The actual date of Shakespeare's birth is not known, but, traditionally, April 23 has been Shakespeare's accepted birthday.
A house on Henley Street in Stratford, England, owned by William's father, John, is accepted as Shakespeare's birth place.
Shakespeare was a first-rate actor. He then became actor-manager and part-owner in the Blackfriars and afterwards the Globe Theatres.
Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's preeminent dramatist. His surviving works consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems.
Shakespeare’s plays have been translated into every major living language, and they are performed more often than those of any other playwright.
ACTIVITY # 1: Before Caesar/ After Caesar In the before column, List every thing you know about Shakespeare and the play, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
Rome was established in 753 B.C.
For 200 years ruled by Tarquin kings who were tyrants
The Tarquins were overthrown by Lucius Junius Brutus in 510 B.C. – an ancestor of Brutus in the play.
A democratic republic was then established which lasted until the death of Julius Caesar.
The Romans were very proud of their democratic system and were repulsed by the thought of being ruled by a king.
Triumvirate means three men and refers to a type of coalition government. It was formed of three men Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey who needed each other to get what they wanted.
When Cassus died, Caesar defeated Pompey.
What Got Caesar into Trouble? (Continued)
Many Romans assumed that Caesar was ready to declare himself King of Rome and eliminate the five hundred year old republic of which the Romans were so proud.
Remember the Tarquins, the tyrant kings who ruled over Rome for 243 years? There was no way Romans were going to return to that style of government. Someone had to put a stop to this pursuit of absolute power, and so enter the conspirators.
...Beware the Ides of March!
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
play, in five acts, about several men trying to save the Roman Republic from Caesar’s ambition of having complete control.
Before Caesar, Rome was a Republic
= equal citizenship and people could elect tribunes to represent them in tribunals = like congress and the senate!
Play Versus The History
Therefore, there is much historically accurate information, but a story to entertain the audience must also unfold.
Yes! There is much to learn from the works of William Shakespeare.
As we study this play, remember Shakespeare wished not only to inform his audience about the history of Julius Caesar but also to entertain them.
Julius Caesar's bloody assassination on March 15, 44 B.C., forever marked March 15, or the Ides of March, as a day of infamy.
Persuasion: Technique used by speakers and writers to convince an audience to adopt a particular viewpoint.
tragedy: a play in which events turn out disastrously for the main character or characters
a character whose basic goodness and superiority are marred by a tragic flaw
a fatal error in judgment that leads to the hero’s downfall.
Brutus-is noble, but is a poor judge of character-too rigid in his ethical and political principles
Caesar-brings great things to Rome, but proud, arrogant, and ambitious
a conversation between characters.
a speech by one character in a play, story or poem. Given to another character.
a long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage.
short speech delivered by an actor in a play, which expresses the character’s thoughts. Traditionally, the aside is directed to the audience and is presumed to be inaudible to the other actors.
Friendship vs Duty
Fate vs Free Will
You have 2 minutes to write 5+ sentences in which you respond to the following.
A good friend of yours has been elected president of the student council. Soon, you notice that he or she is abusing the position by claiming privileges and using it to further his or her social life. How would you deal with this situation?
Count off into groups
Each group list ten qualities or traits that qualify a person as a friend.
List five friend “infractions” that could end the friendship.
Address readers' concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations.
What might the opposition say, and how do you plan to counter attack?
Rhetoric: the art of speaking or writing effectively
the study of writing or speaking as a means of communication or persuasion; skill in the effective use of speech
Rhetorical devices: Using language to emphasize, explain, and unify ideas for a persuasive effect
Rhetorical Question-a statement that is formulated as a question but that is not supposed to be answered.
Rhetorical Question-a statement that is formulated as a question but that is not supposed to be answered.
Marriage is a wonderful institution, but who would want to live in an institution?
"Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions? If you prick us, do we not bleed, if you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die?
"Aren't you glad you use Dial? Don't you wish everybody did?"
Repetition- the reuse of the same words, or nearly identical terms, repeatedly for emphasis, in order to emphasize their importance.
“ I Have a Dream”-MLK
Anaphora – repitition of words
at the beginning of sentence.
Mad world! Mad kings! Mad composition! — William Shakespeare, King John, II, i
The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines.
"We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender."
(British Prime Minister Winston Churchill)
A comparison made between two things to show how they are alike.
Example: “Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you are going to get.”
Parallelism - The repeated use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar in structure or meaning. Writers use this technique to emphasize important ideas, create rhythm, and make their writing more forceful and direct.
Repetition of a similar sentence structure to create emphasis
Example: This week the party was canceled – not because of a lack of interest, not because of a lack of money, and not because of a lack of volunteers.
“ I came, I saw, I conquered.” – Julius Ceaser
"You can fool all the people some of the time, and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time." - Abraham Lincoln
In these six words Shakespeare gives us two complete opposites: existing and not existing.
Opposition, or contrast of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction
Many are called, but few are chosen.
“She’s so mean, but I love her anyway.”
“That class is great but I hate going.”
