|10. Receipt of Revenues
On Poush Sudi 5, 1856, the following revenues were credited to the Central Treasury (Tosakhana):-
1. Partial payment of amount due under
ijara for the districts of Bara, Parsat
and Rautahat for the Vikrama year 1856
by Subba Gaja Singh Khatri -- Rs 5,079-3¼
2. do. -- Rs 11,975-0½
3. do. for the district of Morang
for the Vikrama year 1855 by Subb
a Dasharath Khatri and Subba Ran-
mardan Khawas -- Rs 18,138-5¼
4. do. for the Vikrama year 1856 do. -- Rs 20,014-0¼
5. do. Saptari and Mahottari for the
Vikrama year 1865 by Sybba Dinanath
Padhya -- Rs 9,702-4
6. do. Bhaktapur for the Vikrama year
1856 through Chautariya Sher
Bahadur Shah -- Rs 3,071-0½
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 24, pp. 47-49.
11. Disbursement Orders
The following disbursement orders were sent to the following persons the same day (Poush Sudi 5, 1856):
1. Bhajudev Newar was ordered to disburse Rs 675 as salary to Subedar Parsya, and Rs 2,000 to the magazine for the purchase of metals and other supplies from the ijara revenues of thek-theni for the Vikrama year 1856.
2. Subba Dasharath Khatri and Subba Ranamardan Khawas were ordered to disburse Rs 5,000 for the living expenses to Raja Prithvipa Sen of Palpa from the ijara revenues of Morang for the Vikrama year 1856.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 24, pp. 49-50.
12. Construction of Palace at Deopatan
On Thursday, Falgun Sudi 2, 1856, King Rana Bahadur Shah abdicated in favor of his infant son, Girban Yuddha Bikrama Shah, and left Kathmandu for Deopatan in the Pashupatinath temple area. (Chittaranjan Nepal, Shri 5 Rana Bahadur Shah, Kathmandu: Mary Rajbhandari, 2020 (1963), pp. 34-350.
A new palace appears to have been constructed at Deopatan for the residence of the ex-king. The palace was described as a ''Phulbari Baithak'', that is, a garden-house.
Thirty-four (Kumhale) were procured from Patan to make bricks (awal) for the palace. 24 lumber-men (bosi) were similarly procured from the villages of Tistung and Palung for the supply of timber.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 24, pp. 71-72.
13. Appointment of Subba in Majhkirat
On Ashadh Badi 14, 1856, Jayawanta Sahi was appointed Subba of Majhkirat, seceding Trilochan Thapa. He was placed in command of the Bhagawatidal and Sridal companies. These two companies previously had 306 rifles (nal); the number was increased to 407.
Jayawanta Sahi was empowered to collect taxes on rice lands and homesteads (ghargani) and transmit a sum of Rs 1,500 every year to the Central Treasury (Tosakhana) from the amount so collected. Revenues from the following sources were reserved. (income from) fakirana lands, dharmadhikar levies, sub-soil resources (kalyandhan), transit duties on general merchandise (kirana), buffaloes
(bhainsi), and cotton (kapas), the monopoly trade in wax (main-bhansar), revenues collected from Satpari, and darshanbhet levy collected from military personnel.
The rice-lands, and the balance of the revenues, were to be used to pay salaries and assign khangis to the personnel of the two companies. The Subba was permitted to appropriate the surplus income as his emoluments.
Other instructions issued in the name of Subba Jayawanta Sahi were as follows: ''Do not refer complaints relating to khangi assignments to the palace. Do not make collections in excess of the prescribed rates, thereby harassing the local people and compelling them to bring petitions to the palace. Make arrangements for the reclamation of land into rice-lands where irrigation facilities can be made available. Dispatch troops wherever they may be needed. Use them to guard the territories, or perform other duties, to which they may be assigned. Do not permit any exchange or transaction in rifles belonging to the companies.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 23, pp. 343-44.
14. Ban on Castration of Bulls
Royal order to the inhabitants of Namdu and 107 other villages in the eastern hill region: ''Previously, you used to castrate bullocks. Do not do so in the future, but use uncastrated bulls to draw the plow without castrating them. If you recuire castrated bullocks for agricultural and other work, use those that had been castrated in the past, or those that are procured from abroad. In the future, any person who castrates bullocks in our dominions shall be punished with amputation of the hand.''
