Rare Books Collection
When Monash University began in 1961, one of the earliest major purchases was of a collection of Swift items. This was acquired from David Woolley, a local collector who subsequently became editor of Swift’s correspondence.
Monash has continued to develop its Swift Collection, buying for example all of the early editions of Gulliver’s Travels and A Tale of a Tub, as well as some Swift manuscripts.
This has been a major attraction for researchers in the area, in particular, Professor Clive Probyn, who has been on the staff of the Monash English Department since 1982 but will be retiring at the end of this year. This exhibition has been arranged primarily as a tribute to him.
The Swift Collection is not held in a vacuum. One of the responsibilities of developing a rare books collection is to place material in its context and that has been successfully done here. Among the writers of the early eighteenth century, Swift’s greatest contemporary was Daniel Defoe. Monash’s holdings are almost as strong in Defoe as in Swift. Their careers present parallels, the most obvious being that each is now generally remembered for one book, Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels, and Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe.
Rare Books Librarian.
1. The Revd. Jonathan Swift, D.D., Dean of St. Patrick’s Dublin. Engraving by Andrew Miller from the 1739 portrait by Francis Bindon. (Donor David Woolley)
2. The Revd. Doctor Swift, Dean of Saint Patricks. Engraving by Fourdrinier after a 1710 portrait by Charles Jervas. (Donor David Woolley)
3. The Reverend Doctor Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick’s Dublin. Engraving by Burford, 1744, after a painting by Markham.
The first three items in the exhibition are contemporary engravings, from portraits painted of Swift in his life-time, show him in his clerical garb as Dean of St. Patrick’s, Dublin, a position he occupied from 1713.
4. Swift’s death mask, by Leonard Baskin. Frontispiece to A modest proposal / Jonathan Swift ; illustrated by Leonard Baskin. (New York : Grossman, 1969)
Swift’s death mask is in Trinity College, Dublin. This representation of it by the American sculptor and artist, Leonard Baskin, appears as the frontispiece to his edition of A Modest Proposal. He uses another contemporary portrait of Swift as a basis for illustration in the book, and a representation of Ireland as Moloch, eating its children.
5. Swift, Jonathan (1667-1745)
Autograph letter, signed to Rev. William Diaper, 30 April, 1713.
Autograph letter, unsigned, to Charles Ford, 7 June 1713.
Autograph letter, signed, to the Rev. Henry Jenney, 8 June 1732.
Autograph letter, signed, to Frances Kelly, 4 May 1733.
Autograph draft letter in “Anglo-Latino,” to Dr. Thomas Sheridan, [late July 1735?]
Autograph memorandum, signed, concerning St. Patrick’s Cathedral, 21 May 1739.
Examples of our Swift manuscript material. These have been used as the basis for articles by Prof. Clive Probyn of the English Department, and published in David Woolley's edition of Swift's correspondence.
The “Anglo-Latino” was part of the punning and word play Swift and his circle enjoyed.
Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels
6. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
Travels into several remote nations of the world : in four parts / by Lemuel Gulliver, first a surgeon, and then a captain of several ships. (London : Printed for B. Motte, 1726) 4 pts. in 2 v.
If he had never written Gulliver’s travels, Swift would now be scarcely better known than Burnet, Atterbury, or a score of other 18th century polemicists. Gulliver is his only work known outside academic circles. First published on 28th October 1726, it was an immediate success, three editions appearing by December, with a fourth, and an illustrated edition in 1727. All of these early editions are on display. Also included are “Keys” to the work; contemporary attempts to unlock the political satire.
7. Travels into several remote nations of the world vol. 3 / by Captain Lemuel Gulliver. (London : [s.n.], 1727)
Our set of the “A edition”, i.e. the very first edition of Gulliver is accompanied by the exceedingly rare, spurious third volume. To capitalise on the popularity of the work a continuation, pretending to be by Swift, was rushed into print, based on an earlier imaginary voyage, The history of the Severambians, by Vairasse d’Allais.
8. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
Travels into several remote nations of the world : in four parts / by Lemuel Gulliver, first a surgeon, and then a captain of several ships. To which are prefix'd, several copies of verses explanatory and commendatory ; never before printed. 2nd ed. (London : Printed for Benj. Motte, 1727) 2 v.
Apart from the frontispiece portrait of Gulliver and the maps, which were in the earliest editions, this is the first to have illustrations of events in the narrative. We see Gulliver on his fourth journey, to the land of the Houyhnhnms, the intelligent horses, and the Yahoos, degenerate humans.
9. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
Voyages de Gulliver. 2nd edition (Paris : Chez Gabriel Martin, 1727) 2 v. bound in 1
The French edition has very fine engravings.
10. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
Gulliver's voyage to the giants ; embellished with engravings on wood. (Edinburgh : Printed for Oliver & Boyd, [1825?])
The book’s continued popularity with children is based on abridged reprints of the first voyage to Lilliput, land of the little people, and the second voyage, to Brobdingnag, land of the giants.
Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe
11. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
The life and strange surprizing adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner : who lived eight and twenty years all alone in an un-inhabited island on the coast of America ... With an account how he was at last as strangely deliver'd by pyrates / written by himself. 3rd edition. (London : Printed for W. Taylor ..., 1719)
The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe : being the second and last part of his life, and of the strange surprising accounts of his travels round three parts of the globe / Written by himself : To which is added a map of the world, in which is delineated the voyages of Robinson Crusoe. (London : printed for W. Taylor, 1719)
Serious reflections during the life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, with his vision of the angelick world. / Written by himself. (London : Printed for W. Taylor ..., 1720)
Defoe’s most famous work was Robinson Crusoe. As with Gulliver’s Travels, it is a novel posing as a factual memoir. Here we see this immensely popular work with its two seldom-read sequels. In Part II, Crusoe and Friday return to the island, and Part III, is a series of essays in which Crusoe gives his ideas on such matters as the reality of the spirit world, ending with a vision of Heaven. Unlike Swift, who was a clergyman, Defoe wrote for his living, so was quite willing to write sequels to his most successful work.
12. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner : who lived eight and twenty years all alone in an uninhabited island, on the coast of America, near the mouth of the great river, Oroonoque. With an account of his travels round three parts of the world / written by himself. (London : Printed at the Logographic Press, and sold by F. Walter, No. 169, Piccadilly, opposite Old Bond Street, 1790) 3 v.
An edition noted for its fine illustrations.
13. Martin, A. Patchett (Arthur Patchett), 1851-1902.
The new and original grand Christmas pantomime entitled Robinson Crusoe : or, Friday and his funny family / altered for this production by ... A. P. Martin. (Melbourne : W. S. Lyster, )
Well-known stories such as Robinson Crusoe were used as the basis of Christmas pantomimes. Typically a local writer would adapt the story and the characters with references known to their audience. This version produced by the Lyster Opera Company in Melbourne included as a scene, "The view of the forthcoming exhibition", i.e. the Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880.
Defoe’s Poetry and his Portrait
14. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
A hymn to the pillory. 2nd ed. corr., with additions. (London : [s.n.], 1703)
As part of his punishment for writing The Shortest way with Dissenters, Defoe had to stand in the pillory on three days in July 1703. His reputation as a hero of the common people grew, and he wrote this poem to sell to the crowds.
15. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
Jure divino : a satyr. In twelve books / by the author of The True-Born-Englishman. (London : [s.n.], 1706)
The frontispiece shows an engraving of the author by Van der Gucht. The poem, a satire on the Tory belief in the Divine Right of Kings, was written while Defoe was imprisoned in Newgate, and was published by subscription.
Swift’s Tale of a Tub
16. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
A tale of a tub : written for the universal improvement of mankind ... To which is added, An account of a battel between the antient and modern books in St. James's Library ...(London : printed for John Nutt, 1704-1710) "A full and true account of the battel fought last Friday, between the antient and the modern books" and "A discourse concerning the mechanical operation of the spirit" have separate title-pages.
On display are the first five editions (1704-1710). The 5th edition is notable for its illustrations. The book was Swift’s first major work and includes his contribution to the controversy then current as to whether the state of learning was superior among the ancients or the moderns. Swift’s patron Sir William Temple supported the ancients so Swift wrote in support of them as well.
Also included are contemporary “Keys” to the Tale.
17. Phalaris. (d. c 554 BC)
Phalaridis agrigentinorum tyranni epistolae / ed. Charles Boyle. (Oxford : John Crooke, )
Temple had used as an example of the superiority of the ancients, the Epistles of Phalaris, and a new edition was published, edited by Charles Boyle of Oxford. Unfortunately the “moderns” were able to prove, through the leading classicist of the day, Richard Bentley, that these “Epistles” were spurious.
Phalaris was a tyrant in Sicily, best remembered for roasting his enemies alive in a brass bull. The screams of his victims were heard as roars through the bull’s mouth. Perillus, the bull’s creator was chosen by Phalaris as the first victim, to demonstrate the effect. When Phalaris was overthrown, he too was put to death in the bull.
Swift’s political works
18. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
A discourse of the contests and dissensions between the nobles and the commons in Athens and Rome, with the consequences they had upon both those states. (London : Printed for John Nutt ... , 1701)
This was Swift’s first separately published work. His early career was under the patronage of Sir William Temple, one of the Whigs. At the time the Tories controlled the House of Commons and the Whigs the House of Lords. Swift’s pamphlet argues against an attempt by the Tories to impeach five of the Whig Lords.
19. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
The conduct of the allies, and of the late ministry, in beginning and carrying on the present war. (London : Printed for John Morphew, 1712 [i.e.1711])
In 1895 Swift has taken his first parish at Kilroot in County Antrim, in north-eastern Ireland. He quickly began to see the difficulties besetting the Church in Ireland, however he was unable to obtain any satisfaction from his Whig friends so turned his support towards Harley and the Tories.
