Interactive Notebook On a fresh piece of paper: “Unit 1 Cornell-b pg. 67”



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Unit 1 Cornell-B

  • “Why was a new Constitution written and what compromises were necessary? Describe the debate over the Constitution’s ratification.”

Interactive Notebook On a fresh piece of paper: “Unit 1 - Cornell-B pg.67”

  • 1. Why did Daniel Shays lead a rebellion against Massachusetts and what did 12 of the states decide to do about it ?
  • • Farmer’s income decreased while taxes increased.
  • • Farmers who could not pay their debts had their farms taken away by the courts.
  • Massachusetts farmer Daniel Shays and his supporters occupy a Massachusetts courthouse.
  • • The U.S., without an organized army, was powerless. Massachusetts sent a militia to stop the rebellion.
  • • Shays’ Rebellion convinced many people that the U.S. needed a new, stronger government.
  • • The Articles of Confederation needed to be replaced!

Articles of Confederation too weak to hold 13 states together

  • Answer in your Interactive Notebook:
  • Read pg. 67
  • Experimenting with Confederation
  • 2. What was the “first” constitution called? The new USA was a republic with which form of government?
  • 3. List 3 of the biggest weaknesses of this government.

I. What was the situation after the Revolution?

  • Weak National Gov’t
  • No Executive or Judiciary
  • No Army
  • Cannot Tax
  • US Merchants boarded at Sea
  • Shay’s Rebellion
  • Weak Economy
  • National War Debt
  • No Common Currency
  • States have conflicting trade rules and laws

II. Constitutional Convention

Where: Independence Hall, Philadelphia Who: Delegates from 12 of 13 states When: 1787

II. Constitutional Convention:

  • Why did they meet:
  • To MODIFY the old Articles of Confederation – but then they decided to dump it and start from scratch;
  • They held SECRET meetings and presented a finished draft to the states for approval (ratification)
  • Why secret?
  • They didn’t want the public to panic.

III. Compromises at the Convention

  • There were issues and DISAGREEMENTS at the Convention and delegates had to reach compromises in order to produce a finished draft constitution.
  • Compromises:
  • 1. The “GREAT Compromise”
  • 2. The “3/5ths Compromise”

A. Issues:

  • How many representatives in Congress does each state get?
  • Big States (more populous) wanted MORE. why?
  • They would have more control in Congress
  • Little States wanted EQUAL number from each state. why?
  • The big states would have more power over the little states
  • - It called for a unicameral legislature, in which every state received one vote.
  • - George Washington was elected president of the Convention.
  • Virginia Plan
  • New Jersey Plan
  • - Both plans called for a strong national government with 3 branches.
  • - It called for a bicameral legislature, in which the number of representatives in each house would depend on the population of the state.
  • - It called for a unicameral legislature, in which every state received one vote.
  • Virginia Plan
  • New Jersey Plan
  • - Both plans called for a strong national government with 3 branches.
  • - It called for a bicameral legislature, in which the number of representatives in each house would depend on the population of the state.
  • “Great Compromise”
  • It provided for a bicameral Congress.
  • B. Senate – each state has 2 Senators (satisfied the NJ Plan)
  • * Both houses of Congress must pass every law.

B. Issue:

  • SOUTHERN states want their slaves to be counted into their population –
  • NORTHERN states (that have no slaves) object to this. why ?
  • The southern states would get more representation in the House of Reps.
  • In order to determine the population of a state, only 3 out of every 5 slaves would be counted.
  • “Three-Fifths Compromise”

“Interactive Notes: Unit 1 Cornell B”—pg. 69 and 70

  • 4. Who are the federalists? Anti-Federalists?
  • 5. Describe “The Federalist” papers. Who were the Authors?

IV. Debate over Ratification (approval) of new Constitution:

  • 9 states must vote to ratify the new constitution – a debate starts between those who favor it (FEDERALISTS) and those who are against it (ANTI-Federalists) – why?
  • Federalists = New constitution / “The Constitution”
  • Anti-Federalists = 1st constitution / “Articles of Confederation”

IV. Debate over Ratification of the New Constitution

  • ANTI-Federalists Arguments?
  • FEDERALISTS Arguments?

Federalists vs. Anti-federalists

  • Anti-Federalists
  • New Constitution makes the national government TOO powerful and States TOO weak
  • New Constitution fails to protect individual rights – people will lose their rights
  • Federalists
  • New Constitution has correct “balance” of power between the national government and the States
  • “Checks & Balances”, “Separation of Powers” and a Bi-cameral Congress will protect individual rights
  • (constitutional / enlightenment idea of “limited powers”)

IV. Debate over Ratification of the New Constitution

  • Compromise
  • The Federalists agree to add a BILL OF RIGHTS to New Constitution

V. The Ratification Compromise = BILL OF RIGHTS (Amendments 1-10)

  • Purpose:
  • The BILL OF RIGHTS was intended to LIMIT the power of GOVERNMENT over individuals and to LIMIT the power of the MAJORITY over individuals, too (to protect the MINORITY).
  • Amendments say what RIGHTS (natural rights) cannot be taken away from individuals by either the GOVERNMENT or a MAJORITY of the people.
  • How:
  • Various Amendments focus on certain RIGHTS.
  • However, one of the most important Amendments is the 1st Amendment where certain CLAUSES protect fundamental rights.
  • Write some of these clauses and explanations: see pg. 96-97

VI. Constitutional Principles

  • REPRESENTATIVE democracy ( a REPUBLIC)
  • FEDERALISM (a federal form of government)
  • 3 BRANCHES with SEPARATE powers
  • LIMITED government with RULE of LAW
  • Checks & BALANCES
  • MAJORITY rule & free ELECTIONS
  • Civil RIGHTS

VI. Constitutional Principles

  • Representative democracy, a
  • Republic
  • B. Federalism
  • = the people are represented by elected officials
  • = Form of government that divides/shares power between the national govt. and state govts.

The Constitution of 1787 Federalism Powers “shared” between States & National Governments

VI. Constitutional Principles

  • = Executive, Legislative and Judicial;
  • each branch can do things that other branches cannot do
  • = govt. power is limited;
  • govt. cannot violate the law—no one is above the law

VI. Constitutional Principles

  • = each Branch of govt. can block the power of other branches
  • = voters shall freely choose their representatives —half + 1
  • = citizen's ability to fully participate in the civil and political life of the state without discrimination or repression

“3 branches”, “Checks & Balances” & “Separation of Powers”—LIMITED GOVERNMENT



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