|3. G. E. Von Grunebaum, ''Islam in a Humanistic Education,'' in Stewart Robinson, The Traditional Near East. New Jersey Prentice Hall, 1966. p. 48.
4. Huhammad Mustafa Khan ''Maddah,'' Urdu-Hindi Shabdakosha (Urdu-Hindi Dictionary), Uttar Pradesh, Publications Division, Department of Information, 1959, p. 390.
5. H.H. Wilson, A Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Tersm and of Useful Words Occuring in Official Documents Ralating to the Administration of the Government of British India. (Reprint of 1855 ed.). Delhi Mushiram Manoharlal, 1968, p. 158.
6. E. A. H. Blunt, The Caste System of Northern India, cited in J. H. Hutton: Caste in India, Bombay: Oxford University Press, 1969, p. 98.
7. ''Royal Order Regarding Collection of Chandrayan fees in Vijayapur,'' Marga Sudi 15, 1872. (December 1815). Regmi Research Collection, vol. 42, p. 152. A full translation of this document is given below: ''To the four Dharmadhikar Brahmans. Fees collected as Chandrayana for the crime of sexual intercourse between a Brahman's slave and a Damai in Bunchan mouja, Khalisa Parganna, Chainpur district, were used to pay salaries (bali and allowances (Petiya-Kharcha) to the troops recruited in Morang, as well as ritual gifts during religious ceremonies conducted at the temples of Sri Kalika and Sri Pindeswara, through Colonel Bhaktabir Thapa. With this exception, collect other fees (rakam) when appropriate by joining the army at Vijayapur from Aswin Sudi 10, 1872.''
8. ''Royal Order Regarding Chandrayana Expiation,'' Baisakh Sudi 15, 1875. Regmi Research Collection, vol. 28, pp. 506-507. A full translation of this document is given below: ''To the Amalidars and Tharis of Guyadi. In the area under the jurisdiction of Sri Mehar Paltan, Ratnya and Deumanya beat up and murdered a Brahman woman called Chhyaki. They underwent trial by ordeal (nya) in a court presided over by Bichari Kantu Padhya, and lost. Before they could be punished for that crime, Deumany died. Persons who had taken cooked rice from his hands have come here to request that they be granted expiation (prayaschitta). Deumanya is dead, hence his sons, and Ratnya, who offered cooked rice to other persons by hiding their crime, shall be punished. Persons who have taken cooked rice from their hands (without knowledge of the crime) shall be made in undergo the Chandrayana ritual through the Dharmadhikar.
9. ''Royal Order Regarding Expiation for the Offense of Taking Water from the Hands of Gaines,'' Shrawan Badi 10, 1867. Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 302. This order was addressed to all castes and communities in areas between Kathmandu and the Dudhkosi river who customarily not take water from the hands of members of the Gaine communities.
It states: ''Purna Shahi's wife has committed the crime of sexual intercourse with a Gaine. Accordingly, the Chandrayana ritual must be performed in consideration of taking water polluttted by touch. Pay ritual gifts (dakshina) at the following rates through the Dharmadhikar, Daivajnya Keshari Pandit, obtain expiation through writs bearing his seal, and thus make yourselves ritally pure. Abnybody who does not undergo expiation in this manner shall be obstracized in the use of water. If he violates such sanctions, he shall be punished.'' The fees amounted to one rupee each for the first offender, eight annas to one rupee each for any person who took water from his hands, four annas each offenders in the third category, two paisa each for the offenders, and one paisa each for government employees and servicemen.
Notification Regarding Transport of Electric Equipment
From Bhimphedi, 1911
You are aware that the government has started a project to supply electricity from Pharping to Kathmandu town. Electric supply will make it possible for several factories to be started in the town, therby ensuring its progress in every field.
Supplies and equipment have been procured from abroad for the execution of this project. It is necessary to transport these supplies from Bhimphedi to Pharping and Kathmandu without any delay through porters. It is not possible to transport all these supplies only through porters on payment of wages. Accordingly, it is necessary for the inhabitants of areas situated east of the Bishnumati river, west of the Bagmati river, south of Bansbari and Balaju, and north of the Bagmati river to extend help in this task.
Each household in these areas shall, therefore, be under obligation to provide the services of two porters at Bhimphedi to transport the supplies to the prescribed destinations. Those households who cannot make available the services of porters in this manner shall pay Rs 4, at the rate of Rs 2 for one porter. Regulations to this effect have already been promulgated, and a separte office has been established.
