''Revenue-Collection Contract in Humla, Jumla District,'' Poush Sudi 4, 1949. Regmi Research Collection, vol. 58, pp. 184-93.
In early 1840, the government made an attempt to abolish dara-level jimmawals in Jumla and to collect revenue directly from village-level mukhiyas. The experiment appears to have proved a failure. In 1851, the Rana government repeated the experiment in the whole of the Baisi region. However, the local administration proved itself unequal to the taste of supervising the large number of village-level mukhiyas directly. Dara-level functionaries between mukhiyas and the government. References are as follows:
1. ''Order Regarding Abolition of Jimmawals in Jumla, '' Poush Sudi 2, 1896. Regmi Research Collection, vol. 1, p. 813.
2. ''Order Regarding Revenue-Collection and Disbursement of Salaries in Jumla,'' Marga Badi 3, 1903. Regmi Research Collection, vol. 1, p. 800.
3. ''Revenue Regulations for the Bheri-Mahakali Region,'' Kartik Sudi 4, 1911. Regmi Research Collection, vol. 62, pp. 720-36.
4. ''Revenue-Collection Arrangements in Areas West of the Bheri River,'' Falgun Badi 12, 1914. Regmi Research Collection, vol. 66, pp. 246-47.
5. ''Order Regarding Revenue-Collection Arrangements in Jumla,'' Jestha Badi 3, 1923. Regmi Research Collection, vol. 57, pp. 517-55.
Readings in Nepali Economic History
Mahesh C. Regmi
Pubilished by Kishor Vidya Niketan, B 2/236A, Bhadaini, Varanasi – 221001, India. Price: Rs 35
1. Some Questions on Nepali History.
2. From the Marshyangdi to the Kali.
3. Gorkhali State and Administration.
4. Economic Conditions of Morang District.
5. Some Errors in An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal.
6. Land Reclamation in the Eastern Tarai Region.
8. Famine Reliefe Measures.
9. Administrative Decentralization.
10. The Rajya of Salyan.
11. Resettlement Projects.
12. Prelude to a Banking System.
Hulak Regulations, 1828
Regulations promulgated by King Rajendra Bikram Shah in the names of Bichari Shivanidhi Padhya and Bichari Kusumakara Parai regarding Hulak transport arrangements in the region west of the Bishumati river and east of the Bheri river.
1. Find out the reasons for the slow movement of mail and government supplies under the Hulak system is that region. If the delay is due to the fact that porters who had been listed in the Hulak register to not carry the loands themselves, but hire others to do so, hold a public hearing, obtain a confession, and punish the Hulaki porter whose name has been listed in the register.
2. Have such defaulters sign a bond to the effect that in the future they will carry Hulak loads themselves expeditiously and not hire others to do the work.
3. If any registered Hulak porter says that he cannot discharge his responsibility without hiring other men, appoint another person to replace him, and refer the matter to us for confirmation.
4. Issue a notification to all Thaple-Hulaki porters in that region to the effect that they must transport guns, cannon, gunpowder, shells, flints, military equipment, etc. on an urgent basis between Kathmandu and the western regions, and that they should not provide portrage services any other person except under royal order countersigned by General Bhimsen Thapa.
5. If the number of kagate or Thaple-Hulaki porters is too high in same posts and too low in to others, or if the distance between different posts is not equal, recommend appropriate arrangements for our approval.
6. If Hulak services have been delayed, or there has been any loss in transit, because of the arbitrary behavior of the local authorities, give a hearing to both sides, obtain a confession from the guilty person, and inflict punishment according to the nature of the offense.
7. If any area has been depopulated as a result of the heavy demands of peole travelling through it, persuade the fugitives to come back.
Baisak Badi 7, 1885.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 27, pp. 81-83.
Shivanidhi Padhya was a resident of Gorkha, while Keesumakara Prasain belonged to Chainpur. Both of them had been appointed Bicharis for the Bishnumati-Bheri region on Chaitra Sudi 15, 1884. They were each paid a total salary of Rs 250, and also entitled to appropriate half of the income collected through judicial fines, fees, etc. They were instructed to refer to His Majesty through the central Adalats any case which they were unable to dispose of on their own authority. (Regmi Research Collection, vol. 27, pp. 76-77).