The conduct of the Allies, written to turn the public against Marlborough and the war on the continent, was Swift’s most successful pamphlet. 11,000 copies were distributed between November 1710 and January 1711 when Parliament returned. It was freely quoted in the House and the decision was carried in favour of peace.
Defoe’s political works
20. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731. (attrib.)
A dialogue betwixt Whig and Tory, aliàs Williamite and Jacobite, wherein the principles and practices of each party are fairly and impartially stated. ([London : s.n.], 1693)
Defoe began as a pamphleteer much earlier than Swift. Like Swift, almost all of his works were anonymous and there has been much debate on attribution. This pamphlet is considered to be “possibly by Defoe.” As he wrote for both sides of politics, the situation is further clouded.
21. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
A defence of the allies and the late ministry, or Remarks on the Tories new idol : being a detection of the manifest frauds and falsities, in a late pamphlet, entituled, The conduct of the allies and the late ministry, in the beginning and carrying on the war. (London : Printed, and sold by J. Baker, at the Black-Boy in Pater-Noster-Row, 1712 [i.e.1711])
Defoe’s attack on Swift, “the Tories new idol,” and on his pamphlet.
Defoe? vs. Swift?
22. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731. (attrib.)
Hannibal at the gates, or, The progress of Jacobitism, with the present danger of the Pretender. (London : Printed for J. Baker, 1712)
After the flight of James II to France in 1688, there were recurrent threats that the French would support an invasion of Britain to restore James or later his son, “the Pretender” to the throne. The High Tories were rumoured to be in favour of this. Although it was a real danger and unsuccessful invasions took place in 1708 and 1715, the issue was more often used as a bogey to scare the populace.
23. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745. (attrib.)
Hannibal not at our gates: or, an enquiry into the grounds of our present fears of popery and the Pre[ten]der: in a dialogue between my Lord Panick, and George Steady, Esq. (London : printed for E. Thornhill, 1714)
This was the pamphlet written in the Tory interest, replying to the previous one. In fact it is uncertain whether Defoe or Swift wrote either of these, but in the atmosphere of anonymous paper warfare, such attributions were believed.
A Periodical and a Broadside
24. The Examiner (London : Morphew, 1710-1716) nos. 11 (5 Oct. 1710) to no. 51 (19 July 1711)
Swift was disappointed by the Whigs in his attempt for preferment. When the Tories came to power in 1710, he was taken up by Robert Harley and began to write their paper, The Examiner. He is known to have written nos, 13-45. The intention was to expose the corruption of the previous government, undermine public support for Marlborough, who was leading the British Army on the continent, and end Britain’s involvement in the European War of the Spanish Succession.
25. A Discription of that barbarous action of Monsieur Guiscard in the stabing of Mr. Harley at the Council Chamber, March 8th., 1711. ([London : s.n.], 1711) Illustrated broadside with engraving depicting the stabbing
Guiscard was a Frenchman who had been spying for the English. After a dispute about his payment he began to work for the French. When he was discovered and accused, he attempted to stab Harley, lightly wounding him. Guiscard was overpowered and died afterwards of his injuries. This added to Harley’s popularity, making him a hero who had escaped assassination by the forces of Popery and the French. Swift composed an issue of The Examiner on the incident. (no. 33)
Fine and Limited editions
26. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
Gulliver's travels into several remote nations of the world / Jonathan Swift ; illustrated by Arthur Rackham. (London : J.M. Dent ; New York : E.P. Dutton, 1909)
We have a large selection of 19th and 20th century children’s editions. Arthur Rackham, famous for his Grimm’s Fairy Tales, was also commissioned to illustrate Gulliver’s travels.
27. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
Travels into several remote nations of the world : in four parts / by Lemuel Gulliver, first a surgeon, & then a captain of several ships. Waltham Saint Lawrence, [England] : Golden Cockerel Press, 1925. 2 v.
The illustrations are designed and engraved on wood by David Jones
28. Whistler, Rex, 1905-1944.
Engravings by Rex Whistler for Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's travels : printed from the original plates. ([England] : Harrison and Sons for H.M. Fletcher, 1970) 1 portfolio (30 sheets)
Many book illustrators have “done” Gulliver’s travels. One of the most striking of the modern attempts is that of the English artist Rex Whistler.
29. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
A voyage to Lilliput by Lemuel Gulliver, mdcic. ; A voyage to Brobdingnag made by Lemuel Gulliver in the year mdccii. ([New York] : Limited Editions Club, 1950)
As well as children’s editions, there have been many privately printed limited editions of Gulliver. This publication by the Limited Editions Club in New York comes in a slipcase housing the miniature Voyage to Lilliput (94 mm) and the giant Voyage to Brobdingnag (48 cm.)
