Kathmandu: December 1982



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On the day that Raja Mukunda-sena arrived at Patan the priests were performing the Snana-jatra, or ceremony of bathing Machchhindranath. Seeing the troops, they ran away, leaving the god in the Devali (bathing-place). At this moment the five Nags, which were in the golden canopy of Machchhindra, poured

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forth five streams of water on the head of the deity. Mukunda-sena saw this, and, out of respect for such great power, he threw upon the image the golden chain, which adorned his horse's neck. Machchhindra himself took it up, and put it round his neck, and this chain is never removed from the neck of the image.


With this Raja the Khas and Magar castes to Nepal. These men, having no mercy, committed great sins, and the Aghora Murti (the southern face) of Pashupati showed its frightful teeth, and sent a goddess named Maha-mari (pestilence), who within a fortnight cleared the country of the troops Mukunda-sena. The Raja alone escaped to the east, in the disguise of a Sannyasi. On his way back from thence to his own country he arrived at Devi-ghat, and died there. From this time the khas and Magars came into the country; and sinki and hakuwa rice were made. The Karnataki Rajas reigned for five generations. In the sixth Hari-deva was subdued by Mukunda-sena, whose troops were destroyed by pestilence. For seven or eight years after this there was no Raja in Nepal.
Seeing that the throne was vacant the Vais Thakuri Rajas of Noakot came and began to rule. In Lalit-patan every tol (division or quarter of the town) had its own Raja. In Kantipur there were twelve Rajas, who were called Jhinihathakula. Bhatgaon had also a Thakuri Raja.
Around 811 Shaka (10 Nepal Sambat) Nanya Deva arrived in Nepal from Karnataka during the reign of Jaya Deva Malla /_The Malla Kings fled to Tirhut. The army of the Karnataka King consisted of people from different communities, including Newar who lived in the Nair region, and the Brahmaputra Kshetriyas. Nanya Deva made Bhaktapur his capital, from where he ruled all the three towns for 50 years. It was this King who introduced the Shaka era in Nepal. His son was Ganga Deva, who ruled for 41 years. Ganga Deva was succeeded by his son, Nara Simha Deva, who ruled for 31 years. His son was Shakti Simha Deva, who ruled for 39 years. Shakti Simha Deva was succeeded by Rama Simha Deva, who ruled for 58 years.
It was during Rama Simha Deva's rule that a brave King named Mukunda Sen came from Palpa in the west with an army of 125,000 men, and marched into Nepal. he fought fierce battles against the Kings of Nepal. many people were killed on both sides. But the Sen King finally defeated the army of Nepal, and drove it off, after inflicting heavy losses. The victorious invaders then started a reckless plunder of the local inhabitants. They uprooted radish plants and dumped them into ditches, cut down paddy crops and stacked them in the fields. They also broke idols at various places, and lifted the idol of Bhairava, which was being displayed on the occasion of the Machchhindra Nath festival. The idol of Bhairava was taken away to Palpa, where it still exists.
/_and Ananda Malla, bringing with him the idols of goddess Dwimaju and other goods. He fought and defeated the kings of Nepal.
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King Mukunda Sen did not care to rule the inhabitants of Nepal in a manner which would satisfy them. Instead, who let loose violence on them, plundered their crops, desecrated temples, and so on. The army of the Sen King consisted of such hillsmen as Khasas and Magars. They lacked such virtues as pity and discretion.
As a result, Pashupatinatha and other gods became angry and let lose Mahamari, Goddess of Destruction, from a tooth in the Aghora (terrible) face of God Pashupatinatha among the troops. God Pashupatinatha thus destroyed the entire invading force in one fortnight. Only the Sen King was able to escape to the east.
At the time when King Mukunda Sen invaded Nepapl, Machchhindranatha was at the bathing-place (Snanamandala) in Lagankhel. All those people who had came to witness the festival fled on hearing that the enemy was coming with a large army. Machchhindranatha was thus left alone. Leaving his troops to besiege the town, King Mukunda Sen reached that place, took the garland on the neck of his horse, and flung it toward the god. Machchhindranatha bowed his head and let the garland fall on his neck. For this reason, King Mukuna Sen regarded Machchhindranatha as a powerful god and did not let him come to any harm. The garland is still on the neck of Machchhindranatha.
People belonging to the Khass and Magar communities started coming into Nepal since then. It was also from that time that the practice of taking Sinki, snf hakuwa rice started.
The Karnataka Kings were thus uprooted by King Mukunda Sen after they had enjoyed Nepal for five generations. On hearing that the Karnataka dynasty had been wiped out, Vaishyas from Nuwakot came in large numbers and many of them began to rule in the town styling themselves Kings. In Kantipur, there was one Vaishya King in each locality (tol), and they were collectively known as the 12 Thakuris.
(Devi Prasad Lamsal, Bhasha Vamshawali, pt. 2, Kathmandu: Nepal National Library, Department of Archaeology, Ministry of Education of His Majesty's Government, 2023 Vikrama (A.D. 1966), pp. 26-28).
In 218 Nepal Samvat (1019 Shaka) King Nanya Deva of Karnataka in the south entered Simraungarh in the southern plains of Nepal.
This King introduced the Shaka era. he had come to Nepal along with the idols of Nimaju and other gods, and retinue consisting of scores of castes including Newars who lived in the Nair region, also called Nayar, sons of Brahmans, and Acharyas born in the Kshatriya caste. King Nanya Deva then fought against the Kings of Nepal. After defeating and driving them out, he began to rule from Bhaktapur. The Malla Kings fled and settled down in the northern region.

