Maria *"o holy Mary".
a (2) conj. "and", a variant of ar occurring in Fíriel's Song (that also has ar; a seems to be used before words in f-, but it is not known whether this idea is valid in LotR-style Quenya)
a (3), also á, imperative particle: a laita, laita te! "[o] bless them, bless them!", á vala Manwë! "may Manwë order it!", literally *"o rule Manwë!" (see laita, vala for reference); cf. also á tula *"come!" (VT43:14). Alyë (VT43:17, VT44:9) seems to be the imperative particle a with the pronominal suffix -lyë "you, thou" suffixed to indicate the subject who is to carry out the command; attested in the phrase alyë anta *"give thou" (elided aly' in VT43:11, since the next word begins in e-: aly' eterúna me, *"do thou deliver us"). The particle a is also present in the negative imperatives ala, #ála or áva, q.v.
a- (1) prefix occurring in the word Atalante, said to denote "complete". Probably just a prefixed stemvowel; cf. a root like ANÁR, said to be derived from NAR. (TALÁT)
a- (2) a prefix occurring in the Markirya poem (Tolkien first used na-, then changed it). It may be prefixed to verbal stems following a noun that is the object of sense-verbs like "see" and "hear" when the verb it is prefixed to describes what happens to this noun, as in man cenuva lumbor ahosta[?] (changed from na-hosta), "who shall see the clouds gather?" (hosta = "gather").
acca ("k") adv. "too" (= excessively, as in "too big") (PE13:108)
Acairis ("k") fem. name, "bride" (LT1:252; in Tolkien's later Quenya, "bride" is rather indis)
acúna ("k") see cúna
Ae (Quenya?) noun "day" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK - ae was written over ar [# 2] in the names of the Valinorean week, but ar was not struck out.)
aha noun "rage", also name of tengwa #11, earlier called harma (Appendix E)
ahosta see hosta
#ahya- vb. "change", only attested in the past tense: ahyanë (PM:395)
ai! interjection "Ah!", "Alas!" (Nam, RGEO:66; also twice in Narqelion, untranslated.) In one (abandoned) version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer, Tolkien may seem to use ai as a vocative particle: ai Ataremma ?"o our Father" (VT43:10, 13)
aia interjection "hail", variant of aiya (VT43:28)
aica (1) ("k") adj. "sharp" (AYAK) or "fell, terrible, dire" (PM:347; according to PM:363 seldom applied to evil things). In Aicanáro, q.v.
aica (2) ("k") adj. "broad, vast" (LT2:338 - this early "Qenya" form is probably obsoleted by # 1 above)
aicalë ("k") noun "a peak" (AYAK)
Aicanáro ("k") masc. name "Sharp Flame, Fell Fire"; Sindarized as Aegnor. (So in SA:nár and PM:345; MR:323 has Aicanár. VT41:14, 19 instead gives Ecyanáro as the Q form of Aegnor.)
aicassë ("k") (1) noun "mountain peak" (AYAK)
aicassë ("k") (2) noun "pinetree" (GL:17; this "Qenya" word is evidently obsoleted by #1 above.)
ailin ("g.sg. ailinen", in Tolkien's later Quenya dat.sg.) "pool, lake" (AY, LIN1, LT2:339)
#ailinë (nominative uncertain) noun "shore, beach" (in Tolkien's later Quenya rather hresta). Only attested in inflected forms: sg. ablative ailinello "shore-from" (MC:213), sg. locative ailinisse "on shore" (MC:221), pl. locative ailissen "on beaches" (for *ailinissen?) (MC:221)
ailo noun "lake, pool" (LT2:339; Tolkien's later Quenya has ailin)
aimenal, aimenel - see lirulin
aina adj "holy" (AYAN), derived from Ainu. Adopted and adapted from Valarin. According to VT43:32, the word is "obsolete, except in Ainur", apparently suggesting that airë or airëa (q.v.) were the normal term for "holy" in later Quenya. However, Tolkien repeatedly used aina in his translation of the Litany of Loreto: Aina Fairë "Holy Spirit", Aina Neldië "Holy Trinity", Aina Maria "Holy Mary", Aina Wendë "Holy Virgin". He also used Aina Eruontari for "holy Mother" in his rendering of the Sub Tuum Praesidium (WJ:399, FS, SA, VT43:32, VT44:5, 12, 17-18)
Aini noun feminine form of Ainu (AYAN, LT1:248); see Ainu.