Flat Case 1
30. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
Fraud detected, or, The Hibernian patriot : containing all the drapier's letters to the people of Ireland, on Wood's coinage, &c. ... : to which are added, Prometheus, a poem : also a new poem to the drapier : and the songs sung at the Drapier's Club in Truck Street, Dublin. (Dublin : Re-printed and sold by George Faulkner, 1725)
Swift was born in Ireland and, although he would dearly have wished preferment in England, was compelled to spend most of his career as Dean of St. Patrick’s, Dublin. His popularity with the Irish people rested largely on the success of his campaign against “Wood’s half-pence” carried on in his Drapier’s Letters. These were five pamphlets published in 1724 by Swift in the person of an Irish linen draper as opposed to the British hardwareman who was trying to flood Ireland with halfpennies worth less than their face value and so debase Irish trade.
31. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
A modest proposal for preventing the children of poor people from being a burthen to their parents or country, and for making them beneficial to the publick / by Dr. Swift. (Dublin : Printed by S. Harding ; London : Re-printed; and sold by F. Roberts in Warwick-Lane, and the pamphlet-shops, 1729)
Writing a pamphlet to set out a “Modest proposal” was common in the period. Usually the person was proposing an idea to improve trade or industry, and Swift consciously uses this form to bring before the public his scheme for bettering the lot of the Irish. His idea is that the children of Irish peasants be bred for the table. The points in favour of his proposal are set out in sober detail in an attempt to shock the English into a realisation of the plight of the poor in Ireland.
I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London that a young healthy child, well nursed, is, at a year old, a most delicious, nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked or boiled.
32. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
“Sermon VIII. On the causes of the wretched conditions of Ireland,” in The sermons of the Reverend Dr. Jonathan Swift (Glasgow : Urie, 1763)
Swift is remarked that “if he did sometimes exert himself in the pulpit, he could never rise higher than preaching pamphlets.” Certainly that is true of this sermon in Ireland. It is a sober statement of reasons for widespread beggary and want. Swift gives as the primary reason, the oppression of Irish trade by “our rigorous neighbours”, the English.
Flat Case 2
33. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
“A letter from a member of the House of Commons in Ireland to a member of the House of Commons in England concerning the sacramental test. 1708.” In Swift’s Miscellanies in prose and verse (London : Morphew, 1711)
First published in 1709, when Swift was still a Whig, this indicates one of the issues over which he shifted his allegiance. The Test Act required people to receive Anglican Communion before being eligible for public positions. The Whigs depended on support from the Dissenters and favoured the removal of the Act. Swift felt that such a decision would have dire consequences in Ireland, where the Presbyterians were strong, particularly in the north.
34. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
A new test of the Church of England's loyalty, or, Whiggish loyalty and Church loyalty compar'd. ([London : s.n.], 1702)
Defoe was one of the first to oppose the habit of “Occasional conformity” whereby Protestant dissenters would take Anglican Communion simply to comply with the Act. This was mainly from the point of view that such conformity was a betrayal of the principles of Dissent.
35. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
A collection of the writings of the author of The true-born English-man. (London : [s.n.], 1703)
One of his most popular early works was the satirical poem, The true born Englishman (1701), written in support of William of Orange, but his most notorious work from this period was The shortest way with the Dissenters (1702). This is written ironically, in the person of a High Tory. It recommends that Dissent be punished,
If one severe Law were made, and punctually executed, that who ever was found at a Conventicle, shou’d be banished the Nation, and the preacher be hang’d, we should soon see an end to the Tale. (p. 210)
When it was found that Defoe was being satirical he was arrested for seditious libel, the pamphlet was condemned to be burned by the “common hangman” and Defoe was fined, sentenced to jail and to stand in the pillory. It was at this time that he published the volume of his collected works seen on display, including his satirical poems and his pamphlets on Dissent.
36. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
The Presbyterians plea of merit, in order to take off the test (in Ireland), impartially examined : with an account of the state of popery in that kingdom, and of the origin and principles of the dissenters in general : to which is added, an ode To Humphrey French, Esq., late Lord Mayor of Dublin. (London : for G.F. and sold by A. Dodd, )
The Test Act was retained, but the Whigs periodically seemed likely to repeal it. Here is a later pamphlet from Swift defending its retention, especially in Ireland.
37. A Vindication of the Protestant dissenters, from the aspersions cast upon them in a late pamphlet, intitled, The Presbyterians Plea of merit, in order to take off the test, impartially examined : to which are added, some remarks upon a paper, call'd, The Correspondent. (Dublin : Printed by S. Powell in Crane-Lane, 1733)
This is the anonymous reply to Swift’s pamphlet. Its particular significance lies in the fact that it belonged to Swift himself and has his own manuscript annotations in the margins.
38. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
A letter to a young gentleman, lately enter'd into Holy Orders : By a person of quality : It is certainly known, that the following treatise was writ in Ireland / by the Reverend Dr. Swift, Dean of St Patrick's in that Kingdom. 2nd edition. (London : printed for J. Roberts, 1721)
Swift had lost hope of promotion after the Tories had been defeated by the Whigs and George I had become King. He retired back to Ireland and had to be content with becoming Dean of St. Patrick’s Dublin. His advice to a young clergyman is to keep his sermons simple, and not, for example, to preach against free-thinkers, as it is imprudent “to perplex the minds of well-disposed people with doubts which probably would never have otherwise come into their heads.”
39. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
Three sermons. I. On mutual subjection. II. On conscience. III. On the trinity / by the Reverend Dr. Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's. [2nd ed.]. (London : printed for R. Dodsley: and sold by M. Cooper, 1744)
Although it was common for clergymen to publish their sermons, Swift had no high opinion of his and only 11 have survived. These three are all that were published in his life-time. Far from promoting any speculation on the Trinity for example he states that, “the whole doctrine is short and plain, and in itself incapable of any controversy; since God himself hath pronounced the fact, but wholly concealed the manner.”
Flat Case 3
Defoe the Projector
40. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
An essay upon projects (London : Printed by R. R. for Tho. Cockerill ..., 1697)
This was one of Defoe’s earliest works. It contains many of the ideas current in the city in the 1690s. The plans are mainly economic, referring to proposals for banks, insurance schemes and pensions for the poor. The book begins,
Necessity, which is allowed to be the Mother of Invention, has so violently agitated the wits of men at this time that it seems not at all improper, by way of distinction, to call it, The Projecting Age. (p. 1)
41. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
The consolidator, or, Memoirs of sundry transactions from the world in the Moon / translated from the Lunar language, by the author of The true-born English Man. (London : Printed, and are to be sold by Benj. Bragg at the Blue Ball in Ave-Mary-lane, 1705)
As with Gulliver’s travels and Robinson Crusoe, this is a satire presented as an imaginary voyage. The title refers to an invention that enables people to fly to the moon. The civilization there reflects Britain, in particular the conflict between the Anglicans and the various dissenting sects. Defoe advises the Dissenters to join forces and boycott all outsiders, thereby drawing all business and financial power to themselves. This further fuelled Defoe’s reputation as a dangerous polemicist.
Flat Cases 4 and 5
42. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
“Ode to the Athenian Society”, in The supplement to the fifth volume of the Athenian gazette (London : Dunton, 1691)
This is commonly considered to be Swift’s first appearance in print. According to Dr. Johnson, it led Dryden to remark, “Cousin Swift, you will never be a poet.” In fact it has now been shown that there was an earlier poem, “Ode. To the King” ( see 4th Muenster Swift Symposium Papers, 2003, p. 265-283)
43. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
Cadenus and Vanessa : a poem. (London : Printed and sold by J. Roberts, 1726)
Swift wrote poetry throughout his life, mainly satirical, but this is a love poem to Vanessa, Hester Vanhomrigh, who had died in 1723.
44. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
“Stella’s birthday”, in Miscellanies. The last volume (London : Motte, 1727)
Stella, Esther Johnson, was Swift’s beloved companion until her death in 1728. He composed a poem for her each year on her birthday.
45. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
On poetry : a rapsody / [by Jonathan Swift] (Dublin, printed ; London : Reprinted and sold by J. Huggonson, 1733)
In this poem Swift comments on his contemporaries and the prevailing mode of attacking each other in verse,
So Nat’ralists observe, a flea
Hath smaller fleas that on him prey,
And these have smaller fleas to bite ‘em,
And so proceed ad infinitum:
Thus ev’ry Poet in his Kind,
Is bit by him that comes behind.
46. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
Verses on the death of Dr. S----, D.S.P.D., occasioned by reading a maxim in Rochefoulcault... / Written by himself, November 1731. [1st Dublin edition]. (London, printed ; Dublin, reprinted : G. Faulkner, 1739)
This was written by Swift himself and takes a sardonic view of his own life. This copy has many of the blanks for names etc. completed in a contemporary hand. This is commonly the case with this edition, but the Monash copy has some unique annotations and Professor Probyn wrote an article on it in Studies in Bibliography, v. 39 (1986) p, 47-61.
Flat Case 6
47. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
The history of the four last years of the Queen / By the late Jonathan Swift... : Published from the last manuscript copy ; corr. and enl. by the author's own hand. (London : printed for A. Millar, 1758)
Swift wrote this in 1712-1713, hoping to be made Historiographer Royal. He consulted official documents and spoke to many of those involved. This gives the work authority especially on the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Utrecht, which marked the end of the Wars of Spanish Succession and by which the French agreed to recognise Queen Anne, and cease support for the Pretender.
48. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
The history of the great plague in London, in the year 1665 : containing observations and memorials of the most remarkable occurrences, both public and private, that happened during that dreadful period. / by a citizen, who lived the whole time in London. To which is added, a journal of the plague at Marseilles, in the year 1720. (London : printed for, and sold by F. and J. Noble ..., 1754)
Defoe’s Journal of the plague year, first published in 1722, is the best-known account of the 1665 outbreak of bubonic plague in London.
49. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
The history of the pyrates : containing the lives of Captain Misson, Captain Bowen, Captain Kidd ... and their several crews; intermix'd with a description of Magadoxa in Ethiopia / by Capt. Charles Johnson (London : Printed for, and sold by T. Woodward ..., [1728?])
Another famous Defoe title from which much information has subsequently be taken by later writers. It is open at the account of Captain Kid.
50. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
The history of the Devil, as well ancient as modern : in two parts : Part I. Containing a state of the Devil's circumstances, from his expulsion out of Heaven to the creation ... Part II. Containing his more private conduct, down to the present times ...2nd edition. (London : Printed for T. Warner ..., 1727)
First published in 1726 as, The political history of the devil, the frontispiece showing the Papal Court leaves English readers in no doubt as to where Satan now dwells.
Flat Case 7
51. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
A meditation upon a broomstick, and somewhat beside of the same author's. (London : Printed for E. Curll...and sold by J. Harding, 1710)
A parody on Robert Boyle’s Meditations. It was circulated among Swift’s friends in manuscript before falling into the hands of the Grub Street publisher Edmund Curll, who printed it without permission.
52. Letters, poems, and tales : amorous, satyrical, and gallant. Which passed between several persons of distinction / now first publish'd from their respective originals, found in the cabinet of that celebrated toast Mrs. Anne Long, since her decease. (London : Printed for E. Curll in Fleetstreet, 1718)
Anne Long was a noted beauty, the toast of the Kit-Cat Club, a Whig group frequented by Swift when he first went to London. The first item in this collection by Curll is Swift’s “Decree for concluding the treaty between Dr. Swift and Mrs. Long”, drawn up during Christmas celebrations in 1707.
53. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
“Predictions for the year 1708”, and “The accomplishment of the first of Mr. Bickerstaff’s predictions, 1708”, in Miscellanies in prose and verse. 2nd ed. (London : Morphew, 1713)
Swift hated charlatans, among them astrologers and almanac-makers. John Partridge, compiler of Merlinus Liberatus, was one of the best-known. Swift, in the person of Isaac Bickerstaff, published a mock almanac including predictions for 1708, beginning,
My first prediction is but a trifle yet I will mention it to shew how ignorant these sottish pretenders to Astrology are in their own concerns: It relates to Partrige the Almanack-Maker; I have consulted the star of hui nativity by my own rules’ and find he will infallibly die upon the 29th of March next, about eleven at Night, of a raging Fever: Therefore I advise him to consider of it, and settle his affairs in time.
He followed this up with a pamphlet on 1 April 1708, writing as one who was curious to see if Bickerstaff’s prediction had come true. He visits Partridge’s home and finds him “past hopes”.
I then asked him why he had not calculated his own Nativity, to see if it agreed with Bickerstaff’s predictions? At which he shook his head and said, O! Sir, this is no time for jesting, but for repenting those Fooleries.
54. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
The benefit of farting explain'd, or, The fundament-all cause of the distempers incident to the fair-sex enquired into ... / Wrote in Spanish by Don Fartinando Puff-indorst ... Translated into English ... by Obadiah Fizzle, groom of the stool to the Princess of Arsimini in Sardinia. (Long-fart (Longford in Ireland) [i.e. London] : Printed by Simon Bumbubbard, 1722.)
This scatological pamphlet is bound in a volume of Swift’s Miscellanies, 4th ed. (London, 1722). Bound in at the end is another, similar pamphlet, The wonderful wonder of wonders. Being an accurate description of … my A—se. (1722). Among the pieces printed in the Miscellanies, is “Ars pun-ica = The art of punning”. All of these squibs were apparently typical of the word games played by Swift and his friends, both in Dublin and in London.
55. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745. (sometimes attrib.)
Human ordure botanically considered : the first essay of the kind, ever published in the world / by Dr. S-----t. (London : printed at Dublin and reprinted at London for F. Coggan …, 1733)
This may not be by Swift. The convenience of being able to attribute a pamphlet on such a subject to a “Dr. S---t” would doubtless have seemed a good joke to many a Grub Street hack. Its general tone is crude humour, but it includes some interesting horticultural observations such as this,
‘Tis certainly a common Custom in England of eminent Gardeners who propose to propagate choice stone fruit, to give a quantity of them to Children to eat, provided they promise to swallow the stones, and they constantly watch them till they go to Stool, to pick them out; and this they aver to be the most natural and nicest preparation, before they inter them; for they never fail, being treated in this manner, top come to the greatest perfection (p. 9-10)
56. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
Dean Swift's humorous advice to servants, including the steward, butler, groom, cook, footman, coachman, porter, waiting maid, dairy maid, nursery maid, nurse, laundress, housekeeper, governess, &c. &c. &c.(London : Printed and published by J. Bailey, Chancery Lane, [1820?])
A chapbook, with a hand-coloured frontispiece, based on Swift’s Directions to servants (1745) an ironic comment of the behaviour of servants, the last publication by Swift in his lifetime.