Identical regulations were promulgated on the same date (Baisakh Badi 7, 1885) for the Bheri-Mahakali region in the name of Captain Narasimha Thapa. (Remgi Research Collection, vol. 27, pp. 83-86)
Other Documents on the Hulak System
1. One of the Hulak posts between Kathmandu and Thak was located at the village of Jungle. Originally, the village comprised only twelve households of Upadhyay Brahmans. These Brahmans were, therefore, enrolled as Hulaki porters. In the Vikrama year 1879 (A.D. 1812), fifteen or sixteen Gurung families settled in that village. However, no Hulak obligations were imposed on them. The Brahmans thereupon submitted a petition to Kathmandu. An order was issued to the officials responsible for the transportation of supplies from Thak not to make any discrimination in the imposition of Hulak obligations in tha village.
Marga Badi 5, 1883.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 49.
2. On Chaitra Sudi 10, 1901, Laxmi Pati Padhya, a Hulak porter of Ghiring, complained that Narahari Padhya had claimed inheritance rights in his Hulak land allotment. The government ordered that no such rights could be claimed in the lands as long as it was used as a Hulak allotment. (Regmi Research Collction, vol. 31, pp. 19-20).
3. Kalu Padhya, a resident of Gumbabesi in Lamjung district, who owned 217 muris of rice-lands in that area, managed to have himself enrolled as a Hulak porter and, in that capacity, obtained an allotment of 60 muris of rice-lands. He cultivated 10 muris himelf, and appointed a tenant ot cultivate the remaining area. Dirgha Singh Dura thereupon submitted a complaint to Kathmandu. An order was issued removing Kalu Padhya's name from the register of Hulak porters and canceling the rice-land allotment made in his name.
Kartik Badi 10, 1898.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 31, pp. 191-92.
4. On Chaitra Badi 2, 1877, sixteen households were enrolled under the Hulak system for transportating mail between Kathmandu and eastern Nepal through the main ferry-point on the Tamor river. They were granted security of tenure as their alnds and homesteads. Serma tax upto R.1 each, and the Saunefagu and other levies, as well as forced-labor obligations for purposes, were all remitted. Their rice-lands holdings, and the total amount due on such holdings as kut or Ghiukhane payments, were as follows:-
Name of the Hulaki Porter Rice-land Total
Holding Amount Due
1. Gangadhar Jaisi 65 Rs 31
2. Pashupati Jaisi 45 Rs 23-2
3. Ramu Padhya 32 Rs 13-7½
4. Shivahari Jaisi 45 Rs 20
5. Jagapati Padhya 65 Rs 32-¼
6. Tulsiram Mishra 41 Rs 17
7. Tulsiram Guragain 20 Rs 28-6
8. Rambhat Padhya 75 Rs 27-12½
9. Chhitaram Padhya 75 Rs 32-4
10. Gangaram Padhya 40 Rs 14-11¼
11. Bale Padhya 25 Rs 12-9
12. Indra Singh Basnyat 96 Rs 30-8
13. Chandra Singh Basnyat 57 Rs 13-13¼
14. Faud Singh Basnyat 41 Rs 13
15. Rudra Singh Basnyat 44 Rs 14-10
16. Ramachandra Khatri 47 Rs 15-2½
Chaitra Badi 2, 1877.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 38, pp. 276-78.
Regmi Research (Private) Ltd,
Kathmandul: June 1, 1979.
Regmi Research Series
Year 11, No. 6
Mahesh C. Regmi
1. Udayapur 81
2. Monthly Salaries of Military Personnel,
1910 A.D. 82
3. Hat-Bazars in the Rural Areas of Nepal 84
4. The Baise and Chaubise Principalities 88
5. The Dharmadhikar 71
Regmi Research (Private) Ltd
Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal
Compiled by Regmi Research (Private) Ltd for private study and research. Not meant for public sale or display.
''Pyuthan-Udayapure Raja ra Kehi Matatwpurna Lalmohara'' (The Raja of Udayapur in Pyuthan and some important royal orders). Nepali, quarterly, published by the Madan Puraskar Guthi, Sridarbartol, Lalitpur, Nepal, Kartik-Poush 2035 (October-December 1978), pp. 54-58.
Udapayur in Pyuthan district was one of the principalities that existed in Nepal during the period before political unification. Even after it became a part of the Kingdom of Nepal. It enyojed an autonomous status under the suzerainty of Kathmandu. The Rajya of Udayapur was ruled by Brahmans.
