Invertebrate zoology biology 320 fall 2005 course introduction general Information



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INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY

General Information

  • Aaron L. Payette, M.S.
  • WHI 177a
  • 895-4918
  • payettea@unlv.nevada.edu
  • Office hours
    • Tuesday, 10am – 11am
    • Also by appointment

Lecture – Tues and Thurs, 4pm – 5:15pm, here

  • Lecture – Tues and Thurs, 4pm – 5:15pm, here
    • Textbook – Ruppert, Fox and Barnes 7th Edition
  • Laboratory – Tuesday in FMA 110
    • Use side door
    • Section 01 – 12:30pm – 3:20pm
    • Section 02 – 5:30pm – 8:20pm
    • Manual – Wallace and Taylor
  • Lab instructor – Marty Erwin
    • 895-0807
    • erwinm2@unlv.nevada.edu

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the basics of common phyla
    • Protozoa, plus 19 out of roughly 35 animal phyla
  • Taxonomy
    • Important Phyla, Classes, Genera, and Species
  • Anatomy and physiology
    • Interesting structures
    • How body systems function
    • Links between form and function
  • Evolution
  • Ecology

Assessment

  • Lecture
    • 3 lecture exams
    • Cumulative final exam
    • 65% of total grade
  • Laboratory
    • 2 laboratory exams
    • Lab notebook
    • Field trip or paper
    • 35% of total grade

Tips for Succeeding in Lecture

  • Read assigned chapters before attending lecture (do the same for lab)
  • Study at least 10 hrs per week, from book and notes (similar but not exactly the same)
  • See me with specific questions
  • Tests are combination of multiple-choice and short answer / fill-in questions
  • Test questions will be derived from both the book and lecture notes

Grading and “Will There Be a Curve?”

  • Vote for preferred system
  • Standard
    • A = 90% or above
    • B = 80% - 89%
    • C = 70% - 79%
    • Etc.
  • No curve unless absolutely necessary
  • No extra credit
  • Plus / Minus
    • A = 93% or above
    • A- = 90% - 92%
    • B+ = 87% - 89%
    • Etc.

Missed / Late Exam Policy

  • No make-up exams, except with:
    • Medical documentation
    • Legal documentation
  • Make-up exams will be essay form
  • If you arrive late to an exam, and even one exam has already been turned in, you will be given an essay test

Miscellaneous

  • Do NOT share information regarding laboratory exams with students in another section. This is cheating, and if you are caught sharing information, you will fail the course and possibly be expelled.
  • Lecture and laboratory schedules are TENTATIVE

The Biological Sciences

  • Biology – study of life
  • Many different fields (some examples)
    • Zoology – study of animals
    • Anatomy – study of morphological structures
    • Physiology – study of how body structures (cells, organs, organ systems, etc) function
    • Evolution – study of change over time (molecular level to ecosystem level)
    • Ecology – study of how organisms interact and affect their environments, or vice versa

Hierarchy of Life

  • Atomic level to the biosphere level
  • Figure covers molecular level to ecosystem level
  • An ecologist may be a community ecologist, a population ecologist, etc.

Three Domains of Life

  • Three large groups called domains
    • Bacteria - prokaryotes
    • Archaea - prokaryotes
    • Eukarya - eukaryotes
  • Prokaryotic – cells lack a nucleus
  • Eukaryotic – cells possess a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

Classification is continually changing

  • Classification is continually changing
  • Some scientists don’t subscribe to the three domain method of classification
  • Some still use the Five Kingdom method
  • Domain Bacteria
  • Domain Archaea

Domain Eukarya

  • Domain Eukarya consists of several kingdoms
    • Protista - single celled (several kingdoms)
    • Plantae - multicellular
    • Fungi - multicellular
    • Animalia - multicellular
  • Protists
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Kingdom Fungi

Diversity of Life

  • DNA is the molecule responsible for diversity
  • Specific regions of DNA (genes) code for specific types of proteins
  • Speciation occurs several ways
    • Allopatric
    • Adaptive radiation
    • Sympatric
  • If reproductive barriers arise between populations, speciation will occur
    • Prezygotic barriers
    • Postzygotic barriers

Evolution

  • Origin of Species published by Charles Darwin in 1859
  • Concepts
    • Descent with modification
    • Natural selection inherited traits within a species are selected for or against
    • Adaptation – features that have evolved by means of natural selection

Invertebrate Zoology

  • Study of invertebrate animals
  • Inverts make up at least 99% of all extant (living) animal species on the planet
  • Over 1,000,000 described spp. (species) on the planet (mostly insects)
  • Estimated 10 to 30 million spp. have yet to be described
  • We will cover 19 (time permitting) of the approx. 35 animal phyla

Preview of Phyla We Will Cover

  • Protozoa – animal-like protists
  • Do not belong to kingdom animalia, and thus are not considered to be invertebrate animals
  • Important evolutionary link between prokaryotes, and everyday plants and animals
  • Volvox

Phylum Porifera

  • Sponges

Phylum Cnidaria

  • Jellyfish, Anemones, and Corals
  • Portuguese Man O’ War

Phylum Ctenophora

  • Comb Jellies

Phylum Platyhelminthes

  • Flatworms

Phylum Nemertea

  • Ribbon Worms

Phylum Mollusca

  • Chitons, Clams, Snails, Slugs, Squids, and Octopi
  • Banana Slug

Phylum Annelida

  • Segmented Worms

Phylum Echiura

  • Spoonworms

Phylum Sipuncula

  • Peanut Worms

Phylum Tardigrada

  • Water Bears

Phylum Arthropoda

  • Horseshoe Crabs, Arachnids, Crustaceans, Myriapods, and Insects

Phylum Gastrotricha

  • Name means “stomach hair”

Phylum Nematoda

  • Roundworms
  • Caenorhabditis elegans = good
  • Ascaris lumbricoides = bad

Phylum Rotifera

  • Wheel bearers

Phylum Phoronida

  • A lophophorate

Phylum Brachiopoda

  • Lamp shells, another lophophorate

Phylum Bryozoa

  • Bryozoans, the largest phylum in the superphylum Lophophorata

Phylum Echinodermata

Phylum Chordata

  • Phylum Chordata is the only phylum containing vertebrate animals, however, there are some invertebrate chordates

Taxonomy

  • Linnean system (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species) is almost abandoned
  • Genus species (binomial nomenclature) is still used
    • Lumbricus terrestris
    • Lumbricus terrestris
  • Scientists are more interested in evolutionary relationships (how are organisms similar / different), as opposed to what “What class do shrimp belong to?”
  • Taxonomic names, and proposed evolutionary relationships change frequently

Cladistics

  • Method embraced by the authors of your text for constructing evolutionary relationships in the form of phylogenetic trees, or cladograms
  • May be assembled according to morphology and/or molecular data (nucleic acid or amino acid sequences)
  • Can be used to infer a great deal about evolutionary relationships
  • But it is easy to make mistakes
    • Homology – good indication of a relationship
    • Analogy - misleading

Morphological Vs. Molecular Data

  • rRNA Data

Ground Plan

  • For each Phylum we cover, you want to understand that group’s ground plan (basic set of characteristics)
  • These characteristics are useful for determining differences / similarities between phyla
  • Ground plan for Phylum Arthropoda (example): segmented body, chitinous exoskeleton, periodic molts, and jointed appendages


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