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IGU Commission

Diversity in

Mountain Systems

Chairman: Prof. Dr. Jörg Stadelbauer

Department of Cultural Geography

University of Freiburg

D-79085 Freiburg

Fax: +49 761 203 3575

e-mail: joerg.stadelbauer@geographie.uni-freiburg.de

Newsletter 4 / March 2003

1 Editorial

Dear reader,

The second and third editions of the Study group’s Newsletter had been rather large. In order to provide you with more recent information, I therefore try to reduce the interval and the extent. Welcome to everyone who conducts research on mountains and wants to become member of our commission! Please send me an e-mail so that I can include you into the list of members. Of course, membership should not be written only on a paper: Please feel motivated to conduct mountain research, to inform other member about it and to participate in the activities and meetings of the Commission! This is said especially to those who are member of national specialty groups on (high-)mountain research.
Members of the Steering Committee of our commission are:

Professor Jörg Stadelbauer (chair)

University of Freiburg

Department of Cultural Geography

D-79085 Freiburg

E-mail: joerg.stadelbauer@geographie.uni-freiburg.de
Prof. Dr. Yuri Badenkov

Institut Geografii Rossijskoy Akademii Nauk

Staromonetnyy pereulok, 29


E-mail: baden@l-card.ru
Prof. Dr. Heinz Beckedahl

Geography, School of Applied Environmental Sciences

University of Natal

Private Bag X01, Scottsville

Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa

E-mail: hbeck@nu.ac.za

Alton C. Byers, Ph.D.

The Mountain Institute

107 Westridge Drive

Elkins, WV 26241

E-mail: abyers@mountain.org

Prof. Donald A. Friend, Ph.D. (USA)

Department of Geography

Minnesota State University

Armstrong Hall 7

Mankato, MN 56001

E-mail: friend@mnsu.edu

Professor Dr. Hans Hurni (Switzerland)

Department of Geography

University of Berne

Hallerstrasse 12

CH-3012 Bern

E-mail: hurni@giub.unibe.ch

Dr. Martin Price

Centre for Mountain Studies

Perth College

University of the Highlands and Islands

Crieff Road

Perth PH2 0DP, UK

Phone: +44 (0) 1738-877217

Fax: +44 (0) 1738-631364

E-mail: Martin.Price@groupwise.uhi.ac.uk
Ass. Prof. Fausto Sarmiento, Ph.D.

The University of Georgia

Department of Geography and

Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies

Phone: +706 542 9079

Fax: +706 542 8432

E-mail: fsarmien@arches.uga.edu

Besides, the Commission continues to create an e-mailing list for all other people who want to share our common work on mountain geography. Please, feel free to contact us if you wish to get our newsletter which is mainly based on informations from the internet. We also suggest to contact the Mountain Forum, unless you already did before.

2 2002 - International Year of the Mountains: The Global Mountain Summit – a summary of informations
In 1998, the year 2002 was proclaimed the International Year of the Mountains by the United Nations. Besides, 2002 is also the International Year of Ecotourism, the International Year of Geosciences ... Many regional and national organizations had been involved in the preparation of conferences, workshops and other activities. For more information, please visit the following websites:
Refer to a more complete survey of activities under:




Outcomes of Major IYM Events and Asia High Summit 2002


Bishkek Global Mountain Summit


Eco-regional Perspective to Mountain Agricultural Systems


Kathmandu Declaration on Mountains


Palampur Declaration on The Sustainable Development of the Himalayas


Rural Mountain Transport Infrastructure Development in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region


Thimphu Declaration


Tokyo Declaration


World Summit on Sustainable Development


European Mountain Forum // Europe e-mail list www.mtnforum.org/europe
Georgia: International Year of Mountains (IYM2002) Celebration Events

Pursuant to the Action Plan elaborated in the beginning of the year 2002 it was envisaged to conduct IYM Celebration activities in two districts - Dusheti and Aspindza. In addition the GMF has made substantial efforts to commit the government to be involved in the above processes in terms of the establishment of the National Committee for the IYM Celebration that could become a subject of funding from FAO. In this regard relevant communication and the assurances have been obtained from FAO on funding issues. The green light for the latter would be the proved involvement of the Government authorities. The GMF assisted the Government in the formulation of the Terms of References and the composition of the National Committee as well as in the elaboration of the relevant presidential decree. Unfortunately due to the several constraining circumstances such as political tensions with Russia as well as the various internal affairs (Pankisi Gorge problem etc.) the Government was not in a position to make an appropriate and timely decision with regard to the establishment of the National Committee and the elaboration of the relevant action plan. Due to the above said the funding from FAO has not been obtained. At the end of August 2002 the GMF realized that no commitment was likely to be received from authorities apart from some tiny verbal expressions on the importance of IYM etc. This above opinion of GMF was particularly strengthened by the fact that no Georgian participation was observed at the Global Summit in Bishkek.