Aino noun "god", within Tolkien's mythos a synonym of Ainu (but since Aino is basically only a personalized form of aina "holy", hence "holy one", it could be adapted as a general word for "god") (PE15:72)
Ainu noun "holy one, angelic spirit"; fem. Aini (AYAN, LT1:248); "one of the 'order' of the Valar and Maiar, made before Eä"; pl. Ainur is attested. Adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399). In the early "Qenya Lexicon", ainu was glossed "a pagan god", and aini was similarly "a pagan goddess", but as Christopher Tolkien notes, "Of course no one within the context of the mythology can call the Ainur 'pagan' " (LT1:248). Ainulindalë noun "Music of the Ainur" (SA:lin #2), the First History (WJ:406), the Song of Creation (AYAN)
aipio noun "plum tree, cherry tree" (GL:18)
aiqua ("q") adj. "steep" (AYAK)
aiqualin ("q") adj. "tall", plural form (???) (MC:216; this is "Qenya" - but cf. aiqua above.)
aiquen pron. "if anybody, whoever" (WJ:372)
aira (1) adj. "red, copper-coloured, ruddy" (GAY)
aira (2) adj. "holy"; see airë.
aira (3) adj. "old" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")
[aira (4) adj. "eternal" (EY, VT45:13)]
airë (1) adj. "holy", #Airefëa "the Holy Spirit" (VT43:37, dative airefëan on the previous page), airetári or Airë Tári "holy queen" (a title of Varda, PM:363), genitive aire-tário "holy-queen's" (Nam, RGEO:67 - but according to PM:363, airë is the noun "sanctity", while aira is the adjective "holy"; VT43:14 refers to an etymological note of "Sept.-Oct. 1957" where airë is said to be a noun "sanctity, holiness", and the adjective "holy" is given as airëa.
airë (2) noun "sea" (the form airen is given, intended as a genitive singular when Tolkien wrote this; in LotR-style Quenya it would rather be a dative sg.) (AYAR/AIR)
[airë (3) noun "eternity" (EY, VT45:13)]
airëa adj. "holy"; see airë.
#airita- vb. "hallow" (only pa.t. airitánë is attested) (VT32:7)
aista (1) adj. "holy" (VT43:37)
#aista- (2) vb. "to bless", verbal stem isolated from the passive participle aistana "blessed" (VT43:30)
aista- (3) vb. "to dread" (GÁYAS, VT45:14; possibly obsoleted by #2 above)
aiwë noun "(small) bird" (AIWÊ, SA:lin #1); Aiwendil "Lover of Birds" (UT:401)
Aiwenor, Aiwenorë (read *Aiwenórë?) place-name "Birdland" = lower air (AIWÊ)
aiya interjection "hail", as greeting (LotR2:IV ch. 9, see Letters:385 for translation). Variant aia (VT43:28)
'al- vb. "thrive" (GALA; the ' simply indicates that the original initial G has disappeared and needs not normally be included.) Compare #alála-.
ala, #ála (1) imperative particle á, a combined with the negation lá, -la "not" to express a prohibition (VT43:22; see lá #1). Also with 1st person suffix -lyë (alalyë and álalyë, VT43:10, 22, VT44:8) and 1st person pl. object suffix -më (alamë and álamë, "do not [do something to] us", as in álamë tulya, "do not lead us", VT43:12, 22). In the essay Quendi and Eldar, negative imperatives are rather indicated by áva, q.v., but this form can well coexist with ala, #ála.
ala- (2) negative prefix "not", "un-", reduced to al- before a vowel (VT42:33, GALA, VT45:25), though the example Alcorin would suggest that al- can sometimes appear before a consonant as well. In a deleted entry in Etym, al(a)- was defined as "not" and said to be a "pure negative" (VT45:5). In alahasta, Alamanyar, alasaila, Alcorin.
ala (3) prep. "after, beyond" (MC:221, 214; however, LotR-style Quenya has han and pella "beyond" and apa "after")
[ala (4) (also alar! or alla!) interjection "hail, blessed be (thou)". (VT45:5,14)]
[ala (5) noun "day", also alan "daytime". The forms allen, alanen listed after these words could be inflected forms of them: genitive "of day" and instrumental "by day"? However, Tolkien struck out all of this (VT45:13).]
alaco ("k") noun "rush, rushing flight, wild wind" (VT45:5 cf. ÁLAK)
alahasta noun "unmarred" (MR:254)
#alála- vb *"to continually grow" (VT27:20, 25), maybe the frequentative of a simpler verb al- or ala- "to grow". Cf. 'al- "thrive".