A list of the Brahman Rajas of Udayapur is as follows:
1. Jasudhara. 2. Durlabha.
3. Chudamani. 4. Devirama.
5. Udayaraja. 6. Krishna.
7. Bhupala (a contemporary of King Prithvi Narayan Shah).
8. Jaimuni. 9. Dalaparaja.
10. Icchawarama. 11. Parsarama.
12. Rudramani. 13. Janishwara.
14. Naranarayana. 15. Damodara.
16. Hari Prasuda. 17. Shantraraja.
The Rajya of Udayapur was abolished in A.D. 1961, when Shantaraja was yet heir-apparent. He then shifted from Pyuthan to Bardiya. The following documents have been obtained from his son, Chandraraja.
1. From Dittha Bishrama Khatri to the Brahman Raja Rudramani Karki. I have received a royal order (from Kathmandu) directing that (the Rajya of Udayapur) be reconfired subject to the traditional authority of (the Rajas of) Dang and Pyuthan. Accordingly, I hereby reconfirm your authority over the territory of Udayapur, subject to the traditional authority of the (the Rajas of) Dang and Pyuthan and payment of the customary dues. With victory to His Majesty and offer you blessings.
Wednesday, Baisakh Sudi 13, 1863.
2. From Kaji Ranajit Kunwar to Chautariyas Atmarama Padhya and Tilakarama Padhya of Udayapur. You had proposed that during the two months of the years when rice is sown in the fields, the Kagate-Hulaki posts at two places, which have been established for transporting mail from Dhunge-Gadhi, be amalgamated. Now that the sowing season is over, restore those two posts. Also make arrangements for repairing the suspension bridge at Arthala.
Bhadra Badi 14, 1871.
3. From King Rajendra Bikram Shah, the Birta-Bitalab lands of Rudramani Karki in Udayapur, which is subject to Dang, have been proved to have been held under a valid tax-free grant. We hereby reconfirm such tax-exemption as well as your traditional rights over that territory… (?) to Salyan and Pyuthan in the months of Shrawan and Bhadra, bless us, and enjoy your customary authority in happiness.
Wednesday, Chaitra Badi 6, 1874.
Countersigned by Prana Shah, Ranadhwaja Thapa, /_
4. From His Majesty to the Amils of Deukhuri and Sunar. Karna Karki, a Birtaowner, has submitted the following petition: ''Previously, Sair levies and Pasturage taxes (Kharchari) were not collected when we kept our cattle on taxable (mal) lands from our Birta-Bitalab territory of Udayapur. However, we are being asked to pay these taxes and levies. ''if his claim that no such taxes and levies were collected in the past is trure, do not make any such collections in the future.''
Thursday, Poush Sudi 4, 1902.
Countersigned by Kulamana Singh Basnyat, Fatte Jung Shah, Jung Bahadur kuwnar, Jagat Singh, Umakanta Upadhyaya, and Abhiman Singh.
/_Dhimsena Thapa, Dalabhajana Pande and Rewanta Kunwar.
Monthly Salaries of Military Personne,
Particulars of cash salaries due every month from Baisakh 1, 1967 Samvat to the personnel of different units comprising the Srinath Kampu and the Rajadal Kampu:-
Srinath Kampu No. Annual Salary Bill
Name of Paltan Rs
1. Suryadal Paltan 625 55,356.65
2. Jabar Jung '' 543 47,640.89
3. Sri Gorakhnath Paltan 843 46,697.87
4. Chhyaskamini '' 621 30,683.04
5. Bhairung '' 551 46,464.84
6. Bhairava Dal '' 56 2,879.88
7. Srinath Kampu '' 44 3,335.88
8. Devidatta '' n.a. 99,596
9. Ramadal '' n.a. 49,892
10. Kali Bahadur '' n.a. 228
11. Bard Bahadur '' 21 1,212
12. Purano-Gorakh '' 21 1,212
Rajadal Kampu No. Annual Salary Bill
1. Narsing Paltan 761 66,396.77
2. Jagannath '' 546 42,078.11
3. Bhairavanath Paltan 522 47,128.92
4. Jangi Paltan 606 37,561.44
5. Risalla (cavalry) Paltan 142 19,190.88
6. Kalidal Paltan 875 37,554.60
7. Second Jangi Paltan 606 34,077.48
8. Mule Battery '' 115 10,027.92
9. Rajadal Kampu 51 1,812.96
10. Mahendra Paltan 19 61.92
11. Ganesh Dal '' 1 61.92
12. Kali Prasad Paltan 2 159.96
13. Naya Gorakh '' 1 108
14. Shamsher Dal '' 2 180
15. Sher '' 1 108
16. Jagadal '' 1 144
Chaitra 23, 1966 Samvat.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 16, pp. 140-41
Hat-Bazars in the Rular Areas of
Janaki Raman Thakur
Adapted from: ''Nepalko Gramin Kshetrama Hat-Bazar Vikas'' (Development of hat-bazars in the rural areas in Nepal). Gorkhapatra, Baisakh 22, 2036 (May 5, 1979).
