Kathmandu: December 1982

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(1) Payment of Rs 10,301 to the government every year.

(2) Supply of copper and lead in the required quantities to the Sadar Jinsikhana in Kathmandu at the following rates:-

Copper … Rs 3-12 a dharni

Lead … Rs 1-12 do.

The ijaradars was allowed to use inferior copper for the manufacture of utensils. However, he was denied authority to mint coins.
Shrawan Sudi 3, 1951

(July 1901)

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 91, pp. 823-831.
The copper monopoly in the Sanga/Sindhu-Mechi region led to a scarcity of the metal for the manufacture of utensils. The use of even scrap copper for this purpose required a permit from the monopolist, and often this entailed a journey of eight or nine days. The local coppersmiths, therefore, prayed that they be allowed to import copper from India on payment of import duties. The government, however, rejected the demand and reconfirmed the ban on imports of copper.
Ashadh Badi 11, 1958

(June 1901)

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 91, pp. 761-771.


Collection of Sair Duties
A post had been established for the collection of Sair duties at Jahadi-Pidibas in Udayapur-Gadhi on lands assigned as jagir to the Gorakha Bux Company. The function of collecting sair duties at that post had been given out on thek-ijara to Lt. Colonel Bhim Bikram Singh Thapa Chhetri.
In the Vikrama year 1934 (A.D. 1877), traders and pilgrims visiting Janakpur for the Ramanawami festival refused to pay sair duties at Jahadi-Pidibas on the ground that an order granting exemption from such payments had been issued on Magh Sudi 12, 1933 (January 1877) to Mahanta Abhilasha Giri and Mahanta Haribhajana Giri of Janakpur. Lt. Colonel Bhim Bikram Singh Thapa Chhetri then referred the matter to Kathmandu, praying that he be allowed to collect sair duies at Jahadi-Pidibas as usual from traders and pilgrims visiting Janakpur.
On Aswin Badi 6, (September 1878) Prime Minister Ranodhhip Singh issued an order reconfirming the 1877 exemption granted to the Mahantas. At the same time, the order added, ''Such exemption shall be applicable only on the area where the Ramanawami festival is celebrated in Janakpur. Duties at Jahadi-Padibas, which is situated at a distance of three days' journey, shall be collected according to the prescribed schedule.'
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 91, pp. 410-414.


Sale of Old Timber Stocks
Before Chaitra Sudi 12, 1938 (April 1882), chiefs of Kathmahal offices in the Naya Muluk did not have authority to sell old stocks of timber, that is timber cut before Marga Sudi 15, 1934 (November 1877), to Indian and local merchants. They were, instead, required to finalize deals with a 100 percent profit in the case of high quality timber. The figure was 50 percent for defective timber, but the Kathmahal was allowed to sell such timber even at cost if there was no alternative. The Kathmahals were required to refer such deals to Kathmandu within three days and then taken action as ordered.

these arrangements did not suit Indian merchants. They pointed out that they could not be expected to leave their business and wait until their offers were formality approved from Kathmandu.

On Falgun Sudi 3, 1938 (February 1882), therefore, all the Kathmahals of the Naya Muluk were granted authority to finalize the sale of old timber stocks and later submit reports to Kathmandu.
Baisakh Sudi 5, 1939

(April 1882)

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 91, pp. 168-176.


Revenue and Expenditure of the Government of Nepal

(Continued from the December 1981 issue)

B. Particulars of Expendure from General Revenue (Continued)

In thousand rupees.

Head of Expenditure 2007 2008

(1950-51) (1951-52)

11. Elections:

(1) Salaries and allowances

of officers and other

staff of the Election

Commissioner's Office x 20
(b) Contingency expenses x 8

(c) Travelling and daily

allowances x 15

(d) Printing of voters's lists 255

(If mimeographed, expenditure will not exceed Rs 100,000)

(e) Allowances to persons preparing

voters's lists x 25


12. Polulation Census:

(a) Staff on Central Office;

(i) Census Commissioner x 40

(ii) Salaries and allowances:

(a) Officers 5 5

(b) Clerks 3 3

(iii) Contingency expenses x 1

(b) Field Staff:

(a) Salaries and allowances:

(1) Officers 11 11

(2) Clerks 80 87

(b) Travelling and daily

allowances x 150

(c) Contingency expenses x 10

Total 90 307

13. Constitutional Committee

(Staff of this Committee will be absorbed into other departments)
14. Advisory Committee:

(a) Secretariat:

(1) Salaries and allowances

of officers and employees x 10

(2) Contingency expenses x 52
(b) Members' allowances:

(1) (Monthly allowance at the

rate of Rs 100 per month

and a meeting allowance of

Rs 10 per day) for 50 non-

Official members x 50

(2) Travelling allowances x 30

(3) Assignments to be performed

at different places x 90

x 232

15. Health:

Hospitals, dispensaries

And public health 853 953
New projects x 200

(For improvement of existing hospitals and dispensaries)

Less Income 10 10

843 1143
16. Embassies in Foreign Countries:

(a) Embassy in London 199 322

(b) Embassy of Delhi 121 247

(The increased appropriation in necessitated by the need for the purchase of equipment and motor-cars, and appointment of additional employees. The demand for the construction of a building for the embassy this year has not been approved)
(c) Consultate Office in Calcutta 59 103

(d) do. in Rangoon 16 50

(e) Wakil's Office in Lhasa 49 53

(f) New Consulates x 90

444 875
17. Hospitality:

(a) Salaries and allowances

of staff 3 4

(b) Hospitality x 100

Total 3 104
18. Council for Inter-Asian

Relations 3 3

19. Protocal 18 30
(This department needs to be reorganized for the sake of ecomony)
20. Civil Aviation:

(a) Gauchar Airport:

(a) Salaries and allowances

for staff 12 17

(b) Improvement of airport x 300

(c) Special Mechnical

Section building x 25

(d) Other buildings x 100

(d) Survey of new airport sites x 25

(c) New airports at different

places x 280
(Total expenditure for drainage, quarters and fencing at Pokhara, Simra and Bohatari)

_____ ____

Total ­­­­­12 737
21. Telephones 161 239

New projects x 500

(To be spent as part of a Rs 2 million telephone project)

_____ _____

Total 161 739
22. Post Offices 244 246

New projects x 100

Total 244 346
23. Wireless Stations:

(a) Salaries and allowances 32 32

(b) Contingencies x 4

(c) Daily and travelling allowances 3 3

(d) Gosaline for generators 6 6

(e) Equipment and supplies 77 77

(f) Training of staff x 13

(g) New wireless stations x 500

Total 122 635
24. Trolleys
(Trolleys will not be required after the ropeway is installed, and may be shifted to other places)
25. Railways (separate budget)
26. Electricity:

(a) Salaries and allowances 111 166

(Increases appropriation is due to the appointment of additional staff for laying transmission lines)
(b) Maintenance of reservoirs

and equipment 20 165

(The increased appropriation is due to procurement of additional equipment)
(c) Contingency expense 6 7

(d) New projects x 300

Total 137 638
27. Ropeways:

(a) Main ropeway:

(1) Salaries and allowances 99 133

(The increased appropriation is due to increments made recently)

(2) Equipment and supplies 24 24

(3) Contingency expenses 3 3

(4) New projects:

(a) Renovation of cables x 42

(The existing cables are five years old)

(b) Procurement of equipment x 10

(b) Swayambhu Nath Ropeway x 4

(c) Expansion of ropeway x 668

(Nearly complete)

_____ _____

Total 126 885
28. Government Buildings:

(a) Hill and Tarai areas:

(a) Salaries and allowances,

contingency expenses 58 58

(b) Discretionary Fund 10 x
(c) Repairs to be undertaken

at the discretion of

Bada Hakim x 30

(d) Building fund x 90

(e) Supplies x 10

Total 68 188

(b) Sadar Public Nikshari (Public Works):

(a) Salaries and allowances 80 78

(b) Daily and travelling allowances 1 1

(c) Freight charges 3 3

(d) Contingency expenses 1 1

(e) Repairs 161 75

(f) New projects x x

(g) Equipment and tools x 80

Total 264 238
(c) Singha Durbar Secretariat Maintenance:

(a) Salaries and allowances 197 102

(b) Supplies and equipment 161 62

Total 358 164

(d) Miscellaneous repairs (for the

whole of the country) x 100

New projects x 441
(This amount includes Rs 91,000 to be spent for extending the bungalow of His Royal Highness the Crown Prince, and Rs 50,000 for building a bungalow for the Military-Secretary of His Majesty)
______ _____

Total 690 1,131

29. Road Construction:

(a) Central staff:-

(1) Chief Engineer x 12

(2) Stenographer x 1

(3) Cherks (2)

(4) Peons (3) x 3

(b) Road construction Division:-

(1) Technical staff 27 15

(2) Administrative staff 19 19

(3) Staff of Accounts and

Cash Section 4 4

(4) Daily and travelling

allowances 11 11

(5) Maintenance Division 14 19

(This amount includes the annual salary of Rs 5,000 to be paid to the engineer who will be coming back from the United Kingdom)
(6) Contingency expenses for

(1) (2) and (3) above x 5

(7) Field staff (for

(maintenance) 48 49

(8) New raods x 2,500

Total 123 2,636

30. Water Supply:

(a) Operating expenses 40 41

(b) Filtration plant 300 66

(c) New projects and major

repair works x 65

Total 340 172

31. Mines:

(a) Coal Mining Office 7 9

(b) Less income - 7

Total 2

(c) Juddha Research Laboratory 4 5

(d) Bureau of Mines 16 5

(c) Payments to Swiss and American experts x 95
New scientific study projects x 25

Less income 2 2

Total 19 142
32. Forests:

(a) Salaries of central

staff, including those

of the Forest Advisor's

Office 824 824

(b) New projects x 300

(To be spend for disbursement of salaries to persons who had been drawing salaries from the army and for planning and reorganization)
_____ ­­­­­­­­­_____

Total 824 1,124

33. Judiciary:

(a) High Court

(The Chief Justice will be paid a salary of Rs 1,500 yearly)

(b) Reorganization x 25

(c) Judicial Administration 694 694

Total 694 799

34. Police:

(a) Police administration 365 365

(b) Reorganization x 200

(c) Raksha Dal x 3,600

(d) Intelligence Department x 30

Total 365 4,195

35. Jails:

(a) Jail administration 364 364

(b) Jail Reforms Committee and

reforms x 100

Total 364 464
36. Law and Order:

(a) Police operations x 300

(b) Compensation to volunteers x 400
(To be spent from the total sum of Rs 800,000 sanctioned by the Cabinet)

_____ _______

Total x 700
37. Department of Publicity 30 100

38. Broadcasting x 120

39. Cinema Hall:-

(To be leased from April 13, 1952)

Operating expenses 221 252

Less income 339 490

Total 128 238
48. Provincial administration 733 1,100

41. Food:

(a) Food supply x 25

(b) Training x 25

(c) (Food) subsidy to civil employees x 900

(As sanctioned by the Cabinet)

(d) Food procurement x 6,000

Less income x 6,000

Possible losses in

transportation and other

expenses x 1,000

Total x 1,950

42. (a) Agriculture 314 314

(b) Reorganization x 50

(Accounts in this regard must be carefully scrutinized and submitted to the

Finance Committee)

(c) New projects x 200

Total 314 564

43. Survey x 78

(For training of 30 students and purchase of new equipmen)

44. Irrigation:

(a) Salaries and allowances x 50

(b) Operation and safety x 100

(c) New projects x 1,000

Total x 1,150
45. Takkavi loans x 500

46. Veterinary services:

(a) Hospitals 22 22

(b) New projects x 20

Total 22 42
47. Defense

(All mattes connected with defense policy need a careful review)

(a) Salaries and allowances

of officers 737 300

(The reduced appropriation is due to the resignation of some generals)

(b) Salaries and allowances

for privates and contingency expenses 4,976 7,029
(The increased appropriation is due to increased salaries)

(c) Food subsidy 2,200 2,200

(d) Uniforms 439 439

(e) Equipment and supplies 450 450

(f) Garrison units 900 900

(g) Various officers 219 230

(h) Military hospital 48 60

(i) Pension and long service allowance 69 66

(j) Training 87 87

New heads:

(1) Training in India x 20

(2) Books and magazines x 5

(3) Grants for education x 6

(4) Functions and

entertainment (Ghodejatra Festival) x 10

(5) Military movements x 135

(6) Meals for Guard Brigade x 40

(7) Clothing for check-post

personnel x 700

(8) Repair of barracks x 160

Total 10,125 12,837
48. General Administration:

(a) Cabinet:

(1) (a) Salaries x 258

(b) House rents x 100

(Inclusive of monthly electricity charges of Rs 100)

(c) Furniture x 100

(d) Gasoline x 36

(e) Chaffeurs x 12

(f) Motor-cars x 168

(2) Daily and travelling allowances x 400

(Inclusive of the travelling expenses of His Majesty and the Crown Prince)

(3) Private clerical staff x 122

Total x 1,196

(To be Continued)


Regmi Research (Private) Ltd ISSN: 0034-348X

Regmi Research Series

Year 14, No. 3-4

Kathmandu: March-April 1982
Edited by

Mahesh C. Regmi

Contents Page

1. Tractor Exhibition in Birgunj … 33

2. Notification of the Home Department, 1952 … 34

3. Impressions of Nepal, 1844 … 35

4. Revenue and Expenditure of the

Government of Nepal, 1951 … 36

5. King Mukunda Sen's Invasion of Kathmandu Valley … 43

6. Hulak Arrangements, A.D. 1825-26 … 50

7. Remission of Jhara Obligations A.D. 1810-17 … 54


Regmi Research (Private) Ltd

Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal

Telephone: 16927

(For private study and research only, not meant for public sale, distribution and display).

Tractor Exhibition in Birgunj

On Bhadra 25, 2008 (September 10, 1951), the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of the Government of Nepal published the following notification in the Nepal Gazette (Vol. 1, No. 6):-
With the objective of developing agriculture and encouraging a grow more food campaign, the government is paying attention to arrangements for making available at reasonable prices agriculture tools and inputs for improved cultivation. Large tracts of cultivatable lands remain waste in all the districts of the Tarai region, and tractors may be used to reclaim them for large-scale cultivation and thus increase food production.
''Accordingly, the Department of Agriculture is organizing an exhibition of tractors and related equipment at Birgunj on September 26-28, 1951. The exhibition will contain the following features for the benefit of farmers and zemindars:-
1. Tractors, their equipment and functions, and plowing furrowing, and leveling operations.

2. Cost of tractors, the method of operating tractors, and other matters relating to tractors.

3. How tractors can be used to reclaim waste lands in the Tarai region for producing different crops and thereby solving the food problem.
The management of the exhibition has been given out to an agency, which will perform the functions mentioned above.
Enterprising farmers and zemindars in both the eastern and western Tarai regions are requested to help the government in making this exhibition successful and bringing waste land under cultivation.
Arrangements will be made at Birgunj for hotels and rest-houses for the convenience of farmers and zemindars visiting the exhibition from the eastern and western districts.
Enterprising farmers and zemindars from the eastern and western districts, and other interested persons who intend to visit the exhibition are requested to inform the Birgunj District Headquarters and accommodation.

Notification of the Home Department, 1952

Whereas the 1951 Interim Government of Nepal Act has provided to every Nepali citizen the right to reside, acquire and dispose of property, and engage in any profession or employment anywhere are inconsistent with those provisions, are hereby repealed:-
1. No local person shall be appointed as chief or deputy chief in any government office, or as bichari in any Court.
2. No government employee shall acquire lands or engage in trade in the district or area where he is assigned.
3. The chief or deputy chief of any government office shall not visit the concerned district office shall not visit the concerned district for a period of tow years after his assignment in that district is terminated.
4. Permission must be obtained from the government before any member of the Rana, Sahebju, or Chautariya families sells or mortgages his lands, or before such lands are auctioned for the recovery by arrears to payment.
(Abstract translation of notification published by the Home Department in the Nepal Gazette, Vol. 1, No. 2, Shrawan 29, 2008 (August 13, 1951).


