Introduction to Dreams



Download 14,34 Kb.
Date conversion19.05.2018
Size14,34 Kb.

Introduction to Dreams

  • Dreams have been a part of the human psyche since before recorded time.
  • Some divined messages from supernatural beings in dreams. others later saw them as a window to the unconscious.
  • Some say nothing they are a biochemical reaction as the brain rests, recovers, and resets itself from day to day.

Introduction to Dreams

  • What do you think they mean?
  • Should psychologists study dreams to see if they tell us something about human behavior?
  • Do you take the behaviorists standpoint that since we can not directly study the contents of dreams, then they are not something that the science of psychology should be concerned with?

Introduction to Dreams

  • Psychology is theoretically diverse.
  • Psychology evolved (and still evolves) in a sociohistoric context, meaning how dreams have been used in human history.
  • We will look at "types" of dreams according to "pop" culture and look at the major theoreticians in the field of psychology, mainly, Freud and his followers.

Freud

  • Sigmund Freud is considered by many to be the reason for studying dreams and the unconscious in psychology.
  • His work provided paved the way for others with similar ideas to express their beliefs.
  • There have always been dreams, and "analysts" for those dreams.

Freud

  • Freud was classically educated.
  • He aware of the Dream Lore, and Freud's own theories of "borrowed" from these early civilizations.
  • His use of the Greek civilization is very apparent, as in his Oedipal and Edipus complexes.

Culture and Dreams

  • Babylonians -saw dreams as messages from the supernatural beings (good dreams came from the gods, bad dreams came from demons)
  • Assyrians -saw dreams as omens. Bad dreams demanded action, i.e. exorcisms. Other dreams were seen as "advice"
  • Egyptians -believed that the gods revealed themselves in dreams, demanding pious acts, or warning of impending doom
  • Greeks -dreams were good or bad. Sometimes, a treatment, or sleep ritual would be worked up to help incubate good dreams. This "treatment" would include abstaining from sex, meat, and drink. Dreams often told a prophecy. Aristotle postulated that dreams may be premonitions of an illness coming from within the body, where some "unconscious" mind recognized early symptoms, but the absolute sensation threshold had not been crossed to alert the "waking self". (Sounds like he was way ahead of his time) The Romans had similar beliefs.
  • Hebrews -dreams were a vision or prophecy from a god (keep in mind that we see monotheism emerging here)

Culture and Dreams

  • Hindus -dreams are prophetic, and the timing of the dream will indicate how soon the prophecy will come to pass
  • Japanese -dreams are sought as visions to help answer questions that are plaguing the waking self. Usually the answers come from ancestral spirits.
  • Muslims -dreams and astrology are closely related in this culture. True dreams come from god, false ones from the devil.
  • Australian Aborigines -the spirits from underground rise and wander in the land of the living, and when they pass through a mortal being, a "greater vision" is momentarily acquired.. this would be what we call a dream
  • North American Indians -hidden wished of the soul are addressed and fulfilled in dreams. Visions can also be sought after in the hopes of answering a question or resolving a conflict.

Psychoanalytic (Freud's) Theory of Dreams

  • Dreams and Meanings
    • Dream interpretation requires that you ask the dreamer what he/she thinks the dream means.
    • The first words out of their mouths are usually the most telling
    • There is no "quick reference" book to identify what objects in dreams symbolize.
    • The objects undergo changes that only the individual can gain an understanding of, and the psychoanalyst can learn of through the "talking" cure.

Psychoanalytic (Freud's) Theory of Dreams

  • Interpretation
    • There are obstacles that the patient's own unconscious throws up to keep the meanings of dreams hidden (remember, this is the function of dreams according to Freud).
    • These obstacles can be in the form of forgetting the content of a dream, being uncooperative in analysis, censorship in what they do say about the dream, and other forms of resistance.

Psychoanalytic (Freud's) Theory of Dreams

    • Interpretation
      • It is also important to realize that there are two levels to every dream. The MANIFEST and the LATENT content.
        • MANIFEST content is easier to determine, and is generated by things like "day residue" (the left over remnants of the day that the mind uses as a stage to hide the deeper issues of a dream).
        • LATENT content is the one that is important for understanding the unconscious conflicts that the dreamer is experiencing. The latent or hidden part is where the greatest understanding can be uncovered.

Psychoanalytic (Freud's) Theory of Dreams

  • RULES for Interpretations:
    • do not trouble yourself over the manifest's meaning.
    • free associate, allow the dreamer to say what ever comes to mind when they think about different parts of the dream
    • the hidden thoughts will appear on their own, we can not rush them along

Psychoanalytic (Freud's) Theory of Dreams

  • Types of Dreams
    • 1) Manifest content makes sense and has a coherent "plot"; its connection to psychic life is clear. 2) Manifest content seems clear and connected (has plot), but meaning of dream remains obscure. 3) Manifest content confused and chaotic, and there seems to be no discernible meaning; interpretation apparently impossible. For Freud, most dreams fall into this category.

