Dilli Raman Regmi's Prachina Ra Madhyakalin Nepal (Ancient and Medieval Nepal), published from Kathmandu in Vikrama 2009, also mentions Mukunda Sen's invasion of Nepal Valley. Luciano Petech has described this book as ''a disappointing work in spite of the magnificent opportunities open to its author.'' Dilli Raman Regmi's account of Mukunda Sen's invasion is even more disappointing. Sylvain Levi has tried to connect the Khasa invasion of Nepal Valley from western Nepal with Mukunda Sen's invasion. He has also mentioned at one place that Aditya Malla had invaded Nepal Valley in 1384 Vikrama. influenced by Levi's account Dilli Raman Regmi has written that a certain Adit Mal known as Sen entered into Nepal Valley along with his army. In the same connection, he has also written that he was followed by Mukunda Sen of Palpa, thereby implying that these invasions occurred during the rule of Jayananda Deva, who succeeded Ananta Malla. According to Dilli Reman Regmi, Jayananda Deva ruled from 1364 to 1374 Vikrama, so that Mukunda Sen invaded Nepal Valley during this period. The Gopalaraja Vamshawali mentions that Aditya Malla invaded Nepal Valley in 1384 Vikrama, but Dilli Raman Regmi maintains that this is incorrect.
Samkshipta Nepala Itihasa (A concise history of Nepal, by Prem Bahadur Limbu and Bhupendra Nath Dhungel, was published from Kathmandu in Vikrama 2011. It mainly deals with the history of the Kiratis, and contains a reference to Mukunda Sen's invasion of Nepal Valley, albeit without mentioning the date. However, it is possible to ascertain the authors' opinion in this regard. Four of the Vamshawalis that we have mentioned above state that Mukunda Sen invaded Kathmandu Valley during the time of Ramasimha Deva, whereas Wright's Vamshawali states that he did so during the time of Harideva. Prem Bahadur Limbu and Bhupendra Nath Dhungel have followed Wright in recording that Mukunda Sen invaded Nepal Valley during the time of Harideva. As such, it is clear that they have taken their account of the invasion from Wright's Vamshawali. According to Wright, Mukunda Sen invaded Nepal Valley after 1165 Vikrama, that is, the latter half of the twelvth century Vikrama, as we have already noted previously. This means that Prem Bahadur Limbu and Bhupendra Nath Dhungel, who have based their account of Mukunda Sen's invasion of Nepal Valley on Wright's Vamshawali, believe, as mentioned in that Vamshawali, that the invasion took place during the latter half of the twelvth century Vikrama.
(To be Continued)
Hulak Arrangements, A.D. 1825-26
During A.D. 1825-26, the hulak system was reorganized in many parts of the hill region. Documents containing the names of the hulak porters, and the area of rice-lands allotted to each, are summarized below: (Particulars indicating the name of each plot have been omitted).
''The following households shall remain in constant attendance at the …hulak post all the 24 hours of the day and transport mail dispatched from here, or received from the east (or west) without a moment's delay.
''The hulaki porters mentioned in the royal order shall be entitled to the following concessions and facilities:-
(1) The Amali shall not evict them from their lands and homesteads, or collect any payments (dai-dastur) from them.
(2) Each hulaki household shall cultivate the rice-lands allotted to it on adhiya tenure. Neither the Amali nor the landlord (talsing) shall reallot such lands to other persons.
(3) Hulai porters have been granted exemption from unpaid labor (jhara, beth, begar) obligations, as well as from Serma, Saunefagu, and other miscellaneous payments (udhauni, padhauni).
(4) They shall pay rents to their landlords on kutor or adhiya basis, as the case may be, as well as the ghiukhane and chardam-theki levies at current rates. In addition, they shall provide loans as asked for by their landlords.
(5) Hulaki porters shall not transport goods other than official mail. They shall be severely punished if they make any delay, or cause any obstruction, in the transportation of mail.''