alalmë noun "elm, elm-tree" (ÁLAM, LÁLAM, LT1:249)
alalmino noun? "Elm"-something? (Narqelion)
#Alamanya pl. Alamanyar noun, name of the Elves who started on the march from Cuiviénen but did not reach Aman; = Úmanyar (MR:163)
álamë, see me
[alan, alanen – see ala #5]
[alar! (also ala and alla!) interjection "hail, blessed be (thou)". (VT45:5,14, 26)]
[Aláriel, masc. name = "Eadwine", friend of fortune (but this name is elsewhere rendered into Quenya as Herendil, q.v.) (VT45:26)]
alarca ("k") adj. "swift, rapid" (LAK2)
alasaila adj. "unwise" (VT41:13, 18; VT42:33)
alassë (1) noun "joy, merriment" (GALÁS) [VT42:32; a gloss "mirth" was deleted, VT45:14]
[alassë (2) interjection "hail" or "bless", evidently a synonym of the greeting alar!, q.v. (VT45:26)]
alas (alast-) noun "marble" (QL:30, GL:39).
alat- prefix "large, great in size". (ÁLAT, cf. VT45:5). In Alatairë.
Alatairë place-name "Great Sea", name of the Western Ocean between Beleriand and Valinor, called Belegaer in Sindarin (ÁLAT, AYAR/AIR)
alca ("k") noun "ray of light" (AKLA-R)
alcantaméren ("k") vb. "made it shine" (with a fem.pl. subject; the ending -ren probably means "they" of women, but the ending does not have to be translated here) (MC:216; this is "Qenya")
alcar (so spelt in CO, VT43:37-38, and VT44:32/34; otherwise "alkar") noun "glory, radiance, brilliance, splendour" (WJ:369, CO, VT43:37-38, VT47:13, AKLA-R; the latter source also lists an alternative longer form alcarë, also occurring in VT44:7/10)
Alcarin masc. name (or title) "the Glorious", title taken by Atanatar II of Gondor, also name of one of the Kings of Númenor (Appendix A). Is this to be taken as a shorter form of alcarinqua, q.v.?
alcarinqua adj. "radiant, glorious" (AKLA-R [there spelt "alkarinqa"], WJ:412, VT44:7/10); noun Alcarinquë, "The Glorious", name of a star/planet (SA:aglar - there spelt "Alkarinquë", but the Silmarillion Index has "Alcarinquë". The celestial body in question seems to be Jupiter, MR:435). Cf. also Alcarin, q.v.
alcarain ("k") adj.? "shining" (pl - sg *alcara?) (MC:221; this is "Qenya")
alcarissen ("k") noun "in light-rays" (a "Qenya" form from MC:221; alcar means "glory" in Tolkien's later Quenya)
Alcorin ("k") adj. variant of Ilcorin, q.v. (VT45:5, 25)
alda noun "tree" (GALAD, GÁLAD, SA, Nam, RGEO:66, LR:41, SD:302, LT1:249, LT2:340, VT39:7), also name of tengwa #28 (Appendix E). Pl. aldar in Narqelion; gen. pl. aldaron "of trees" in Namárië. Etymology of alda, see Letters:426 and UT:266-7. The latter source states that primitive *galadâ, whence Quenya alda, originally applied to stouter and more spreading trees such as oaks or beeches, while straighter and more slender trees such as birches were called *ornê, Quenya ornë - but this distinction was not always observed in Quenya, and it seems that alda became the general word. Place-name Aldalómë *"Tree-night" or *"Tree-twilight" (LotR2:III ch. 4); Aldarion masc. name, *"Son of (the) Trees" (Appendix A); Aldaron a name of Oromë (Silm); aldinga "tree-top" (VT47:28). Aldúya fourth day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Trees (Appendix D). The word seems to include *Aldu, a dual form referring to the Two Trees. The Númenóreans altered the name to Aldëa (presumably < *aldajâ), referring to one tree (the White) only. The dual Aldu seems to occur also in Aldudénië "Lament for the Two Trees" (a strange word, since Quenya does not permit intervocalic d as in this word - perhaps the Vanyarin dialect of Quenya did) (Silm)
Aldalemnar noun "week of the Trees, Midyear week" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK (GÁLAD, YEN) )
Aldaron noun, a name of Oromë (GÁLAD)
aldarwa adj "having trees, tree-grown" (3AR). See -arwa.