Bhadra Sudi 5, 1856
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 23, pp. 381-82.
1. Royal order to majhis, mijhars, and other villagers of Dolalghat in Palanchok. ''You are hereby entrusted with the responsibility of guarding the route through Dolalghat. Close all unauthorized tracks. Maintain a watch on people two pass through such tracks after committing any crime, and remain at your post on the main route. Permit only those people to pass through who produce passports (radhani). Ferry them across the river only after properly scrutinizing such passports. Let local villagers cross the river only after identifying them. If any person seeks to cross the river withough a passport, arrest him and bring him to the palace. If you act in contravention of these regulations, so that any crime is able to escape, punishment may be inflicted on you and your families. So long as you perform these duties, you need not provide ijara labor services for other purposes. Perform these services until another royal order is issued to cancel them.''
The same order was issued to the majhis, mijhars, and villagers of Kapinghat in the Pharping region on the same date.
Shrawan Sudi 3, 1856.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 23, pp. 359-60.
(Continued from the September 1979 issue)
53. If any person who committed a crime which is punishable ostracized in respect to the use of water and cooked rice touched by him, steals the printed form (lifa) of the Dharmadhikari used for issuing writs of patiya and forges, such a writ on that form, and if another person believes the writ of patiya to be authentic and tkes water and cooked rice from the hands of the former, he shall not be degraded to a lower caste, because he had done so after perusing the writ of patiya, although without ascertaining its authenticity. He shall be punished only with a fine of Rs 20 if he has taken cooked rice from the hands of the ostracized person, and of Rs 10 if he has taken water. A writ of patiya shall then be issued to him.
54. If any man or woman belonging to any sacred-thread-wearing caste of below the age of twelve years who has received initiation for performing ritual functions (karma chalyaka) take any forbidden food so that they are liable to lose their caste, and accordingly have been ostracized in respect to cooked rice, subsequently beget children and die without obtaininga writ of patiya, and if their funeral rites have been performed after obtaining a writ of patiya in respect to ritual purification (Kriya-Shuddha).
and if their children or any other relative submit a petition as follows: ''This person had been ostracized in respect to cooked rice for taking such and such forbidden food, thereby losing his caste, at a time when he was below twelve years of age. He died before he could obtain a writ of patiya, and his funeral rites were performed after obtaining a writ of patiya in respect to ritual purification. Their children cannot be deprived of their caste simply on this ground. Their obstracization in respect to cooked rice must, therefore, be lifted.''
and if their relatives, respectable persons, and local functionaries (amali) certify that the parents (of the children) had taken forbidden food at a time when they were below the age of twelve years, not therefore, their statement shall be accepted.
Since the parents had obtained a writ of patiya in respect to ritual purification, no ther such writ need be granted. (The children) shall become ritually pure after their sacred-thread-investiture, wedding, and other ceremonies are performed according to the customs and usages of the caste to which they belong. They shall not lose their caste, and (their relatives) shall take cooked rice from their hands.
55. If any chief officer (hakim, dittha, bechari), of any government office (adda), district headquarters office (gaunda), court (adalat), or police station (thana), or the head (amali, dware) of any local body (amal) has obstracized in respect to water any person belonging to a sacred-thread-wearing caste or any other pure caste from whose hands people belonging to higher castes can take water, on the ground that such person has taken cooked rice or water from the hands or a person belonging to a caste from whose hands higher-caste people cannot take water, and contamination from whose touch must be purified through the sprinkling of water, or committed sexual relations with a woman belonging to such (low) caste,
and if the successor of such chief officer or head fraudulently, or by suppressing documents relating to confession in such cases, arranges for the promulgation of a royal order or an administrative order or notice, or a writ of patiya, falsely representing that (the guilty person) has not been ostracized in respect to water, or has done so without authority, falsely representing that he had referred the matter to higher authorities and obtained an order accordingly, without actually referring the matter to the government,
and if subsequent inquiries reveal that the previous chief officer or head had actually obtained a confession, and ordered the ostracization (of the guilty person) in respect to water,
then such chief officer or head shall be punished only with a fine of five hundred rupees. He shall not be deprived of his caste status if he had not taken water from the hands ( of the guilty person).