In other countries, the municipality collects taxes for financing water supply, sanitation, roads, etc. No such taxes have been imposed here. Nor has any tax been imposed on residential sites, while water supply and sewerage facilities are free.
Moreover, the present levy has been imposed not on individuals but on households. If any household is so indigent, that it can neither supply porters nor pay the levy, it shall be exempt from the obligation.
If any household has only widows, or minors below the age of 16 years, or old persons above the age of 60 years, it shall similarly be exempt from the obligation.
In Nepal, no regular taxes have been imposed, but only labor services have been impressed from each household in this manner when necessary. If, even then, you do not provide such services when called upon to do so, you will remember how in the Vikrama year 1860, forced-labor (Jhara) services were impressed in both the east and the west for the construction of a bridge over the Bagmati river, and how an annual tax has been levied since Bagmati river, and how an annual tax has been levied since then on all households in the east on the ground that they did not provide such services. If, therefore, you do not provide porterage services in the present instance, an annula money tax may similarly be imposed. Understand this, and provide porters, or make cash payments in lieu thereof, to the officer designated for that purpose, and obtain receipts thereagainst.
(Source: Gorkhapatra, Falgun 10, 1966 (February 21, 1911).
The Baise and Chaubise Principalities
Mohan Bahadur Malla
(''Baise Chaubise Parichaya'' (An introduction to the Baise and Chaubise principalities). Nepali, quarterly, published by the Madan Puraskar Guthi, Sridarbartol, Lalitpur, Magh-Chaitra, 2032 (January-March 1976), pp. 3-38. Continued from the August 1979 issue).
17. The kings of Dhurkot called themselves Malla. Since members of the same dynasty called themselves Shahi or Malla, the term Malla Shahi has been used here. Malla and Shahi were two different administrative parties in the Karnali region. The post of Malla was occupied by the Pals, and of Shahi by Raithors. Posts can be changed, but to change the [g…] is difficult. The gotra of the Kashidars Raithor, who came in Jumla was Atri. Their descendants have not been able to change it. The gotra of the Varman Samala of 16 principalities in the Karnali region and 3 in the Gandaki region is the same. Gorkhali troops conquered Dhurkot on Thursday, Aswin 2, 1843 Vikrama.
18. Isma, which was ruled by the Simha dynasty, is situated to the north of Gulmi and on the left banks of the Badigad river. Magars predominated in this hill region also.
In this context, it is necessary to know something about the life of Bahadur Shah, who ran the administration of Nepal at the time. Bahadur Shah was born in 1814 Vikrama from Narendra Laxmi, the younger queen of Prithvi Narayan Shah. He was the second son of Prithvi Narayan Shah. At the time of his parents' death, he was aged 17 years. At this very age, he was granted the title of Chautariya by his brother, King Pratapa Simha. But 16 months later, that is, in 1833 Vikrama, he was banished to Tanahu. He spent 5 months in Tanahu and 2 months in Palpa. Later he moved to Bettiah to lead an ordinary life. When he had been there for 10 months, Pratapa Simha died. He was then recalled by his sister-in-law. On Marga 25, 1835 Vikrama, he returned to Kantipur. However, he was compelled to work under the tight control of his sister-in-law.
On Magh 27, 1835 Vikrama, Bahadur Shah personally commanded the Gorkhali force and conquered Tanahu. But because of palace intrigues, he went back to Bettiah in Aswin 1836 Vikrama.
In the month of Poush 1836 Vikrama, King Harakumara Datta Sen, who was then staying at Rajpur, attacked the Gorkhali troops stationed at Jyamrak in Tanahu, and drove them off. Rajendra Laxmi then remembered Bahadur Shah and enstrusted the entire responsibility for was preparations to him. During a period of three year, from 1839to 1942 Vikrama, Bahadur Shah annexed all principalities up to Kali river. Bahadur Shah had to make his own arrangements for his marriage. This gives an idea about his position. He did not have the initiative while he remained under strict control of his sister-in-law. But after he was given freedom, the Gorkhali army suffered no defeat in any battle.
On Ashwin 4, 1836 Vikrama, a fierce battle was fought in Isma between the Parbat and Gorkhali forces. At least 1000 men were killed in this battle. The Parbat troops, which suffered a defeat in this battle, crossed the Badigad river, and concentrated its attention on strenghthening its fortifications in western Parbat. Isma was then annexed by Nepal.