1. Dabdabe Village, Nuwakot District
Name of Hulaki Rice-land Allotment
Prithvidhar Padhya 100
Harilala Padhya 96
Brahma Padhya 100
Gokul Padhya 100
Raghu Padhya 105
Bhagawanta Padhya 100
Shivanaran Padhya 100
Yame Padhya 100
Jayananda Bhusal 100
Gangaram Adhikari 100
Raghu Pangali 100
Deonaran Bhusal 100
Paramananda Padhya 95
Icchharam Bhusal 100
Sriram Tewari 100
Ramachandra Padhya 102
Latu Padhya 100
Raghu Padhya 100
Bhatu Padhya 90
Kalu Padhya (1) 100
Kalu Padhya (2) 100
Bhagirath Guragain 100
Kartik Sudi 13, 1882
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 1-4.
Name of Hulaki Rice-land Allotment
Tikaram Balsudi 102
Dataram Kandyal 100
Makare Poudyal 87
Ravi Tewari 100
Ramananda Tewari 100
Hira Kandyal 90
Pratiman Banstola 100
Anirudra Tewari 100
Gajadhar Padhya 100
Bhaskar Tewari 80
Ranasur Rana (replacing
Ratan Tewari) 100
Nandaram Adhikari 100
Naran Padhya 85
Kusmakhar Bhandari 62
Makaranda Adhikari 90
Srikrishna Adhikari 100
Prahlad Rana 100
Birabhadra Nara 100
Dubal Khanal 95
Srikrishna Khanal 90
Dasharath Rana 100
Kartik Sudi 13, 1882
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 4-7.
3. Sarangkot Village (Hulak Post: Pokhara)
Name of Hulaki Rice-land Allotment
Srikrishna Padhya 100
Prem Narayan Baral 100
Jayamangal Parajuli 100
Prem Narayan Parajuli 95
Ramadatta Parajuli 80
Birbhadra Banstola 80
Shivanaran Bhattarai 80
Bamu Padhya Poudyal 100
Lata Jaisi 80
Harimadhav Padhya 80
Ramabhadra Padhya Baral 100
Mangal Padhya Baral 100
Sharmananda Koirala 100
Ramadatta Padhya 80
Dhure Padhya Parajuli 80
Ramadatta Baral 80
Srikirshna Koirala 100
Raghuram Koirala 100
Binaya Padhya Parajuli 80
Radha Pahari 80
Ramabhadra Baral 80
Hasu Padhya 100
Bhakta Padhya Sindyal 80
Mangala Koirala 83
Kartik Sudi 13, 1882
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, pp. 7-10.
(To be continued)
Remission of Jhara Obligations
The Bhandarkhal and Dangbari gardens in Kathmandu had been placed under the authority of Ranbir Khawas. Thirty-nine local households had been assigned to work in those gardens. Other unpaid labor (jhara, beth, begar) obligations of these households, as well as the Sibhadel, Dhalpa, and Sahanapiwal leives, were remitted.
Marga Badi 3, 1869
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 159.
Royal order to nine Kasai families of Deopatan, whose services had been assigned to the temple of Sri Guhyeshwari:-
''We hereby exempt your from all unpaid labor (jhara, beth, begar) obligations and miscellaneous payments (unpaid, padhauni) as long as you remain in attendance at the temple of Sri Guhyeshwari.
Bhadra Sudi 13, 1870
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 346-47.
Royal order to Dhanavanta of Tokha:
''From former times, ten households, employed to prepare crushed rice (bhi-beji) had been granted exemption from the saunefagu, ghargani, and other payments (udhauni, padhauni), as well as from unpaid labor obligations (jhara, beth, begar). We hereby reconfirm these exemptions and issues this new royal order because the original one has been lost. Transmit the proceeds of judicical fines and escheats to us through the Dware of the royal palace. Supply crushed rice to the royal palace every day as usual.''
These ten households belonged to Kirti Singh, Shivanaran, Dhinaran, Bhupadar Singh, Aithi Singh, Bhaisngh, Sithi, Marsi, Pam Singha, and Pudhi Singh.
Baisak Badi 10, 1874
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 651-62.
Royal order to Jangabir Pande:
We hereby exempt (the inhabitants of) Koradtar Village which has been assigned to you as khuwaa, in the Gokarna area from unpaid labor (jhara, beth, begar) obligations and appoint them as ghansis for the supply of grass to the royal stables.