But if such officer or head has taken water from the hands (of the guilty person), he shall be punished with a fine of five hundred rupees, and deprived of his sacred-thread if he belongs to a sacred-thread-wearing caste, or, if he belongs to a non-sacred-thread-wearing caste, ostracized in respect to cooked rice and water.
If he does not pay the fine, he shall be imprisoned at the rate of one month for every five rupes of the fine. If the chief officer who lifted the ostracization in respect to water has not taken water from the hands (of the guilty person), but is proved to have been contaminated by contact with other who have done so, he shall not be deprived of his caste, but shall be granted a writ of patiya.
56. If anybody takes cooked rice and water from the hands of any person knowing full well that the latter has been sentenced to imprionnment for life (damal), or has been degraded to a lower caste by giving him water to drink
from the hands of the low-caste person, or that he has taken cooked rice and water from the hands of a low-caste person, or committed sexual intercourse with such person,
and if (the person who has taken cooked rice and water) from the hands of guilty person and has offered cooked rice and water to others who were not aware (of his contamination), his share of his ancestral property shall be confiscated according to the law.
If, however, he has not let others take cooked rice and water from his hands, he shall be degraded to the lower caste and let off. His relatives and other people who have taken cooked rice and water from his hands without any knowledge of his guilt shall be granted a writ of patiya in consideration of such contamination act of ignorance, but shall not be punished.
57. If the head of any office (hakim) or local body (amali), or the Dharmadhikar, grant an order to writ of patiya to any person kwowing full well that the latter has been sentenced to imprisonment for life, or has been degraded to a lower caste by giving him water to drink from the hands of a low-caste person, or that he has taken cooked rice and water from the hands of a low-caste person, or committed sexual intercourse with such person,
then such hakim, amali or Dharmadhikar shall not be degraded to a lower caste if he has only issued an order ro writ of patiya, and not taken cooked rice and water from the hands of the guilty person. He shall only be punished with a fine of five hundred rupees.
If, however, such hakim, amali, or Dharmadhikar has not only issued an order to writ of patiya but also taken cooked rice and water from the hands of the gulty person, and then offered the same to other persons, his share of his ancestral property shall be confiscated according to the law. If he has not offered cooked rice and water to other person, he shall be degraded to the lower caste, but his share of the ancestral property shall not be conficasted. His relatives and other people who have taken cooked rice and water from his hands withough any knowledge of his guilt shall be granted a writ of patiya in consideration of such contamination out of ignorance, but shall not be punished.
58. If anybody takes cooked rice and water from the hands of a person without knowing that the latter has been sentenced to imprisonment for life, or has been degraded to a lower caste by giving him water to drink from the hands of a low caste person, or that he has taken cooked rice and water from the hands of a low-caste person, or committed sexual intercourse with such person, and that the act of taking cooked rice and water from his hands is punishable with loss of caste, then the former shall be granted a writ of patiya because he had committed the offense out of ignorance.
No penalty shall be imposed on him. however, if anybody has offered cooked rice and water to another person without letting him know about his guilt, he shall be sentenced to imprisonment for life.
59. A person who has deliberately engaged in sexual intercourse with a woman belonging to a caste from whose hands high-caste people cannot take water, and contamination from whose touch must be purifed through the sprinkling of water, and who take cooked rice and water from her hands without engaging in sexual intercourse, and does not report the fact that he has done so, and subsequently engages in sexual intercourse with his married wife, or concubine, or a prostitute, or lets them take cooked rice and water from his hands without any knowledge of his guilt, and if such woman does not become pregnant, she shall be grantged a writ of patiya in respect to cooked rice and water. She shall not be deprived of her caste. If, however, she becomes pregnant, she cannot be purified in respect to cooked rice, but shall be granted a writ of patiya for water only (High-caste people) may take only water from the hands of children born of such woman, not cooked rice. Such children, even if they belong to a Brahman or other sacred-thread-wearing caste, shall not be entitled to the use of the sacred thread, but shall be regarded as members of a Shudra caste who cannot be enslaved. If the father belongs to a matwali (liquor-drinking) caste which cannot be enslaved, the children shall be regarded as members of a caste of lower status which can be enslaved. If the woman knows that her husband has engaged in sexual intercourse (with a low-caste woman as mentioned above) and taken cooked rice and water from the hands of the latter, or only taken cooked rice and water without engaging in sexual intercourse, but has herself refrained from engaging in sexual intercourse with him and taking cooked rice and water from his hands, and only failed to report the matter because of shame, so that other relatives have taken cooked rice and water (from the hands of the guilty person) out of ignorance, she shall be punished with a fine of twenty-five rupees because she suppressed the information and allowed other people to take cooked rice and water (from the hands of the guilty person) without any knowledge of his guilt. Such persons shall then be granted a writ of patiya because they had committed the offense out of ignorance.