Flat Case 8
Reformation of manners and language
57. Woodward, Josiah, 1660-1712. [also attributed to Defoe]
An account of the societies for reformation of manners, in England and Ireland : with a persuasive to persons of all ranks, to be zealous and diligent in promoting the execution of the laws against prophaneness and debauchery; for the effecting a national reformation / Published with the approbation of a considerable number of the lords spiritual and temporal, and honourable judges of both kingdoms. 3rd ed. (London : Printed for B. Aylmer, and A. Bell [etc.], 1700)
After the accession of William and Mary in 1688, there was a reaction against the licentiousness of the Restoration period, and Societies for the Reformation of Manners were formed to attempt to influence authorities to legislate against immorality. The portrait frontispiece shows King William III.
58. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
A project for the advancement of religion, and the reformation of manners / by a person of quality. (London : printed and sold by H. Hills : For the Benefite of the Poor, 1709)
A serious proposal that the court should lead the country by example and set up “religion as much as possible to be the Turn and Fashion of the Age.” (p. 20)
59. Tatler, no. 230, (28 Sept., 1710) in The Tatler / by Isaac Bickerstaff. (London : Printed by Charles Lillie and John Morphew, 1711-1713) 4 v. vol. 4
After Swift’s fun at Partridge’s expense, the name of Isaac Bickerstaff became topical and Steele used it for his new journal, The Tatler, or, The lucubrations of Isaac Bickerstaff, launched on 12 April 1709. Swift wrote pieces for it including this on “the continual corruption of our English tongue.” He attacked the use of vogue words such as “Mobb” and “Banter.”
60. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
A proposal for correcting, improving and ascertaining the English tongue; : in a letter to the most honourable Robert Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, Lord High Treasurer of Great Britain. (London : printed for Benj. Tooke, 1712)
This was a serious proposal made to establish an “Academy for correcting and settling out language” along French lines.
Flat Cases 9, 10, 11
Defoe’s miscellaneous works
61. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731. (attrib.)
The Compleat mendicant, or, Unhappy beggar : being the life of an unfortunate gentleman, in which is a comprehensive account of several of the most remarkable adventures that befel him in three and twenty years pilgrimage : also a narrative of his entrance at Oxford ... likewise divers familiar letters, both Latin and English, sermons, poems, essays, upon particular occasions, with a singular character of a monastick life, and the description of a monastery, all faithfully collected from his original papers. (London : Printed for E. Harris, 1699)
This is one of Defoe’s earliest narratives written as memoir, a genre which later became the modern novel.
62. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731. (attrib.)
The history of the life and adventures of Mr. Duncan Campbell, a gentleman, who, tho' deaf and dumb, writes down any stranger's name at first sight, with their future contingencies of fortune : now living in Exeter-Court over-against the Savoy in the Strand. 2nd ed., corr. (London : printed for E. Curll; and sold by W. Mears and T. Jauncy, W. Meadows, A. Bettesworth, W. Lewis, and J. Graves, 1720)
Secret memoirs of the late Mr. Duncan Campbel, the famous deaf and dumb gentleman / written by himself, who ordered they should be publish'd after his decease ; to which is added an appendix, by way of vindication of Mr. Duncan Campbel, against that groundless aspersion upon him, that he but pretended to be deaf and dumb. 1st ed. (London : Printed for J. Millan ... and J. Crichley ..., 1732)
Duncan Campbell was deaf and dumb but became a popular fortune-teller in London during the reign of George I.
63. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain... / by a gentleman. 5th ed. (London : printed for S. Birt, T. Osborne, D. Browne, T. and T. Longman, C. Hitch and L. Hawes, J. Hodges, A.Millar, J. Robinson, and J. and J. Rivington, 1753) 4 v.
This first appeared in four volumes from 1724-1727. It surveys the commercial and agricultural state of the nation, as well providing details useful for those taking “picturesque” tours.
64. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
A new voyage round the world, by a course never sailed before : being a voyage undertaken by some merchants, who afterwards proposed the setting up an East-India company in Flanders : illustrated with copper plates. (London : Printed for A. Bettesworth ... and W. Mears ... , 1725)
An account of a voyage around the world, based on fact, including much detail on trade opportunities and local customs.
65. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
The secrets of the invisible world disclos'd, or, An universal history of apparitions sacred and profane, under all denominations, whether angelical, diabolical, or human souls departed ... / by Andrew Moreton. 3rd edition. (London : Printed for J. Clarke, ... ; A. Millar, ... ; and J. Brindley, 1738)
First published 1727 with title, An essay on the history and reality of apparitions; Defoe claims to provide “sure rules to know, by their manner of appearing, if they are good or evil ones.”
66. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
Dictionarium sacrum seu religiosum = A dictionary of all religions, ancient and modern, whether Jewish, pagan, Christian or Mahometan. (London : Printed for James Knapton, 1704)
As with Samuel Johnson and many other men who lived by their pens, Defoe turned his hand where necessary to “dictionary-making.”
67. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731.