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Nanya Deva's reign lasted 50 years. His son, Ganga Deva, reigned for 41 years. Ganga Deva was succeeded by his son, Nara Simha Deva, who ruled for 31 years. Nara Simha Deva's son, Vamana Deva, ruled for 39 years. He was succeeded by Rama Simha Deva, who ruled for 58 years.

During the reign of Rama Simha Deva, the valiant King of Palpa, Mukunda Sen, entered Nepal with an army of 125,000 men and conquered it. His army roamed about the towns, uprooted radish plants and dumped them in ditches, cut down paddy crops and stacked them in the fields. They then summoned all the deities, and propitiated Bhagawati and Bhairava. Later, they dismiantled the idol of Bhairava installed before the chariot of Machchhindranatha, and sent it to his native land, that is, Palpa (Butaul). The idol of Bhairava is still found there.

On the day when Mukunda Sen arrived at Lalitpattan, the chariot of Machchhindranatha had reached the platform of Lagankhel. His army appeared exactly at the time when Machchhindranatha was being bathed. At the sight of the King's troops, the crowds flud, leaving Machchhindranatha alone. Mukuna Sen saw Machchhindranatha bathe himself with the water flowing from the months of five snakes hovering over the golden crown of the deity. Realizing that Machchhindranatha was a powerful god, Mukunda Sen removed the golden chain adorning the neck of his horse and threw it at Machchhindranatha who immediately put it around his neck. The chain is still seen the neck of the deity.

Khasas and Magars, who were totally devoid of mercy, committed numerous sins in Nepal, thus incurring the wrath of all gods, including Pashupatinatha. From the mouth of the angry Pashupatinatha came forth a flame of fire, which let loose an epidemic (Mahamari) among the invaders. Within a fortnight, Pashupatinath exterminated the army of Mukunda Sen. Mukunda Sen along managed to reach a place located in the east disguised as a mendicant.
It was after King Mukunda Sen's invasion that Khasas and Magars started coming into Nepal.
(The radish which had been dumped in ditches became sinki, while the paddy crops that had been stacked in the fields became hakuwa. Sinki and hakuwa are still in use).
(Bala Chandra Sharma (ed.), ''Kathmandu-Upatyakako Eka Rajavamshawali'' (A royal genealogy of Kathmandu Valley), Ancient Nepal, No. 5, p. 1, 2025 Vikrama (A.D. 1968).
Ananda Deva became King of Bhaktapur, including the town, on Monday, the first day of the new moon (Pratipada) in the dark fortnight of the month of Magh in 930 Vikrama. he ruled for 20 years. After his death, his son, Rudra Deva, became King. He ruled for eight years and one month in Kantipur.