Impressions of Nepal, 1844
Major H. Lawrence was Resident at the British Residency in Kathmandu from 1843 to 1846. journals kept by his wife, Honoria Lawrence, (John Lawrence and Audrey Woodiviss, The Journals of Honoria Lawrence, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1980), contain interesting information about economic life in Kathmandu Valley during that period.

Describing the route from Bessoulia on the Nepal-India frontier to Bichakoti (Bhidhakhori, later Amlekhgunj) Honoria Lawrence writes (January 18, 1844):

This difficult path, a mere foot tract over ascents and descents and along the beds of torrents is the only pass entering this country which the Jealousy of the Nepalese has hitherto allowed strangers to see. And this one road is rendered apparently as difficult as possible to deter travelers. (p.145).
Chitra Ghattee (Chure-Ghat) was ''a narrow pass with perpendicular sides, just wide enough to admit one elephant.'' The path led to ''the village of Hitaunda, which contained a very filthy straggling bazaar.'' (p. 146). Between Chitlang and Kathmandu, ''our road led first up a bare precipitous hill, a zig zag path with such short turns that in places there was barely room for the dandee.'' (p. 146).

''From Chandagiri we descended toward Kathmandhoo by a winding revine so steep and rocky that I am afraid of seeming to exaggerate if I describe it, at the same time saying that this gorge is the sole road by which goods and travelers have admittance into the Kingdom.'' (p. 148).

In Kathmandu Valley (May 11, 1844):
''There is a large class of household slaves whose work is ''hewing of wood and drawing of water.'' Every evening we meet troops of them returning from the neighbouring hills and with burthens of faggots, men and women often singing and generally looking well fed and clothed. Water drawing is not so laborious an occupation here. (p. 153). The firewood grows some miles off but water runs by every man's doo. (p. 154).
''Fuel and grazing are the two great wants of the poor here… Where every inch is cultivated there is scarcely any grazing ground… The surrounding hills belong to certain chiefs who there cut the timber. Even were it public property, the labour of cutting and bringing it such a distance would make it inaccessible to the poor. Small branches, chaff, dried leaves, the sugarcane from which juice (p. 161) has been squeezed, straw and such like insufficient substances are the firing on which the poor people depends. (p. 162).
Indeed, timber was so scare that ''Every timber long enough for the beam of a house is brought from the Tarai.'' (p. 179).
Rest-Houses for Travellers

''In the town, as all over the country, (there is) a plentiful sprinkling of small patees, a term applied to these public buildings, from the grandest of them to a mere shed. Those I speak of a so numerous are merely sheds. In these travelers stop to eat and rest and when there are no other occupants, the Brahminee bull seem to consider themselves the rightful inhabitants.'' (P. 174).

''The patee is a large hollow square of brickwork. A verandah supported on wooden pillars runs round two or three of the outer sides. These seem to be for shelter to passers by and cattle. Entering the court by a handsome arched gateway, we are in a quadrangle all round which there are small rooms, neat and clean so far as we saw. Each room is inhabited by some infirm or aged person, man or woman. In the centre of the square stands a temple, and the space between this and the surrounding buildings is neatly paved.'' (p. 173).
Revenue and Expenditure of the Government of Nepal, 1951

(Continued from the January-February 1982 issue)

(b) His Majesty's


(1) Civil Secretary x 60

(2) Private Secretariat x 12

(3) Motor-Car for Civil

Secretary x 12

(4) Staff x x

Total x 34

(c) Prime Minister's

Secretariat x 17

(d) Cabinet Secretariat x 30

(e) Government of Nepal Ministries:

(a) Salaries x 550

(b) Equipment and furniture x 300

(c) Contingency expenses x 200

(d) Daily and travelling

allowances x 200

Total 1,250

(f) Advisors x 100

(g) National Airports:-

(a) Purchase x 293

(b) Operation, maintenance,

and flights x 200

Total 493

(h) Public Service Commission x 70

Total of (48) 3,240

49. His Majesty's Privy Purse:

(a) (1) His Majesty's Privy

Purse 537 537

Additional allocation x 264

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