Introduction of general arthrology



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INTRODUCTION OF GENERAL ARTHROLOGY

  • By:
  • Dr. RAKESH KUMAR DIWAN
  • ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY
  • KGMU UP LUCKNOW

DEFINITION- ARTHROLOGY IS THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF JOINTS , AND ARTICULATIONS.

  • DEFINITION- ARTHROLOGY IS THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF JOINTS , AND ARTICULATIONS.
  • SITE WHERE RIGID ELEMEMTS OF THE SKELETON MEET ARE CALLED ARTICULATIONS.
  • CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS:
  • A) CLASSIFICATION BASED ON STRUCTURE
  • B) CLASSIFICATION BASED ON FUNCTION

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON STRUCTURE

  • BASED ON THE MATERIAL THAT BINDS THE BONES TOGETHER, AND ON THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF JOINT CAVITY.
  • FIBROUS JOINTS
  • CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS
  • SYNOVIAL JOINTS
  • FIBROUS JOINTS-
  • -BONES CONNECTED BY FIBROUS TISSUE
  • -no joint cavity
  • Sutures
  • Syndesmoses
  • Gomphoses

CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS-

  • CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS-
  • THE BONES ARE UNITED BY CARTILAGE
  • THERE IS NO JOINT CAVITY
  • Synchondrosis( hyaline cartilage unites the bones)
  • Symphyses( fibrocartilage unites the bones)

SYNOVIAL JOINTS-

  • SYNOVIAL JOINTS-
  • -MOST MOVABLE JOINTS IN THE BODY
  • -THERE IS A JOINT CAVITY.( SYNOVIAL CAVITY, SYNOVIAL FLUID)
  • -ARTICULAR CARTILAGE( COVERS THE ENDS OF THE OPPOSING BONES)
  • -ARTICULAR CAPSULE( IT ENCLSES THE JOINT CAVITY.2 LAYERED)
  • -REINFORCING LIGAMENTS
  • -BURSAE
  • -MOVEMENT VS STABILITY

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE BASIS FUNCTION

  • SYNARTHROSES-IMMOVABLE JOINTS (sutures)
  • AMPHIARTHROSES- SLIGHTLY MOVABLE JOINTS( FIBROUS CONNECTION)( intervetebral discs)
  • DIARTHROSES-FREELY MOVABLE JOINTS( SYNOVIAL)
  • SYNARTHROSES AND AMPHIARTHROSES ARE LARGELY RESTRICTED TO THE AXIAL SKELETON
  • DIARTHROSES PREDOMINATE IN THE LIMBS

TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS

  • 1. PLANE JOINTS-ARTICULAR SURFACES ARE PLANE AND ALLOW ONLY GLIDING MOVEMENTS
  • 2. HINGE JOINTS-CYLINDRICAL SURFACE OF ONE JOINT FITS IN THE TROUGH SHAPE OF THE OTHER. ALLOW MOVEMENT AROUND 1 AXIS
  • 3. PIVOT JOINTS- THE ROUNDED END OF ONE BONE FORMS INTO A RING FORMED BY THE OTHER BONE PLUS A LIGAMENT.MOVEMENT OCCURS IN 1 AXIS

TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS

  • 4. CONDYLOID- THE EGG SHAPED SURFACE OF ONE BONE FITS INTO THE CONCAVE SURFACE OF THE OTHER .ALLOW MOVEMENT IN 2 AXIS
  • 5.SADDLE-ARTICULAR SURFACES IF BOTH BONES ARE CONCAVE AND CONVEX( SADDLE) BIAXIAL JOINT.
  • 6. BALL AND SOCKET-SPHERICAL HEAD OF ONE BONE FITS INTO THE SOCKET OF THE OTHER. MUTIAXIAL JOINT

Synarthrotic Joints

  • No joint capsule and no movement between adjacent bones
    • Suture
      • Dense Fibrous CT
    • Gomphosis
      • Fibrous Peridontal Ligaments
    • Synchondrosis – Hyaline Cartilage
      • Epiphyseal Line (plate)
    • Synostosis – Bony Joints (Fused)