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Rudra Deva was succeeded by his son, Mitra Deva, who ruled for 22 years.
Rudra Deva's son, Ari Deva, ruled for 25 years and 10 months. He collected 2, people who were skilled in the art of wrestling (Mallavidya) and used to witness wrestling shows. He himself used to get instructions in the art of wrestling. He was thus very fond of wrestling. Because a son was born to him at the time when he was being instructed in wrestling, he named the child Abhaya Malla. Ari Deva then adopted the title of Malla for his dynasty.
Abhaya Malla ruled for 42 years and 6 months.
After his death, his son, Jaya Malla, ruled for 42 years.
After Jaya Malla's death, his brother, Ananta Malla, ruled for 35 years and 11 months.
During the reign of Ananta Malla, Kanya Deva, who was born in the Karnataka land of the south and had become King in Simraugarh, came into Nepal with a large army and Dwimaju and other gods. He defeated the King of Bhaktapur in a battle and drove him off to Tirhut. Nanya Deva was accompanied by Kshatriya (Achar) born of Brahman fathers and Kshatriya Mothers in that same land, Shresthas, Jyaputs, and many other castes. All of them settled in Nepal. The Malla Kings shifted to Mithila.
King Nanya Deva made Bhaktapur his capital and ruled all the three towns for 50 years. He introduced the Shaka era, which was in yogue in Karnataka, into Nepal.
Nanya Deva was succeeded by his sen, Ganga Deva, who ruled for 41 years.
Ganga Deva was succeeded by his son, Nrisimha Deva, who ruled for 31 years.
Nrisimha Deva succeeded by his son, Shakti Deva, who ruled for 39 years.
Shakti Deva was succeeded by his sen, Rama Simha, who ruled for 48 years.
During Shakti Deva's reign, his son, Hari Deva, stayed in Kantipur and ruled over it.
After some time, the inhabitants of Patan left obeying King Hari Deva. On the advice of his ministers, King Hari Deva fought against them. The inhabitants of Patan chased the Kantipur troops upto Kantipur. The ministers and troops of Kantipur, unable to stay there, fled to Thabahil.

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King Hari Deva had been giving money to a Magar. His ministers gave him information against Magar, who then became angry and went back to his home in Palpa. He told King Mukunda Sen of Palpa that there were roots and water-spouts of gold in Nepal. with the desire to visit Nepal, King Mukunda Sen, accompanied by 125,000 troops, proceeded toward Nepal, conquering all countries that were situated on the way. He defeated king Hari Deva and drove him off to Tirhut.