Hat-bazars means a place where buyers and sellers, or consumers and producers, buy and sell commodities directly at specified places on specified days.
The numbers of hat-bazars in the Kingdom of Nepal is estimated at 640. The breakdown is as follows:-
Hat-Bazars in Different Development Regions
Development Region No. of Hat-Bazars
Eastern Region 364
Central Region 181
Western Region 81
Far-Western Region 14
Total … 640
Hat-Bazars in Different Zones
Zone No. Zone No.
Mechi 12 Gandaki 1
Koshi 156 Dhaulagiri 2
Sagarmatha 79 Bheri 9
Janakpur 125 Rapti 2
Narayani 48 Seti 2
Bagmati 88 Karnali 1
Lambini 78 Mahakali x
Hat-Bazars in Different Districts
Only 43 of the 75 districts of the Kingdom have hat-bazars.
District No. District No.
Jhapa 70 Sarlahi 34
Morang 67 Rupandehi 30
Sunsari 49 Mahottari 27
Dhanusha 40 Talpejung 27
Nawal-Parasi 36 Saptari 23
Siraha 18 Rautahat 18
Khotang 16 Bhojpur 16
Bara 24 Parsa 15
Kapilavastu 11 Panchthr 14
Okhaldhunga 10 Ilam 11
Sankhuwa-Sabha 9 Dhankuta 9
Dolakha 9 Solukhumbu 9
Ramechhap 8 Bardiya 8
Terhathum 7 Sindhuli 7
Fourteen other districts have 1 or 3 hat-bazars each. Sixteen of the 20 districts of the Tarai region have 469 hat-bazars, comprising 73.24 percent of the total number. Thirty-seven among the 55 districts of the hill region have 171 hat-bazars (27.76 percent); of which eleven districts of the eastern hill region have as many as 131.
Categories of Hat-Bazars
Most of the hat-bazars of the Kingdom of Nepal are held once or twice of week. The breakdown is as follows:
Some Prominent Hat-Bazars
Name of Hat-Bazar District
Name of Hat-Bazar District
Revenue from Hat-Bazars
Contract for the following hat-bazars yielded the following amounts of revenue in the Vikrama year 2025:-
Damak, Jhapa district Rs 133,500.
Bhadrapur, do. Rs 112,602.
Duhabi, Sunsari district Rs 116,266.
Lahan, Saptari district Rs 47,973
Sakhuwa, Dhanusha district Rs 165,000
Gaushala, Mahottari district Rs 150,000
Belbas, Sarlahi district Rs 18,000
Barthethwa, do. Rs 70,000
Pipra, Rautahat district Rs 100,000
Bhairahawa, Rupandehi district Rs 90,000
The contracts are issued on the basis of the turnover, which reached Rs 10 million. In some hat-bazars it is as low as Rs 10,000 or Rs 12,000 in small ones.
The Baise and Chaubise Principalities
Mahan Bahadur Malla
(''Baise Chaubise Parichaya (An introduction to the Baise and Chaubise principalities). Nepali, quarterly. Published by the Madan Puraskar Guthi, Sridarbartol, Lalitpur, Magh-Chaitra, 2032 (January-March 1976), pp. 3-38).
The Karnali region is one of the three regions of Nepal. Four centuries age (sic), when the Hindus were expanding their settlements in Aryavarta, the autochthonous tribes vanquished by them too refuge in the Karnali and Gandaki regions. These non-Aryans were forest-dwellers. They were joined thousands of years later by large numbers of Mangols from the north. The Magra or Magar community emerged from the union of those two groups in the Karnali and Gandaki zones. The Magars expanded their settlements in the Magarat region much before the Kiratas did so in the Kirat region. The Magars were a pastoral people.
Meanwhile, the Shakas, Yuchis,a nd Kushanas invaded India from the north-west. The Kushan empire was founded. Chhetris who inhabited the regions around Kashmir emigrated to the Karnali region through Garhwal and Kumaun during the second or third century of the Vikrama era. these Chhetris lived in villages, subsisted on agriculture, and thus had attained a higher state of civilization. The Magars followed their example and adopted sedentary agriculture.