Baisakh Sudi 9, 1867
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 157.
Patan King Ran Bahadur Shah had enrolled 26 househoulds in the following villages for the study of the firewook to the Dilasal-Baithak (?) and granted them exemption from unpaid labor obligations, saunefagu, ghargani, and other miscellaneous payments (udhauni, padhauni). These arrangements were reconfirmed by royal order on Baisakh Sudi 5, 1867 (April 1810). The names of the villages, and the number of households enrolled for the supply of firewood in each, are as follows:-
Village No. of households
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 177.
On Kartik Sudi 8, 1869 (October 1812), the inhabitants of Techo Villages in Patan were granted similar concessions in consideration of the supply of one dharni of charcoal daily from each household to the Kathmandu Munitions Factory.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 136.
Seven households in tenants cultivating the Phikdar-Birta lands of Daroga Vamshamani at Sainbutar in Patan were granted exemption from jhara obligations on Magh Sudi 3, 1867 (January 1811) because their services were required for the transportation of bedding during royal tours and hunting expeditions.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 38, p. 741.
Royal order to twelve households employedto look after the water-sout, water-channels, and gardens of the temple of Sri Suryavinayaka in Bhadgaun:
''From former times, you have been enjoying exemption from forced labor (jhara, beth, begar) obligations and miscellaneous payments (udhauni, padhauni). In the future, pay the saunefagu tax at half the normal rate. Unpaid labor obligations, chicken, oil during the Indrajatra festival, the Lamapathi levy, and other miscellaneous payments have been remitted. Maintain the water-spout, water-channels, and gardens, property. You shall be punished if these are damaged.
These twelve households belonged to Jayanaran at Kwachhe Tol, Bhim Singh and Kwachhe Ram at Tochapal Tol, Shiva Khami. Kachhenarsing, Bhim Singh, Chandra Singh Badai, Bhajumani Dhusu, Kasiram, and Mastaram at Chochhe Tol.
Aswin Badi 1, 1871
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 618.
Royal order to Khajanchi Udaya Giri:
Your grandfather had built a monastery at Bhadgaun and installed there the idol of Sri Vishweshwara. To provide services at the monastery, as well as fruits and flowers, he had bought lands at Anantalinga in Thimi, and settled there seven families of tenants from Chorpur. A royal order had been received from our great-grandfather (i.e. King Prithvi Narayan Shah) exempting these tenant families from unpaid labor (jhara, beth, begar) obligations and miscellaneous payments (udhauni, padhauni). We hereby reconfirm these exemptions.
Bhadra Badi 9, 1870
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 318.
Royal order to eleven Banda families of Bhadgaun:
''We hereby exempt you from unpaid-labor (jhara, beth, begar) obligatioins during the time when you work at the mints of Beni and Baglungchaur under Subba Jaber Singh. With due assurance, perform your duties at those two mints.''
The eleven Banda families mentioned above belonged to Jagadhan, Ratnabajra, Salu Singh, Gajendra Singh, and Ratnajyoti of Kwathatu Tol, Rajnarsingh of Talachhe Tol,
Uddharmani of Italachhe Tol, Tej of Gamarhi Tol, Jasodham of Dafetalachhe Tol, Bindulai of Tekacho Tol and Gnyanavanta of Tokhachhe Tol.
Chaitra Badi 8, 1867
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 10-11.
Exemption from unpaid labor obligations had similarly been granted to 25 other Banda households at Thimi and Bhadgaun of Kartik Sudi 11, 1867 (November 1810).
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 38, pp. 613-14.
Royal order to 25 households in Bhadgaun, and 22 households in Patan town and Pulchowk, who had customarily been supplying grass for the horses of the royal stables:
We hereby grant you exemption from the saunefaguand other payments (udhauni, padhauni), as well as from unpaid labor (jhara, beth, begar) obligations, and place you under the authority of Bhajudham Jha of the royal palace. No Amali or other authority shall impress unpaid labor from your for any purpose. you shall be employed for royal palace work.
Chaitra Sudi 5, 1871
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 513.
Royal order to the Amalidar, Dware, and Naike of Banepa:
We hereby appoint 100 households to provide Hulak services for the transportation of supplies to the royal palace from the east and the west. These Hulaki households shall be exempt from unpaid labor (jhara, beth, begar) obligations.