Aldëa noun, what the Númenóreans called the fourth day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to Telperion, the White Tree (Appendix D). The day was originally called Aldúya, referring to both of the Two Trees, but Númenóreans altered the name to Aldëa (presumably < *aldajâ), referring to one tree (the White) only. (Appendix D) –Early "Qenya" also has an adjective aldëa "tree-shadowed" (LT1:249).
aldëon noun "avenue of trees" (LT1:249)
aldinga noun "treetop" (VT47:28)
[alla! (also alar! or ala) interjection "hail, blessed be (thou)". (VT45:5, 14)]
[allen – see ala #5.]
alma noun "good fortune, weal, wealth". In a deleted entry in Etym, the glosses were "riches, (good) fortune, blessedness"; in another deleted entry, Tolkien provided the glosses "growth" and maybe "increase" (reading uncertain), also "good fortune, riches" (GALA [ALAM], VT45:5, 13, 14)
almarë noun "blessedness, 'blessings', good fortune, bliss". In deleted entries in Etym, the glosses provided were "blessedness, prosperity, bliss" (GALA, VT45:5, 14)
almárëa adj. "blessed". In a deleted entry in Etym, the gloss provided was "bless", but this would seem to be a mistake, since the word does not look like a verb. Another deleted entry agrees with the retained entry GALA that almárëa means "blessed" (GALA, VT45:5, 14)
Almaren place-name, the first abode of the Valar in Arda, apparently related to almarë "blessedness" (Silm, LR:357)
Almáriel fem. name, apparently containing almarë "blessedness" (GALA, VT45:5, 14)
almië noun "blessedness, 'blessings', good fortune, bliss". In a deleted entries in Etym, the glosses were "blessedness, prosperity, bliss" (GALA, VT45:5, 14)
alqua noun "swan" (ÁLAK [there spelt alqa, as in LT1:249/LT2:335], SA:alqua, UT:265, VT42:7). The alternative form alquë ("q") mentioned in early material (LT1:249) may or may not be valid in LotR-style Quenya.
Alqualondë place-name "Swan-road, Swan-haven", capital of the Teleri (ÁLAK, LOD, KHOP [there spelt Alqalonde], Silm).
Alquarámë ("q") noun "Swan-wing" (LT2:335)
alta (1) adj. *"large, great in size" (root meaning) (ÁLAT). Alat- in Alatairë, q.v.
alta (2) noun "radiance" (VT42:32 – the author of the article does not make it clear if this word is taken from unpublished material or merely isolated from the name Altariel; in the latter case its true Quenya form would be ñalta, according to PM:347)
[alta- (3) vb. "grow" (VT45:13) or "make grow" (VT45:14)]
Altariel fem. name "Galadriel", "maiden crowned with a radiant garland" (SA:kal; the form Alatáriel is Telerin; see PM:347)
alu noun "dressed leather" (QL:30)
[alwa adj. "healthy, strong, flourishing" (+ one gloss not certainly legible: ?"well grown") (VT45:14)]
alya adj. "prosperous, rich, abundant, blessed" (GALA). In a deleted entry in Etym, the glosses provided were "rich, blessed"; another deleted entry defined alya as "rich, prosperous, blessed". -GALA, [ÁLAM], (VT42:32, 45:5, 14)
alyë imperative particle with ending -lyë "you"; see a #3.
am- (prefix) "up" (AM2)
ama adv.? element not glossed, evidently meaning "up" like the prefix am- (UNU)
amaldar ??? (Narqelion; may include aldar "trees")
aman adj. "blessed, free from evil". Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399) Place-name Aman the Blessed Realm, from the stem mân- "good, blessed, unmarred" (SA:mân). Adj. amanya "of Aman, *Amanian" (WJ:411), nominal pl. Amanyar "those of Aman", Elves dwelling there (with negations Úamanyar, Alamanyar "those not of Aman"). Also fuller Amaneldi noun *"Aman-elves" (WJ:373). Masc. name Amandil *"Aman-friend" (Appendix A, SA:mân)
?amandi pl. of óman, q.v. (amandi is evidently a misreading for *omandi, VT46:7) (OM)
Amarië fem. name; perhaps derived from mára "good" with prefixing of the stem-vowel and the feminine ending -ië (Silm)
amarto noun "Fate" (also ambar) (LT2:348; in LotR-style Quenya rather umbar, umbart-)