After the death of the Harshavardhana, the last Hindu emperor of India, Kanauj was ravaged by the Kings of Bangal and southern India. The Brahmans of Kanauj, therefore, took refuge with the Chhetri kings of Karnali region. Some Brahmans who had left on pilgrimage to Manasarovar and Muktkshetra similarly preferred to live under the Chhetri kings to ruled in the region between the Mahakali and Karnali rivers.
Subsequently, Ranauj was annexed by the Pala Kings of Bengal. The Pala empire then expanded toward the west. A Pala ruler of Kanauj occupied Sija, an important trade center for the hill region, the Himalayan region, and the Tarai region. Salt, which was essential for both human begins and cattle, was procured from Tibet. Gold, horses, musk, and woolen goods also were procured from there for supply to the hill and Tarai regions in exchange for goodgrains, metal utensils, woolen Vessels, coarse cotton cloth, and other goods. After the Rathors subjugated Kanauj and Garhwal, the Palas of Sija became independent rulers. By that time, Chhetri settlement had reached the Bheri river. Jads ruled in the region north of Sija, and
Chhetris ruled in the south and the west. In the east, there were Magar principalities. All of them regarded the rulers of Sija as their overlord and paid one-fourth of their revenues to him s their tribute. Other rulers collectred one-eighth of the produce as tax from their subjects.
When Delhi became the capital of a Muslim empire, the Rathors of Kanauj came under their controls. Rajputs then emigrated to Sija. The Pala kings had great difficulty in finding suitable matches for their sons and daughters. Accordingly, they welcomed the Thakuris. In India, big Zamindars are called Thakur; and these Thakurs came to be known as Thakuri in Sija. Jitari, a Pala ruler, assumed the title of Malla after he conquered the Nepal Valley. /_and assumed the same title. The Palas ruled in Sija for 364 years, from 1053 to 1417 Vikrama. The Pala kingdom was reunited during the regign of Punya Malla, Prithvi Malla's father. His dominions then extended to the Sunkosi river in the east, the Alakananda river in the west, the Manasarovara Lake in the north, and Lumbini in the South. Prithvi Malla had no heirs; hence he renounced the world and left for Badrinath in 1417 Vikrama after handing over the kingdom to Gajabhima Samala Shahi, a grandson of his paternal aunt. The Pala kings followed both the Hindu and the Buddhist religious. They designated their sons-in-law or nephews as Kings whenever the throne of any of the Chhetri, Jad or Magar kings fell vacant.
Malevarman, who succeeded Samala Shahi, had to fight many battles with the chiefs of Vassal principalities who wanted to become independent. He constructed the Kasthamandapa building in Kathmandu and a Buddhist Vihara at Khocharnath. Malevarman's son, Jagativarman or Medinevarman, designated his three sons and one son-in-law to occupy the vacant thrones of Jumla in the north, Rukum in the east, Bilaspur in the west, and Samarkot in the south. These principalities had been occupied from Jad and Chhetri kings, but the luxury-loving Jagativarman was not farsighted enough to retain them under the unitary control of Sija. This led to the establishment of the Baise principalities.
The power of Sija progressively weakened during the reign of Jagativarman's successors, Vijaya, Deva, and Yashavarman Samala Shahi. Meanwhile, the Sen Kingdoms of the Gandaki regin increased their strength. The weak rule of the Saiyads in Delhi has replaced by the strong one of the Lords. This increased the thread to the existence of Sija. The Magar and Gurung rulers of the Gandaki region began to look to the Sen Kings for protection. Even the Malla Kings of the Nepal Valley started maintaining friendly relations with the Sen Kings. These developments reduced the revenues of Sija on considerable extent. Around 1553 Vikrama, Sikandar Lodi attached Sija. This was the
/_Adipala, grandfather of Prithvi Malla, also conquered the Nepal Valley
first time that Sija suffered aggression from Delhi. The Karnali region, consequently, split into twenty-two separate political units. There were 44 Vassal principalities under the suzerainty of Medinivarman from the Sunkosi river to the Alakananda river. The number of principalities in the Karnali and Gandaki regions later reached 1846. this constitutes evidence of continuous political fragmentation.
The Palaps and Samala Shahis ruled Sija for a total period of 500 years, for 364 years and 136 years respectively. They made Sija a strong kingdom, with the result that for a long time the Muslim Sultans of Delhi could not disturb it. It was dueto the strength of the Kingdom of Sija that Nepal had not gone under the control of Delhi by the time of Bahadur Shah.