Baisakh Badi 9, 1867
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 148.
Royal order to the Amali of Timal, and jamadars, huddas, and soldiers deputed to impress jhara labor in different areas:
Kharidar Prithvilal Upadhyaya has been deputed on government work. We hereby remit unpaid-labor (jhara, beth, begar) obligations for his household, as well as that for the household of his caretaker. Nobody shall cause any obstruction in this matter.
Chaitra Sudi 11, 1867
Royal order to the 45 households of Newars in Dolakha town :
The temple of Tripurasundari in Dolakha town is in a very dilapidated condition. We hereby grant you exemption from jhara obligations for one year and order you to repair the temple.
Kartik Sudi 7, 1871
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 409.
Royal order to the mijhars, gorchas, and other villagers of Solukbumbu:
From former times, jhara obligations had been remitted in that area, and, instead, a levy known as makatal had been collected and included in the jagir assignment of kajis. This year, military personnel (tilanga) were sent to that area to collect a cash levy from each household in lieu of jhara obligations to finance the construction of a bridge on the Bagmati river. You have therefore complained to us that you cannot pay the makatal levy if you have to pay the jhara levy in this manner. Accordingly, we remit the jhara levy and reconfirm the customary arrangement under which you have been liabe to payment of the makatal levy and remained fully exempt from jhara obligations.''
Chaitra Badi 8, 1867
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 10.
Royal order to officials deputed to impress jhara labor in areas situated east of Ganga:
From former times mine-workers (agri, mahar) in the region situated east of Ganga and west of the Dudhkoshi river have been exempted from jhara obligations. We hereby reconfirm the exemption. Mining operations must not be hampered, as otherwise the minting of coins will be dislocated.
Marga Badi 1, 1870
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 372-73.
Royal order to Jamadars, huddhas, and soldiers deputed to impress jhara labor in mines:
''Hanumanta Singh has complained to us that you have been impressing jhara labor from mini-workers (agri). We hereby exempt agris, mahars, and their mukhiyas in mines located in the region situated between Sanga in the west and the Dudhkoshi river in the east from jhara obligations. Do not impress jhaa labor from them. Any person who falsely claims to be an agri shall be severely punished.''
The mines in which this royal order was effective were located at Nagre, Deula, Haluwa, Alampur, Khapu, Luting, Jikhujyamire, Sikdel, Falamsangu, Chuplung, Lekh, Damtya, Sindhu, Pangu, Parijyamire, Bulhun, Listi-Ghumabhar, Palanchok-Godhar, Puglung, Pantang, Samsathi, and Bamanchu.
Marga Sudi 8, 1871
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 454-55.
Royal order to Bhaskar Padhya Dahal and Nandashankhar Simbai, Village, owned by you under Bitalab-Birta tenure, have to provide both jhara and Hulak services. In the future, provide such services only for the transportation of iron and other supplies sent to the royal palace through the Yangrup Hagre route, as well as of military supplies to the district headquarters. Do not provide porterage services for other purposes. We reconfirm you Chhipo-Chhano obligations, but exempt you from jhara obligations.
Kartik Sudi 15, 1870
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 368.
A royal order was issued on Poush Sudi 5, 1867 (December 1810) in the name of the inhabitants of Chhintang and two other villages (in Dhankuta) assigning their services to Subba Achal Thapa for work at the state-operated Bhangarawa were granted exemption from the obligation to provode unpaid labor (jhara, beth, begar) for other purpose.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 38, p. 702.
Royal order to the Limbus and Rais of Yangrup (Terhathum):
Because you live in a border region, you have been exempted from jhara obligations, although the inhabitants of Chainpur have been placed under the obligations to provde services during kheddah (elephant) hunts. Today, you are hereby exempted from the obligations to provide jhara labor (for the construction of a bridge on the Bagmati river in Kathmandu). Supply provisioins to the Company. Collect information about Gangtok and transmit it to us through the Amali of Chainpur.
Magh Badi 13, 1867
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 38, p. 712.