Mukunda Sen then became King of Nepal. he ruled for 11 years. The Khasa and Magar troops who had accompanied him to Nepal were very cruel. They greatly oppressed the subjects. Cut of fear, the inhabitants of Nepal uprooted radish plants and dumped them in ditches, which then became Sinki. Similarly, they stacked their paddy crops without threshing them, so that the paddy became hakuwa. The Khasas and Magars broke idols at many places, and even took away to their own country the idol of Bhairawa which used to be taken out during the Machchhindranatha festival. The idol is still found in Palpa. Mukuna Sen made no efforts to improve the administration of Nepal. he had with him only Khasas and Magars who known no compassion, nor virtue. They only opposed the subjects without reason. When even temples were desecrated in this manner, God Pashupatinath became angry and displayed a crocked tooth (Vikatadanta) from His Soutern Aghora (terrible) face. As a result, an epidemic (Mahamari) spread among the troops of Mukunda Sen and destroyed the Khasa and Magar troops. Mukunda Sen then disguised then himself as a mendicant (sanyasi) and proceeded toward the east on pilgrimage. He reached Orissa, where the he visited the temple of Jagannatha. Eventually, he reached Devaghat on the banks of the Gandaki river, where he died.
Mukunda Sen had reached Nepal on the day when Machchhindranatha was being bathed at Lagankhel. On hearing the news, people who had come to participate in the festival fled to their houses and hid themselves there. No one remained at the site of the festival. On could only see water falling from the mouths of the five serpents hung on a golden canopy on the head of Machchhindranatha. King Mukunda Sen sent his troops to besiege the town and himself went to the site of the festival. He saw water falling continuously on the head of Machchhindranatha from the mouths of the serpents. Mukunda Sen then realized that Machchhindranatha was a powerful god and so offered the chain or the neck of his horse from a distance. Machchhindranatha bowed his head to accept the offering. The chain is still in existence.
After King Mukunda Sen went on pilgrimage, there was no King to rule over Nepal. on learning that there were only Khasas and Magars and no King in Nepal, the Vaishyas, and Thakuris of Nawakot won over the subjects and ruled over all the three towns. Twelve Thakuris established their rule in each locality (tol) of Kantipur. The Vaishyas and Thakuris similarly ruled over each (tol) in Patan and Bhaktapur also.
9(''Nepaladeshako Itihisa'' (History of Nepal), Ancient Nepal, No. 16, 2028 (Vikrama (A.D. 1971, pp. 8, 10-12).

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These lengthy excerpts from five different Vamshawalis which have all been published are not meant simply to fill up the pages of the Purnima. Although their contents are basically the same, they also reveal a number of differences. These excerpts will therefore prove helpful in our discussion of King Mukunda Sen's invasion of Nepal Valley.


For the sake of convenience, we shall used the following abbreviations for the following five Vamshawalis:-
1. Vamshawali edited by Bikrama Jit Hasrat … V1.

2. do. by Daniel Wright … V2.

3. do. by Devi Prasad Lamsal … V3.

4. do. by Bala Chandra Sharma … V4.

5. do. by Department of Archaeology … V5.
With the exception of V3, the other Vamshawalis do not mention the date of the invasion. We must therefore use circumstantial evidence to ascertain the date.
According to V1, Ananda Malla ruled for 35 years, and Nepal Samvat was introduced during his reign. This Vamshawali also mentions that the man who did so installed his own statue at the temple of Pashupatinatha in 10 Nepal Samvat on the eve of the death, and that subsequently Nanya Deva defeated Ananda Malla and became King of Nepal. This event thus seems to occurred some time after 10 Nepal Samvat (947 Vikrama). This Vamshawali, however, does not mention the exact date when Nanya Deva established his rule in Nepal Valley. Let us assume that he did so in the Vikrama year 950. V1 states that Nanya Deva died 50 years later and was succeeded by his son Ganga Deva. Let us assume that this event occurred in 950+50=1000 Vikrama. Ganga Deva died in the 41st year of his reign, and was succeeded by his son, Shakti Deva, according to V1. This event may thus have occurred in 1000+41=1041 Vikrama. Shakti Deva died after a reign of 39 years and was succeeded by his son, Rama Simha Deva, probably in 1041+39=1080 Vikrama. Since Kumunda Sen invaded Nepal Valley during the reign of Rama Simha Deva, according to V1, the event seems to have occurred toward the end of the eleventh century of the Vikrama era.

V2 gives a definite date for Nanya Deva's rule in Nepal Valley. He entered the Valley on Saturday, the seventh day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Shrawan (Shrawana Shukla Saptami), 9 Nepal Samvat (811 Shaka) during the time when Jaya Deva Malla was reigning in Kathmandu and Ananda Malla in Bhaktapur. V2 also states that Nanya Deva ruled over Nepal Valley for 50 years. That is to say, his rule lasted till 945+50=996 Vikrama. His son, Ganga Deva, ruled for 41 years, that is, until 996+41= 1037 Vikrama. Ganga Deva's son, Nara Simha Deva, ruled for 32 years, that it, until 1037+31=1068 Vikrama. His son, Shakti Deva,