Types of Sutures

synchodroses

SYMPYHSIS

Synovial Joint

  • pg 215

SYNOVIAL JOINT

  • PERIOSTEUM
  • LIGAMENT
  • JT CAVITY
  • FIBROUS CAPSULE
  • ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

3. Pivot Joint

  • Projection of bone 1 articulates within ring of bone 2
  • Also found in proximal end of radius  pronation and supination
  • rotation

BALL AND SOCKET

Knee Joint

  • Much more complex than elbow
  • Much less stable than other hinge joints
  • Some gliding and rotation
  • structurally 3 separate joints
  • No single joint capsule

Joint Shapes

  • Saddle: articular surface both concave + convex
  • Ball + Socket: spherical head + round socket
    • multiaxial movement
    • (eg) shoulder, femur

Bursae & Tendon Sheaths

  • Bursae: flat, fibrous sac w/synovial membrane lining
  • Tendon Sheaths: elongated bursae that wraps around tendons
  • 3 Factors in Joint Stability:
    • Muscle Tone
    • Ligaments
    • Fit of Articular Surface
  • pg 219

Joint Shapes

  • Hinge: cylindrical end of 1 bone fits into trough shape of other
    • angular movement-1 plane (eg) elbow, ankle, interphalangal
  • Plane: articular surface in flat plane
    • Short gliding movement
    • (eg) intertarsal, articular processes of vertebrae

Joint Shapes

  • Condyloid: egg-shape articular surface + oval concavity
    • side-to-side, back+forth movement
    • (eg) metacarpophalangeal (knuckle)
  • Pivot: round end fits into ring of bone + ligament
    • rotation on long axis
    • (eg) prox. radius/ulna, atlas/dens

Representative Articulations

Special Movements

BIAXIAL JOINT(CONDYLOID/ SADDLE JOINT)

ELBOW JOINT

  • BICEPS TENDON
  • TROCHLEA
  • SYNOVIAL CAVITY
  • BURSA

MUTIAXIAL JOINTS

MUTIAXIAL JOINTS(HIP JOINT) BALL AND SOCKET

MOVEMENTS AT SYNOVIAL JOINTS(FLEXION/EXTENSION)

FLEXION/EXTENSION VETEBRAL COLUMN

FLEXION EXTESION LIMBS

ADDUCTION/ABDUCTION/ CIRCUMDUCTION

INVERSION/EVERSION

Tendon Sheaths and Bursae

  • Bursa is saclike extension of joint capsule that extends between nearby structures allowing them to slide more easily past each other
  • Tendon sheaths are elongated cylinders of connective tissue lined with synovial membrane & wrapped around a tendon

BURSAE AND TENDON SHEATHS

  • SUBACROMIAL BURSA
  • TENDON SHEATH
  • CORACOACRMIAL LIGAMENT

QUESTIONS

  • Q-1) Rotatory movements of joints take place on:
  • a)Transverse axis
  • b)Vertical axis
  • c)Anteroposterior axis
  • d)All of the above

QUESTIONS

  • Q-2) Most important factor for stability of joint is:
  • a)Fibrous Capsule
  • b)Ligaments
  • c)Atmospheric Pressure
  • d)Surrounding muscle

QUESTIONS

  • Q-3) All of the following are examples of saddle joint except:
  • a)Sterno-clavicular joint
  • b)Wrist joint
  • c)Calcaneo-cuboid joint
  • d)Incudo-malleolar joint

QUESTIONS

  • Q-4) All of the following are characteristic features of a synovial (diarthrodial) joint except:
  • a)Articular surface are covered by a articular cartilage
  • b)Have joint cavity filled with synovial fluid for lubrication
  • c)Mostly are freely movable joints
  • d)Articular cartilage are covered by synovial membrane

QUESTIONS

  • Q-5) Articular cartilage of all of the following joints are made up of thin plate of fibrocartilage except:
  • 1-Temporomandibular joint
  • 2-1st Carpometacarpal joints
  • 3-Sternoclavicular joint
  • 4-Acramio- clavicular joint
  • THANK YOU


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