19. Parbat, now situated in the Dhaulagiri zone, had 16,000 roofs. It was with the support of Parbat that Lamjung usually displayed arrogance toward Gorkha. Medini Varman, ruler of Sija, had granted the principality of Rukum to his second son, Pitambara. Jaitur Varman, Pitambar's son, had eight sons. His second son, Ananda, was accepted as ruler of Parbat by the people of Nisi and Bhuji. Dimha, his grandson, expanded the territories of Parbat by conquering Takum, Pula, Jyamruk, Rakhu, Galkot, Chandrakot, Biunkot, Dandakot, Bajungkot, and Mustang. Pratapi Narayana, Dimba's grandson, split Parbat into two parts. Galkot (2,00o roofs)
and Parbat (16,000 roofs). Golkot was granted to Jitari Varman, the eldest osn, while Parbat went to Raja Varman, the second son. Before the pertition of Parbat, its ruler used to run its affairs usually from Dhor, and sometimes from Takum. After it was parititioned, its rulers stayed mostly at Dhortana, and only occasionally at Dhor. Beni was the center of trade between Tibet and the hill region, like Sija in the Karnali region-Tansen (Palpa) and Beni of Parbat, Mala Varman, Shaha Varman and Kriti Varman, used to stay at Beni or Dhorthan for eight months, and at Takum for four months in the year. During the rule of its last ruler, Kirti Varman, Parbat fought many battles against Gorkha as Lamjung did.
After their victory in the battle of Isma on Aswin 4, 1843 Vikrama, Jiva Shah, Shivanarayana Khatri and Paratha Bhandari moved into Parbat from the west. Two days earlier, Kaji Damodar Pande and Kaji Jagajit Pande had reached Parbat from Kaski after crossing the Modi river. The Parbat forces were watching the movement of the Gorkhali troops from Bajung and Durlung. The Gorkhali troops clashed with the Parbats two or three times, but could not advance further. The Gorkhalis were bogged down on the western front as well. Seeing this, Yoga Narayan Malla, who had occupied Khanchi, along with Ambar Simha Rana, who was then at Chandrakot, reached Baglung through Thanthap and Balewar. This area was unprotected. At this, the Parbate troops stationed in Durlung and Bajung rushed to Beni. In the night of Aswin 13, 1843 Vikrama, King Kirti Varma fled through Dhor along with his family. The next day, the Gorkhali troops, led by Yoga Narayan Malla and Ambar Simha Rana, reached Beni. Troops led by Kaji Damodar pande were at that time constructing a bridge on the Kali river. Kaji Jiva Shah's men were the last to reached Beni. The Gorkhalis celebrated the Dashain festival at Dhorthana.
Around 1546 Vikrama, Dimba conquered Galkot and amalgamated it with Parbat. Around 1631 Vikrama, Pratapi Narayan gave away Galkot to his eldest son, Jitari Varman; who was succeeded by eight kings: Parthiva, Bibhu, Sripati, Sridatta, Prithvipati, Narayan, Srinivasa, and Jagat Varman. It was during the reign of Jagat Varman that the Gorkhalis came to Galkot. Galkot entered into alliance with Parbat and sent its forces at Arghatos. The Gorkhalis had arrived in Galkot at the time of the sowing season. According to another version, they had reached the Bheri river on Magha 7, 1843 Vikrama, but had not occupied Galkot till then. Hence the Gorkhalis might have entered into Galkot only towards the end of Jestha 1844 Vikrama. The principality of Galkot was very weak. Moreover, there was the need to make a show of force before other principalities. This was probably the reason why the Gorkhalis quickly took over Galkot.
During the Prime Ministership of Jung Bahadur, it was the policy of his government of appease the rulers of principalities of making some territorial concessions through royal charters. Accordingly, in 1924 Vikrama, Jung Bahadur had a royal charter issued to King Prithvi Bam Malla confirming him as Raja of Galkot.
21. Located on either side of the Badigad river, Musikot was a small principality ruled by the Simha dynasty. When the King of Gulmi, the strongest principality under the Simha dynasty, fled, the Simhas could not unitedly fight against the Gorkhalis. Musikot appears to have joined Parbat in the battle of Isma. After that battle, both Isma and Musikot were occupied by the Gorkhalis. Musikot did not have the necessary strength to resist the Gorkhali troops. Bahadur Shah, however, followed the liberal policy of reconfirming the position of the ruler of any principality which declared allegiance to Gorkha.