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ruled for 39 years, that is, until 1068+39= 1107 Vikrama. Shakti Deva's son, Rama Simha Deva, ruled for 58 years, that is, until 1107+58-1165 Vikrama. He was succeeded by his son, Hari Deva, during whose reign King Mukunda Sen of Palpa invaded Nepal Valley, according to V2. In other words, the invasion took place some time after 1165 Vikrama, that is, during the second half of the twelfth century of the Vikrama era.
V3 similarly states that Nanya Deva entered Nepal in 811 Shaka (946 Vikrama) during the reing of Jaya Deva Malla and Ananda Malla. The regnal years of Nanya Deva and his successors are identical in both V2 and V3, so that Rama Simha Deva seems to have been reigning in 1165 Vikrama. The two Vamshawalis then differ. V2 states that Mukunda Sen invaded Nepal during the reign of Hari Deva, son of Ramasimha Deva, that is some time after 1165 Vikrama, whereas according to V3 the invasion took place while Ramasimha Deva was still on the throne, that is, some time between 1107 and 1165 Vikrama. This is what V1 also states.
V3 differs from the other for Vamshawalis also in that gives a definite date for Mukunda Sen's invasion: 4359 of the Kali era (4359-3044=1315 Vikrama). This would appear to obviate the need for adding up the regnal years of different invasion took place some time between 1107 and 1165 Vikrama, whereas V3 states that it took place in 4359 Kali era (1315 Vikrama), during the reign of Rama Simha Deva. As such, the date of the invasion as given in V3 is not accurate.
V4 states that Nanya Deva conquered Nepal Valley in 218 Nepal era (1019 Shaka, 1154 Vikrama), and that he ruled for 50 years, that it, until 1154+50=1204 Vikrama. His son, Ganga Deva, ruled for 41 years, that is, until 1204+41=1245 Vikrama. Ganga Deva was succeeded by his son, Narasimha Deva, who ruled for 31 years, that it, until 1245+31=1276 Vikrama. He was succeeded by his son Vamana Deva, who ruled for 30 years, that it, until 1276+39=1315 Vikrama. Vamana Deva was succeeded by his son, Rama Simha Deva, who ruled for 58 years, that is, until 1315+58=1373 Vikrama. V4 states that Mukunda Sen invaded Nepal while Ramasimha Deva was on the throne, that is, some time between 1315 and 1373 Vikrama.
V5 states that Ananda Deva ascended the throne on the first day (Pratipada) of the dark half of the moon in the month of Magh, 930 Vikrama. His son, Rudra Deva, ruled for 8 years and 1 month, that is, until Falgun 958 Vikrama. Rudra Deva's son, Mitra Deva, ruled for 22 years, that is, until 958+22= Falgun 980 Vikrama. Mitra Deva's son, Ari Deva, ruled for 25 years and 10 months, that is, until Poush 1006 Vikrama. Ari Deva's son, Abhaya Malla, ruled for 42 years and 6 months, that is, until Ashadh 1049 Vikrama. Abhaya Malla's son, Jaya Malla ruled for 42 years, that it, until Ashadh 1091 Vikrama. His brother, Ananta Malla, ruled for 35 years and 11 months, that is, until Jestha 1127 Vikrama. According to V5, it was
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during the reign of Ananta Malla that Nanya Deva invaded Nepal Valley and became King. V5 also states that Nanya Deva ruled for 50 years, that is, until 1177 Vikrama (1127+50). Nanya Deva's son, Ganga Deva, ruled for 41 years, that is, until 1218 vikrama. His son, Nrisimha Deva, ruled for 31 years, that is, until 1249 Vikrama. Nrisimha Deva's son, Shakti Deva, ruled for 39 years, that is, until 1288 Vikrama. Shakti Deva's son, Rama Simha, ruled for 48 years, that is, until 1336 Vikrama. During the reign of Rama Simha, while his son, Hari Deva, was in charge of the administration of Kathmandu, Mukunda Sen invaded Nepal Valley, according to V5. The invasion thus seems to have taken place some time between 1288 and 1336 Vikrama.
We may now tabulate the different versions of date of Mukunda Sen's invasion of Kathmandu Valley as given in the five Vamshawalis as follows:-

V1 … Toward the end of the eleventh century of the Vikrama era.