“I shouldn’t eat it, but I can’t stop!”
These all have antithetical elements in them. Each of these sentences are very dramatic. When you put the two antithetical thoughts together in such a short phrase, you get drama.
“I really enjoy our relationship together on occasion because we do fun things together such as swimming, shopping, watching movies and other things but you really have some habits that thoroughly annoy me at time as well and I’m conflicted with how I feel about you.” Where’s the drama there? How about “I love and hate you.” Whoa. NOW I want to know more about this relationship. DRAMA!
"Extremism in defense of liberty is no vice, moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue." (Barry Goldwater - Republican Candidate for President 1964)
"Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more". (Brutus in: " Julius Caesar" by William Shakespeare)
In English Language, the order of words is important:
“The dog bit the boy. vs. “The boy bit the dog.”
Shakespeare rearranges words to create rhythm-it’s poetry!
Characters will have their own speech patterns- Romeo often speaks in couplets.
He often places verb before subject
Instead of “He Goes”=Goes He.
Instead of Does he go?=Go does he?
Activity 2: Translation
Write down 4 lines each of dialogue
Thou: Subject: Thou art my friend
Thee: Object: Come, let me hug thee
Thy: Possessive adj: Where is thy dog?
Thine: Possessive noun: To thine own self b tru
And an “est” or “st” to the verb for exaggerated inflection.
Where didst thou go?
Thou liest, he came alone.
A POET AND A COMEDIAN
Wrote plays in blank verse= unrhymed iambic pentameter-10 syllables-5 stressed beats
Pun-play on words that sound the same but have different meanings:
Ex. Kick your butt
Activity 3: Puns
emphasis on language and the human voice
Shakespeare had to create atmosphere and setting through language. IMAGERY.
Shakespeare’s audience accepted the stage convention of heightened language, often in verse.
no-one spoke in verse outside the theatre.
Et tu, Brute?-Then Fall, Caesar.
Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears:
Yet Brutus says, he was ambitious, And Brutus is an honorable man.
Beware the Ides of March
Speech # 1 (minimum 300 words)
Although you are not a fan of Julius Caesar, you, (insert your name/profession here), are on your way to see the celebration of Caesar’s return. You come upon the others celebrating. Prepare a persuasive monologue addressed to the crowd to convince them why they should not be celebrating Julius Caesar.
Be sure to use appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos. Highlight the appeals in 3 different colors.
Content reflects understanding of events in the play so far.-2pt
Total of 7 points per speech
Everyone in group creates a character and writes a speech (minimum 30 words)
Elect 1 person only to give speech every week.
The whole group is responsible for the speech. (Everyone is responsible for giving the best speech)
The best speech each week earns 2 extra points.
Skim through the beginning of the play
Review your FYI notes.
Speech # 2- Due: Today/ Speech Given Thursday
Due to your increased popularity after having spoken at the “Hail Caesar” Rally, you have been asked to appear before the Senate on the Ides of March to present a bill of your creation suggesting what is the most important problem in Rome the Senate needs to address. You may or may not want to focus this bill on an area that you are directly affiliated with. You may supplement your speech with visuals.
Use 3 rhetorical strategies
Speech # 3
CAESAR IS DEAD! And you are popular. Whether you intended to or not the opportunity to seize power in Rome is upon you. A few well placed speeches coupled with a blistering ad campaign and you could be called Caesar in the near future. (cont on next page
Your first opportunity is to speak at the funeral of Caesar before Brutus or Marc Antony. Commiserate and sympathize with them. Tell the people of what you think about what has happened. Tell them what needs to happen now. Tell them who to watch out for. Tell them how you can provide them what they need. Tell them what you need to get their support.
Caesar Persuasive Essay Due TBD
See literature book pg 915 for all the details.
Assessed using the CAHSEE rubric for Persuasive Essays.
Choose a number (no name on essay)
Standard WA 2.4
4=200 4-=195 3+=190 3=180 3-=170
Throughout the play, Brutus defends his reasons for killing Caesar. Antony just as eloquently states why Caesar should not have been killed. Write a position paper taking either Brutus’ or Antony’s part.
A score of 4
4-states and maintains a position, authoritatively defends the position with precise and relevant evidence, and convincingly addresses the reader’s concerns, biases, and expectations.
Score of 3
States and maintains a position, generally defends that position with precise and relevant evidence, and addresses the reader’s concerns, biases, and expectations.
Score of 2
Defends a position with little evidence and may address the reader’s concerns, biases, and expectations.
Score of 1
Fails to defend a position with any evidence and fails to address the reader’s concerns, biases, and expetations
Brutus is one of the men who assassinate Caesar in the Senate.
Mark Antony is one of the Triumvirs (leaders) who rule Rome following Caesar's assassination.
Cassius is one of the original conspirators against Caesar.
Calphurnia is the wife of Caesar who begs him not to go to the Senate on "the ides of March."
Portia is the wife of Marcus Brutus who tries to learn from Brutus the assassination conspiracy he is hiding from her.
"Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him". Quote (Act III, Scene II).