22. Pyuthan was a big principality containing 12,000 roofs. In 1461 Vikrama, Jagati Simha Varman or Medini Varman, ruler of Sija, gave away the principality of Rukum to his younger brother Pitambara. A grandson of Pitambara was accepted by the Magars of Pyuthan as their king around 1515 Vikrama. since then, Pyuthan began to be ruled by Varman or Samal Shahi kings. After celebrating the Dashain festival of 1443 Vikrama at Dhorthana in Parbat, the Gorkhalis commanders marched towards Dhurkot to invade Pyuthan. The commanders were Kaji Damodar Pande, Kaji Jagajit Pande and Subba Faud Singh, who commanded altogether twelve battalions. On Kartik 29, 1843 Vikrama, Manichandra Shahi, the rulers of Pyuthan, fled from his principality and settled in Sheiraj.
23. Udayapur was ruled by Karki Brahmans. These Brahmans had been granted dispersed tracts of territory left left after Palpa, Gulmi and Khanchi had divided among themselves the territories conquered from the Magar principality of Buldyang. Syarta was possibly the old name of Udayapur. The clever Karki Brahmans sided with Salyan when they saw that it, along with Palpa, had titled towards Gorkha.
According to the Bhasha Vamshawali: ''The post of Kaudya was being guarded by troops belonging to Syarta and Salyan. Parbat attacked Kaudya and occupied it before reinforcements could be rushed there.
Dware Sawal Simha Sahi and Naraj Lama was wounded and taken prisoner, and later taken to Parbat. Guhari returned to Resunga. The enemy's troops were stationed in strength in Arghatosh at the time. Only one company of troops was left there and the remaining forces were concentrated in Argha. In the morning the enemy, entrenched in Arghatosh, attacked the Gorkhali forces stationed in Argha. A fierce battle ensued. Argha was occupied by the Gorkhalis. Another major battle was fought in Isma, and that principality too was occupied.''
A total of eight battalions of Gorkhali troops marched from karkikot via Ridighat. Two of them were dispatched to Chandrakot under the command of Ambar Simha Rana, one was sent to Khanchi under the command of Yoganarayan Malla, and one was stationed at Resunga. The remaining four battalion was commanded by Jiva Shah, Parath Bhandari and Shiva Narayan Khatri in Argha. The Parbat troops, which were staying in Arghatosh, reached Argha in the morning to fight the 2,000 Gorkhali troops stationed there. The number of Parbates was no less small. The Gorkhali troops had good weapons, including guns and cannon. Moreover, they were trained, and many of them were experienced in warfare. On the other hand, the Parbates were mostly raw recruits, who fought principality with arrows and swords. They were not experienced in the art of warfare either. They fought primarily by relying on their own physical strength.
The post of Kaudya appears to have been located in Udayapur. It was jointly guarded by the troops of Syarta and Salyan. Sawal Simha Sahi was the ruler of Salyan, and Naraj Lama of Syarta or Udayapur. The Lama must have belonged to the Gurung community. They people of Udayapur and received officially sealed weights and measures. This indicates that Udayapur was [an ally.] of Salyan at that time.
23. Mustang is a Bhote principality located to the north of the Muktinath area. The rulers of Mustang claimed to belong to the Pal dynasty. The inhabitants of Mustang subsist on trade between Tibet and the hill region and on livestock breeding. Mustang is a Himalayan principality, which is practically devoid of vegetation. Around 1550 Vikrama, it used to pay tribute to Parbat. Mustang had been occupied by Naga Malla, son of King Dimba of Parbat. Some of years later, King Malebam Malla of Parbat imprisoned the Jad King of Mustang at the Kagbeni fort of Parbat. Probably with the aim of freeing him, Jumla later invaded Parbat, but was repulsed. Mustang's trade was mainly control by the ruler. Since the time of Dimha, it used to Rajabam, however Jumla succeeded in occupying Mustang from Parbat. When Gorkha invaded Jumla in 1846 Vikrama, Mustang helped the Narsing-Khola and Chharkagaon routes, and even actually participated in the battle of their side. In consideration of this gratuitous assistance, Gorkha, on Jestha Sudi 9, 1847 Vikrama, granted additional territories to King Wangyal Dorje of Mustang three a treaty inscribed on a copper plate. Since then, Mustang had been paying Rs 929 and five horses annually as tribute to Gorkha.
I have presented an account up to the time of the merger into Nepal of the Baise principalities of the Karnali region and the Chaubise principalities of the Gandaki region. With the exception of a few with whom treaties had been conquered all these principalities and vassal states were abolished in 2016 Vikrama (A. D. 1960). After 1848 Vikrama, several new principalities appear to have come into being by splitting exist ones, so that it is difficult to idenity the original Baise and Chaubise principalities. There is some doubt about the existence of Bimkot and Bogati located across the Karnali river. But there is no doubt about the identity of the remaining 44 principalities.