Royal order to hulaki porters in the Kathmandu-Vijayapur region:
Provide hulak services as usual. We hereby exempt you from the obligation to provide jhara labor as well as services during kheddah (elephant) hunts. Troops (tilanga) sent from the royal palace shall not impress jhara labor from you.
Poush Sudi 10, 1867
Regmi Research Collection, vol, 38, p. 707.
On Kartik Badi 2, 1876 (October 1867), tenants residing in the Bitalab-Birta lands of Chandrashekhar Padhya Sapkota at Kabilas were granted exemption from unpaid labor obligations (jhara, beth, begar), hulak obligations for the transportation of goods, saunefagu, and other miscellaneous payments (udhauni, padhauni). The order added, ''Settle tenants on your lands with full assurance, and obtain payments and services from them.''
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 468.
Royal order to Kaji Bahadur Bhandari:
We hereby exempt tenants (Kuriya) on your Phikdar-Birta land in Jhiltung from jhara obligations.
Aswin Sudi 5, 1867
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 429.
Royal order to the headmen (dware, mijhar, gourung) of Danuwars, Kumhals, etc, cultivating Crown (sera) lands in Nuwakot and providing porterate services for the transportation of provisions (to the royal palace):
From former times, we have employed you on Sera lands and granted you exemption from unpaid labor obligations (jhara, beth, begar) for other purposes. We hereby reconfirm your duties on Sera lands. In addition, you are hereby ordered to provide jhara, labor, along with all other inhabitants of the village, for the construction of dams and embankments under the supervision of Adai Bhawani Das. we also reconfirm the exemption customarily granted to you from jhara, beth, and begar labor services for the purposes.
Kirtik Sudi 10, 1870
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 366-67.
Royal order to Laxminarayan Newar, son of Vamsharam, at Padelthok in Gorkha.
We hereby grant you exemption from unpaid labor (jhara, beth, begar) obligations. With due assurances, provide services for the Company and work promptly according to ther orders of the Kaji.
Aswin Sudi 7, 1867
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 432.
Royal order to the inhabitants f Kaphyak Village, which had been endowed as guthi for the temple of Sri Manakamana:
Our great-grandfather (King Prithvi Narayan Shah) had remitted unpaid labor (jhara, beth, begar) obligations for the inhabitants of Kephyak Village. We hereby reconfirm the remission. These inhabitants shall instead provide necessary services at the temple of Sri Manakamana. The western side of the temple is being eroded; construct a strong embankment to check the erosion. Maintain the guthi buildings properly.
Magh Sudi 9, 1971
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 476-77.
A royal order was issued on Poush Badi 10, 1867 (December 1810) in the name of Kapardar Bhotu Pande exempting the inhabitants of Sat-Thar, Ranibhara, Sibhara, Jamure, Ampchaur, Champbot, Sikarkatyari, Katyari, Pokhara, Haledyadanda, Pharasidara, and Gairigaun villages in Gorkha district from jhara, beth and begar obligations. Instead, these inhabitants were placed under the obligations of transportating fruits to Kathmandu from Chautarirya Bam Shah's orchards at Chaughara and …. ghat.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 38, pp. 688-89.
Royal order to the families of Hirya Damai, Bhurya Damai, Bhaktya Damai, and Manya Damai, who had been employed to play on musical instruments every morning and evening at the temple of Sri Bhimasena in Pokhara.
We hereby grant you exemption from unpaid-labor obligations (jhara, beth, begar) and other household taxes (udhauni, padhauni). With due assurance, provide services to the deity.''
Chaitra Badi 8, 1867
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 9-10.
On Magh Badi 14, 1867 (January 1811), Jamadars, huddas, and soldiers deputed to impress jhara labor in the region situated between the (Trishuli) Gandaki and Marsyangdi rivers were ordered not to impress such labor from peasants who had been allotted lands for reclamation under kut tenure, because royal orders had been issued to such peasants exempting them from jhara obligations in consideration of their work in reclaiming lands and constructing dams and irrigation channels.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 38, p. 712.
On Kartik Sudi 11, 1867 (November 1810), the Birabhadra Jung Company was ordered not to impress jhara labor in villages where the inhabitants had been exempted from the obligation because their services were required at the Beni and Baglungchaur Mints.