(To be continued)
Regmi Research (Private) Ltd,
Kathmandul: December 1, 1979.
Regmi Research Series
Year 11, No. 12
Mahesh C. Regmi
1. Situation in Kumaunm 1810, A.D 177
2. The Dharmadhikar 180
3. The Kathmandu Valley Entrepot Trade 185
Regmi Research (Private) Ltd
Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal
(For private study and research only; not meant for public sale, distribution, and display).
Situation in Kumaunm 1810, A.D
On Marga Sudi 4, 1867 (December 1810), the government of Nepal took a series of measures to ameliorate the condition of the peasantry in Kumaun.
The inhabitants of the Darma-Bhet and Byas-Bhet areas submitted the following petition to Kathmandu: ''Every year, the amount of the revenue is raised, but no arrangements are made for the welfare of the ryots. Moreover, there is no Fouzdar to maintain control. Consequently, the ryots have fled to Jumla, Besahar, Garh, or other areas. Those who remain here are feeling dissatisfied. If some remission is made in the revenue, and if Radhapati Pande is appointed as Fouzdar, the ryots who have left the area may come back, and we who remain here may also be able to pay our dues to the government.
The petition was forwarded to Kathmandu by Chautariya Bam Shah and Subba Hastadal Shahi, who were incharge of the local administration in Kumaun at that time. The government thereupon issued the following order:
''The sum of Rs 13,312½, as assessed previously, shall be paid every year to the military companies stationed in that territory according to schedules approved by Bhardars appointed for the administration of Kumaun. The breakdown is as follows:-
Darma-Bhet … Rs 5,156¼ in each.
… Rs 5,156 ¼ in kind.
Byas-Bhet … Rs 3,000 in cash.
Total - Rs 13,312½
''Ryots who have fled to Besahar and other areas shall be brought back and resettled in their previous holdings.
''Radhapati Pande shall be appointed as Fouzdar for Darma-Bhet and Byas-Bhet for a five-year period on ijara basis.''
A leter of appointment as Fouzdar was accordinly issued to Radhapati Pande on the same day. He was placed under the obligation of bringing back the fugitives and arranging for the collection of Rs 13,312½ in cash and in kind as mentioned above, and for the transmission of the proceeds to the appropriate military companies.
A separate order was issued to the budhas and sayanas of Darma-Bhet and Byas-Bhet in Kumaun informing them of these arrangements and directing them to help the newly-appointed Fouzdar in discharging his duties.
A notification was issued in the name of the ryots of Darma-Bhet and Byas-Bhet who had fled to Besahar, Jumla, Garh, and elsewhere similarly informing them to these arrangements and directing them to come back and reoccupy their holdings. The notification added, ''We have also issued a royal order in the name of your creditors, directing them to recover their loans according to customary practices. Do not feel dissatisfied on your account. Come back and reoccupy your holdings and pay your dues through Fouzdar Radhapati Pande.''
The following royal order was issued to money-lenders who had supplied loans to the ryots of Darma-Bhet and Byas-Bhet: ''We have received reports that becaue you have charged interestsin excess of the customary rates, ryots have fled to Jumla, Besahar, Garh, and other areas, and lands have remained uncultivated. In the future, collect interest at ten percent yearly accordingly to the system that has been customarily followed everywhere. If you collect interest in excess of this rate, thereby depopulating the area, you shall be punished severely.''