V2 … After 1165 Vikrama (Second half of the twelvth century of the

Vikrama era).

V3 … (1) Some time between 1107 and 1165 Vikrama.

(2) 1315 Vikrama.

V4 … Some time between 1315 and 1373 Vikrama.

V5 … Some time between 1288 and 1336 Vikrama.


(To be Continued)
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Customs Duties on Nepal-Tibet Trade


In The Vikrama year 1944 (A.D. 1887), four new customs posts were created at trading centers on the Nepal-Tibet border: Pheleling-Myangmijang, Bandake, Changthapu, and Yerung.
Magh Sudi 3, 1944

(January 1888)

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 91, pp. 472-75.
Collection of Jagat duties at these places on goods traded between Nepal and Tibet as well as on goods sold and purchases in the Arun-Mechi region, had been given out of ijara basis for five years in Falgun 1936 (February 1880) to Colonel Indra Singh Tandan Lahure Chhetri against a payment of Rs 500 for one year. However, he surrendered the ijara in the following year because of his inability to collect the new duties. Such duties were then collected by the Ilam district administration. Later, however, collection was discontinued.
Subsequently, Simhabir Lama Gurung submitted a petition praying that the functions of collecting Jagat duties at these places be assigned to him. the district administration of both Ilam and Dhankuta, when consulted, recommended that collection of jagat duties be revived there. The matter was then referred to the Kausi Tosakhana, but Simhabir Lama Gurung was unable to make any stipulation.
In Shrawan 1944 (July 1887), Laxmi Kanta Acharya of Pallokirat offered to take up that function on amanat basis on condition that he was given the rank of lieutenant. He stipulated that he would remit a net revenue of at least paisa Rs 5,000 every year to the government after paying administrative expenses, and that, in the event of his inability to do so, he would bear the staff expenses himself. His offer was accepted and the following customs tariff rates were approved. The export of arms and ammunition, saltpeter, sulfur, lead, and cows and oxen was banned.
Customs Tariff Schedule

Foddgrains … 5 annas a load

Cloth … R. 1-4 do.

Sheep and goats … 5 annas each

Buffaloes … R. 1-4 each

Ghee, oil … R. 1-4 a load

Salt … 2½ annas do.

Tobacco … 5 annas do.

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Iron … 5 annas do.

Metal utensils … R. 1-4 do.

Woolen rugs and blankets … 10 annas do.

Pigs … 5 annas each

Lac … 2½ annas a load

Janr and liquor … 2½ annas do.

Chicken … 2½ annas do.

Fruits … 1¼ annas do.

Ginger, chillis … 2½ annas do.

Weapons, khukuris … 2½ annas do.

Iron utensils, hoes, axes … 5 annas do.

Pigeons … 5 annas do.

Fermented radish

(Sinki) and vegetables (gundruk) … 3 annas do.

Brass, copper … R. 1-4 do.

Hawks … 2 annas each

Cumin seed, black pepper,

and other spices … R. 1-4 a load

Other birds … 1 anna each

Brown sugar, molasses … R. 1-4 a load

Wooden vessels … 4 annas do.

Condensed citrus juice

(chuk amilo) … R. 1-4 do.

Cotton … R. 1-4 do.
Magh Badi 3, 1944

(January 1888)

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 91, 476-497.

*************

20.
The Copper Monopoly, A.D. 1900
In June 1900, the amanat system for the management of copper, iron, and lead mines in the Sanga/Sindhu-Mechi region in the eastern hills was abolished. The function was then assigned to Dittha Bhaktadhwaj Chhetri on ijara basis for a three-year period. The obligations of the ijaradar were as follows:-

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