Terminology

  • Dream censorship
  • Symbolism
  • Dream Work
  • Condensation-\
  • Displacement

Freud “Dreamers” Dictionary

  • Freud found that many times, certain "items" of the real world, were represented the same way between different people. Some of these "generalities" are listed here:
    • a house = the human form
      • if the house is flat (no balconies or things coming off the house)- it is a man
      • if the house has balconies, awnings, etc., then it is usually a woman
    • emperors and empresses = parents
    • Kings/Queens = parents
    • little animals/vermin = siblings
    • water = birth

Freud “Dreamers” Dictionary

    • journeys/travel = dying
    • the #3, umbrellas, sticks, poles, trees, (things that penetrate) knives, daggers, lances, sabers, guns, pistols, revolvers, (things form which water flow) taps, watercans, springs (objects that get longer) balloons, slide rulers, (things that defy gravity) airplanes, and (animals) snakes, etc. = the male sex organs
    • pits, hallows, caves (things that hold things) jars, bottles, boxes, chests, coffers, pockets, cupboards, stoves, rooms, (things that hold other things) mouths, doors, gates, (things that represent breasts) apples, peaches fruits, and (others) woods, shrubs, bushes, etc. = female sex organs
    • Intercourse (the act) was often found to be represented as dancing, riding, climbing, or experiencing some violent act

Common Dreams

Nightmares

Dream Journal Project

  • For this quarter’s project you will complete a dream journal and write a short report analyzing your dreams.

Dream Journal Project

  • Dream Journal
    • Before falling asleep, DECIDE you are going to remember your dreams. Be patient; it may take a night or 2 for your unconscious to get the message. The most important thing to remember is that EVERYONE dreams and that once you believe you will remember them, you will!
    • Keep the journal and a pen close to your bed and write down dreams you recall immediately, without interpretation. You may have more than one entry per night (everyone dreams between 4 and 6 times) of varying lengths (REM sleep gets longer, therefore, your dreams get longer later on in night).

Dream Journal

  • What should you record? Basically everything, uncensored, as you remember them... do not worry about proper English for this part. To be more specific write down:
    • dialogue or any words
    • the number and types of people (friends, strangers, relatives)
    • objects
    • the mood of the dream (happy, sad, scary, etc.)
    • settings
    • themes
    • events
    • timing in the dream
    • relations to the dream and you (are you an observer, participant, seeing yourself as player?)
    • If it's too difficult to record a part of the dream in writing, sketch a picture.

Dream Journal

  • The journal may be handwritten. If there are any dream entries that you do not want read, please mark these "Personal" across the top of the pages.

Tips to help you remember your dreams:

  • relax and keep telling yourself that you WILL remember your dreams
  • create a comfortable sleeping environment (you probably already have one, so don't do anything different because of this assignment
  • these dreams do not have to occur at night, dreams that occur during naps can be just as revealing
  • if you can't remember a dream, when you wake up, just write the first words that come to your mind, as you look at them; a dream may come back to you.
  • if you really get stuck, you can think about dreams you have had before, especially those that are reoccurring

Written Report

  • Once you have about 4-5 dreams in your journal, try to analyze them using the following questions as guides (but feel to create your own "questions" also).
    • Were there any common threads, common ideas, running through the journal?
    • Are your dreams bizarre? Mundane?
    • Which dreams are most disturbing? Why? What do they mean to you?
    • What common symbols or objects did you record? What do you think these symbols mean?

Written Report

    • Were you able to control your dreams as you remembered more and more of them?
    • How are your dreams relevant to your waking life?
    • Was the content of both journals identical on any days? What does this tell you?
    • What seems to be the main function of your dreams?
    • In other words, what did you learn about yourself by writing in the journal?
    • Write a thesis statement, and support it with references directly from your dreams (you may even refer to a particular date of a dream and tell the reader to go to certain lines.) Summarize the dreams you discuss in your report. Consider comparing settings, plots, characters, emotions, and colors.

Written Report

  • The report should be in essay form. Do not just write sentences answering each question; rather have a thesis in mind that connects all the individual ideas. The written report is to be typed, around 1 ½ to 2 pages, double spaced.

Tips for dream analysis:

  • Ask yourself the following Questions:
    • Were there any common threads, common ideas, running through the journal?
    • Are your dreams bizarre? Mundane?
    • Which dreams are most disturbing? Why? What do they mean to you?
    • What common symbols or objects did you record? What do you think these symbols mean?
    • Were you able to control your dreams as you remembered more and more of them?
    • How are your dreams relevant to your waking life?
    • Was the content of both journals identical on any days? What does this tell you?
    • What seems to be the main function of your dreams?
  • Project Due Wednesday, May 25th
    • Turn in journal and written report on May 25th


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page