Regmi Research (Private) Ltd,
Kathmandul: October 1, 1979.
Regmi Research Series
Year 11, No. 10
Mahesh C. Regmi
1. On Bicharis and Adalats 145
2. Preliminary Notes on the System of
Commercial Law in Ninetheenth-Century Nepal 148
3. Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, Sarlahi and Mahottari
Districts in 1948-49 153
4. Revenue Settlement in Tinthapaula, 1825 A.D. 157
5. Kathmahals in the Tarai and Inner Tarai
Regions at the end of the Nineteenth Century 160
Regmi Research (Private) Ltd
Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal
Compiled by Regmi Research (Private) Ltd for private study and research. Not meant for public sale or display.
On Bicharis and Adalats
1. Jurisdiction of Bicharis in Thak and Theni
Royal order to bicharis deputed to Theni and Panchagaun: ''From Baisakh 1, 1866 Vikrama, we have placed that area under the thekbandi system. accordingly, you are hereby ordered not to discharged the functions of Adalat in Theni and Panchagaun. Leave that area.''
Jestha Badi 30, 1866.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 40, p. 36.
Particulars regarding the thekbandi system introduced in Theni and Panchagaun are contained in another royal order issued on the same date in the name of Dayaram Budha, Tawa Budha, and other headmen and inhabitants. These are as follows: ''From Baisakh Badi 1, 1866 Vikrama, no bichari will be deputed to Theni from the royal palace. You shall no longer remain under the jurisdiction of the Thakalis. Taxes due from the inhabitants of Theni and Panchagaun who have migrated to other areas, collections made according to regular tax-assessments, judicial fines and penalties and escheat property not exceeding Rs 100 in value in each case shall be adjusted against the amount stipulated for payment (under the thekbandi arrangement), and the excess amount shall be transmitted separately to the royal palace. Inclusive of commission of one-sixth of the revenue actually collected, we hereby make a thekbandi arrangement for the payment of Rs 3,001 every year. Transmit the amount in installments as follows to the Tosakhana (at Kathmandu) through the local amil, and obtain clearance from him. Do not harasss and oppress the people, and do not submit false complaints. Interest as paid by traders shall be piad if payment is not made when installment become due.
Baisakh, Jestha, Ashadh - Rs 600.
Shrawan, Bhadra, Aswin - Rs 800.
Kartik, Marga, Poush - Rs 1,000.
Magh, Falgun, Chaitra - Rs 601.
Jestha Badi 30, 1866.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 40, pp. 37-38.
2. Bicharis in Majhkirat
On Jestha Sudi 11, 1871 (June 1814), Bicharis were deputed to hear complaints against amalis and dwares submitted by the inhabitants of villages assigned as Jagir to the Srinath Kampy into thums of Majhkirat: Halesi and Kharpa. They were also granted authority to dispense justice in Panchakhat crimes committed by those inhabitants. The Bicharis were ordered to dispense justice only on the basis of complaints, instead of sending peons to the villages to arrest people.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 43, pp. 583-84.
3. Bicharis in Pallokirat
Royal order to Kaji Jaspau Thapa: ''Appoint two bicharis to dispose of complaints filed by (the inahabitants of) areas assigned to the Srijung Paltan in the region east of the Arun river. Dispense justice without fear or favor and refer to us any case that you cannot dispose of on your own, and take action as ordered. Pay salaries as follows from the income collected in the course of such judicial functions. Divide 10 percent of the income accruing from fines and the Jitarui fee (collected from the winning litigant) into four equal parts, and grant two parts (to be two bicharis), royal palace. Submit accounts of income and expenditure and obtain clearance.
1 Bichari - Rs 175 yearly.
1 Bichari - Rs 175 yearly.
1 Tahabildar - Rs 60 yearly.
Bahidar - Rs 60 yearly.
Baisakh Sudi 4, 1882.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 34, pp. 2-3.
4. Bicharis in the Far-western Hill Region
Royal order to Subbas, Rais, Thekdars, mukhiyas, and mohis cultivating lands assigned to the Srinath Kampu in the Chainpur region east of the Arun river: ''We had previously issued a royal order directing that complaints (from the inhabitants of) areas assigned to the Kampu shall be heard by the Bichari of the Adalat, not by the Bhardar stationed in Dhankuta.