Religious courtship : being historical discourses on the necessity of marrying religious husbands and wives only, as also of husbands and wives being of the same opinions in religion with one another : with an appendix of the necessity of taking none but religious servants, and a proposal for the better managing of servants. 7th ed. (London : Printed for J. Hodges, 1750)
A conduct book written as a series of dialogues, stressing the importance of married couples holding similar religious beliefs.
Small Upright Case
68. Orrery, John Boyle, Earl of, 1707-1762.
Remarks on the life and writings of Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patricks, Dublin : in a series of letters / from John Earl of Orrery, to his son the Honourable Hamilton Boyle. (Dublin : Printed by George Faulkner, 1752)
Orrery was a friend of both Swift and Pope and his Remarks was the first biography of Swift. They met in 1732 when Orrery came to Ireland. The book is written in the form of letters by Orrery to his son.
69. Delany, Patrick, 1685 or 6-1768.
Observations upon Lord Orrery's Remarks on the life and writings of Dr. Jonathan Swift : containing several singular anecdotes relating to the character and conduct of that great genius, and the most deservedly celebrated Stella : in a series of letters to his Lordship : to which are added, two original pieces of the same author (excellent in their kind) never before publish'd. (London, printed : And sold by W. Reeve ... and by A. Linde ... , 1754)
Orrery’s work was thought to have been too grudging in its praise of Swift and some his friends sought to correct this. Delany was Chancellor of St. Patrick’s Cathedral where Swift was Dean. One of the previously unpublished works of Swift’s which Delany prints is "To a friend who had been much abused in many inveterate libels".
70. Swift, Deane, 1707-1783.
An essay upon the life, writings, and character, of Dr. Jonathan Swift : Interspersed with some occasional animadversions upon the Remarks of a late critical author, and upon the Observations of an anonymous writer on those Remarks... / By Deane Swift, Esq : To which is added, that sketch of Dr. Swift's life, written by the Doctor himself, which was lately presented by the author of this essay to the University of Dublin. (London : printed for Charles Bathurst, 1755)
Deane Swift was Swift’s cousin. His Life is notable for printing Swift’s autobiographical fragment. He helped Hawkesworth and Nichols in their editions of the Collected Works.
71. Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745.
The works of Jonathan Swift, D.D. Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin, accurately revised ... : with some account of the author's life, and notes historical and explanatory / by John Hawkesworth. (London : printed for C. Bathurst, C. Davis, C. Hitch and L. Haws, J. Hodges, R. and J. Dodsley, and W. Bowyer, 1754-55) 12 v.
This was the first posthumous edition of the Works and supplanted Faulkner’s Dublin edition of 1735. Hawkesworth’s “Life of Dr. Swift” in vol. 1 is the first attempt at an objective biography. The frontispiece is from The Tale of a Tub.
72. Sheridan, Thomas, 1719-1788.
The life of the Rev. Dr. Jonathan Swift : Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin / by Thomas Sheridan (London : printed for C. Bathurst, W. Strahan, B. Collins, J. F. and C. Rivington, L. Davis, W. Owen, J. Dodsley, T. Longman, R. Baldwin, T. Cadell, J. Nichols, T. Egerton, and W. Bent, 1784)
Thomas Sheridan’s biography is enriched by information from his father, who was one of Swift’s oldest friends in Ireland.
73. Pilkington, Laetitia, 1712-1750.
The celebrated Mrs. Pilkington's jests, or, The cabinet of wit and humour : to which is now first added, a great variety of bons mots, witticisms, and anecdotes of the inimitable Dr. Swift...2nd edition. (London : Printed for W. Nicoll, at the Paper Mill, in St. Paul's Church-Yard, 1764)
Mrs. Pilkington and her husband Matthew were friends of Swift’s in Ireland but their disreputable private lives led to divorce and the loss of the Dean’s friendship. Mrs. Pilkington supported herself with her pen and her Memoirs (1754) included biographical information on Swift. Her Jest-book has a frontispiece with Swift laughing at “Mrs. Pilkington jests in manuscript”, while the devil looks on.
74. A Collection of Welsh travels and memoirs of Wales : containing I. The Briton describ'd, or, A Journey thro' Wales : being a pleasant relation of D-n S-t's journey to that ancient kingdom, and remarkable passages that occur'd on the way ... II. A trip to North Wales, by a barrister of the Temple. III. A funeral sermon preach'd by the parson of Langwillin. IV. Muscipula, or, The Mouse-trap : a poem / The whole collected by J.T. a mighty lover of Welsh travels. (London : Printed for and sold by J. Torbuck, in Clare Court, near Drury-Lane; and also by most booksellers and pamphlet shops in England and Wales, [1740?])
Swift was familiar with Wales from travelling through it to Holyhead where he embarked for Dublin. The frontispiece shows Swift mounting on his horse, “The D—n setting out on his journey.” The book itself has no information about Swift and invokes his name in an attempt to profit from his popularity.
A selection of 19th and 20th century editions of Swift and Defoe.