Meanwhile, the ryots of Phaldokot, another area in Kumaun, submitted the following petition to Kathmandu: ''In the (Vikrama) year 1862, revenue from his area had been assessed at Rs 7,000. Lands yielding a revenue of Rs 831 and 1 anna were subsequently assigned to the magazine, as well as jagirs to several persons. Bhitan Das then imposed a new levy called tanka and thus raised the amount by Rs 2,500 so that it reached Rs 8,668 and 15 annas. We are still liable to pay this account as revenue, even though the company has been disbanded. As a result, several ryots have fled, and lands have remained uncultivated. We who still remain here will no longer be able to do so and continue paying our dues if the amount arbitrarily increased by Bhitan Das is not remitted.''
The government thereupon issued the following order in the name of the Kamis, Sayanas, Pradhans, and other Jimidars of Phaldakot: ''Out of the amount of Rs 2,500 increased by Bhitan Das, a sum of Rs 1,285 and 3 annas shall be remitted. The total amount payavle on thek basis will then be Rs 7,383 and 14 annas. The breakdown is as follows:-
Revenue assessed in the
Vikrama year 1862 … Rs 7,000.
Saunefagu … Rs 115 and 2 annas.
Adhanni levy … Rs 268 and 12 annas.
Total - Rs 7,383 and 14 annas.
''This amount shall be transmitted to the Naya Gorakh Company stationed in Kumaun.
''Bring back the ryots who have fled to other areas and resettle them in their previous holdings.''
The following order was then sent to Chautariya Bam Shah and Kaji Rewanta Kunwars.
''In the Vikrama year 1862, the Sum of Rs 7,000, assessed as revenue from Phaldakot, had been allocated for the payment of salaries to the personnel of the seven units (Patti) of the Naya Gorakh Company stationed in Kumaun. Subsequently, lands yielding a revenueof Rs 831 and 1 annas were assigned to the magazine, as wel as Jagir to different persons. Bhitan Das then imposed a new levy, called tanka and raised the amount of revenue by Rs 2,500, thus making a total amount of Rs 8,668 and 15 annas. The amount of revenue remained unchanged even after the Company was disbanded. Because the amount was more than the territory could bear, ryots fled and land remained uncultivated. As a result, the troops are not receiving their salaries. The ryots who remain are also feeling discontented. Since we have received reports to this effect, we have reconfirmed the revenue assessed in the Vikrama year 1862 at Rs 7,383 and 14 annas on thek basis and assigned the territory of Phaldakot to the Naya Gorakh Company. We have issued orders to the ryots of make payments accordingly every year.''
Chautariya Bam Shah and Kaji Rewanta Kanwar were then informed that Kaji Ambar Simha had been ordered to make disbursements as follows:-
Rs 11,025 … Salaries of the Naya Gorakh Company,
including seven newly-recruited
Pattis and other ranks (Lajima).
Rs 798 … Allowances to do.
Rs 7,304 … Allowances to the four old Pattis
and other ranks
Rs 1,000 … Part payment against Rs 2,000 allowances
of Kaji Amar Simha Thapa.
Rs 1,000 … do. of Kaji Ranjor Thapa.
Total - Rs 15,127
To meet this expenditure, funds were as follows:
Revenue collected from Phaldakot … Rs 7,383 and 1 annas.
do. Dhaniyakot … Rs 1,830 and 11 anans.
do. Uchakot … Rs 1,557
do. Phota … Rs 4,355 and 7 annas.
Total - Rs 15,217
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 28, pp. 648-57.
(Continued from the November 1979 issue)
60. If a man or woman belonging to any pure (Chokho) caste, from a sacred-thread-wearing castes to one whose touch does not defile water, takes cooked rice and water from the hands of any person, or engaged in sexual intercourse, knowing full well that the latter has been ostracized in respect to cooked rice and water for having taken cooked rice and water from the hands of a person belonging to a caste whose touch defiles water and contamination through contact with whom must be purified through the sprinkling of water,
and if the former has been ostracized in respect to cooked rice and water, because a confessional or statement of his guilt was obtained from him, or even before such a confessional or statement was obtained from him or her, he or she reported the matter on his or her own initiative,