Representation and Reasoning with Logic (chapters 7,8,9)
Learning (chapters 18,20)
Planning (chapter 11)
Uncertainty (chapters 13,14)
Natural Language Processing (chapter 22,23)
Resources on the Internet
AI on the Web: A very comprehensive list of Web resources about AI from the Russell and Norvig textbook.
Essays and Papers
What is AI, John McCarthy
Computing Machinery and Intelligence, A.M. Turing
Rethinking Artificial Intelligence, Patrick H.Winston
What is Artificial Intelligence?
A brief History
State of the art
What is Artificial Intelligence (John McCarthy , Basic Questions)
What is artificial intelligence?
It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable.
Yes, but what is intelligence?
Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world. Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people, many animals and some machines.
Isn't there a solid definition of intelligence that doesn't depend on relating it to human intelligence?
Not yet. The problem is that we cannot yet characterize in general what kinds of computational procedures we want to call intelligent. We understand some of the mechanisms of intelligence and not others.
More in: http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node1.html
What is AI?
Views of AI fall into four categories:
Thinking humanly Thinking rationally
Acting humanly Acting rationally
The textbook advocates "acting rationally“
List of AI-topics
What is Artificial Intelligence?
Human-like (“How to simulate humans intellect and behavior on by a machine.)
Mathematical problems (puzzles, games, theorems)
Common-sense reasoning (if there is parking-space, probably illegal to park)
Darmouth workshop, 1956: historical meeting of the precieved founders of AI met: John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Alan Newell, and Herbert Simon.
A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence. J. McCarthy, M. L. Minsky, N. Rochester, and C.E. Shannon. August 31, 1955. "We propose that a 2 month, 10 man study of artificial intelligence be carried out during the summer of 1956 at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The study is to proceed on the basis of the conjecture that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it." And this marks the debut of the term "artificial intelligence.“
Human agent: eyes, ears, and other organs for sensors; hands,
legs, mouth, and other body parts for actuators
Robotic agent: cameras and infrared range finders for sensors;
various motors for actuators
Agents and environments
The agent function maps from percept histories to actions:
[f: P* A]
The agent program runs on the physical architecture to produce f
agent = architecture + program
Percepts: location and contents, e.g., [A,Dirty]
Actions: Left, Right, Suck, NoOp
An agent should strive to "do the right thing", based on what it can perceive and the actions it can perform. The right action is the one that will cause the agent to be most successful
Performance measure: An objective criterion for success of an agent's behavior
E.g., performance measure of a vacuum-cleaner agent could be amount of dirt cleaned up, amount of time taken, amount of electricity consumed, amount of noise generated, etc.
Rational Agent: For each possible percept sequence, a rational agent should select an action that is expected to maximize its performance measure, given the evidence provided by the percept sequence and whatever built-in knowledge the agent has.
What’s involved in Intelligence? Intelligent agents