Under such conditions it was decided to elaborate proposals on the IYM Celebration events in two above mentioned districts and to apply for relevant funding to SAB. The permanent representations of GMF in Dusheti and Aspindza districts have been actively involved in the preliminary planning and preparatory process. This process was comprised by the field visits, explanatory work with the communities on the objectives and expected outcomes of the events as well as the relevant budgeting of the funds required. As a result a proposal for each district have been prepared and presented to SAB and SDC for funding.
Objectives, Activities and Expected Outcomes

The Objectives of the events were to contribute to:

  • The increase of awareness and the sensibilisation of the decision makers the civil society and public on the problems and constraints faced by the mountain communities in Georgia;

  • To demonstrate the potential of the mountain areas that could contribute to the overall sustainable development process;

  • To provide moral support to the communities; and

  • To join the voice of Georgia to the one of the International Community with regard to the importance of the Sustainable Mountain Development through delivering publicly the commitments of the decision makers and public participating in the events and providing relevant media coverage.

The activities under the events comprised by:

- The sale-exhibitions of the traditional handicrafts, quality products and cuisine;

- The traditional sports competitions (Horse racing, Wrestling, Arm-wrestling);

- Demonstration of traditional customs and folklore (Dances and Songs, housing, religious rituals);

- Visits to the historical monuments;

- Presentations of the area potential and constraints;

- Short hiking and horse tours to the historical and picturesque places;

- Meetings, knowledge sharing and interviews of the decision makers and public.
The expected outcomes of the events could be:

- The popularization of the areas and their potential;

- Providing forum for the principal stakeholders;

- Support communities in generating additional income from sale-exhibitions of the traditional handicrafts and products;

- Increase the awareness and trust of the communities towards the on-going and planned development initiatives in the areas;

- Supporting the enlargement and strengthening of CMN.

IYM Celebration in Dusheti District


IYM Celebration event has been conducted on November 10, 2002 in the Village of BARISAKHO - historical area of KHEVSURETI that is located at the distance of 100 km from Tbilisi on the road to the Village SHATILI - border with Chechnya/Russian Federation. The area is scarcely populated and represents the full range of the natural handicaps. In addition this area is a cradle of classical indigenous Georgian mountain culture and customs accompanied by the incredible nature and landscape. The village of BARISAKHO represents the so-called "Gate to KHEVSURETI" with relatively better access roads.


The total of 120 people representing the State Chancellery, Parliament Mountain Committee, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, District Government, IFAD/RDPMHA/PMU, National, Foreign and International NGOs and Development agencies as well as people representing so-called "Inteligenztia" have been invited to participate. Among the participants were: Deputy Minister of Culture, Chairman of the Georgian Nobles Association - Mr. Konstantin Cholokashvili, Famous Contemporary writers (Mr. Michael Kvlividze, Mr. Giorgi Gigauri), Painters and Artists (Mr. Alexander Kakabadze, Mr. Igor Kiria, Mr. Nodar Aptsiauri, Mr. Lasha Imnadze, Mr. Alexander Mikadze, Mr. Parnaoz Mgeladze), delegation from SDC/Caucasus headed by Ms. Katharina Haeberli-Deputy Head of Mission, delegation from DFID and SAVE the CHILDREN, GMF Delegation headed by the Chairman of the Board - Mr. Koba Arabuli. There was a large representation of the Community Government and the community members itself. In addition the State Television - Channel 1 and Dusheti television representatives were conducting the full coverage of the event.


The following activities have been conducted under the event:

1. Traditional bull sacrificing and beer brewing ritual accompanied with the ancestral liturgy in favor to the prosperity of the area;

2. Traditional Horse Racing - MARULA with participation of the young members of the community accompanied with the presentation of the awards to the winners;

3. Sale-exhibition of the traditional handicrafts: clothing, carpets, embroidery etc.

4. Presentation of the area potential and constraints accompanied by the discussion and idea-sharing;

5. Presentation of the traditional cuisine of Khevsureti

IYM Celebration in Aspindza District


IYM Celebration event has been conducted on November 16, 2002 in

Aspindza District centre that is located at a distance of 230 km

to the south-west from Tbilisi in the exact Centre of the

district with better access roads.

The total of 120 people representing the State Chancellery, Parliament Mountain Committee, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Regional and District Government, IFAD/RDPMHA/PMU, National, Foreign and International NGOs and Development agencies as well as people representing so-called "Intelligentsia" have been invited to participate. Among the participants were: The delegation of the Mountain Committee of the Parliament headed by the Deputy Chairman Mr. Jury Chikhradze, Attorney of the President to Samtskhe-Javakheti Region Mr. Temur Mosiashvili and its deputies, Governor of the District. Heads and members of the village municipalities (SAKRABULO), local intelligentsia, the ordinary members of the 23 village communities representing different Georgian (Imereti, Adjara, Racha, Meskheti) and non-Georgian (Armenian) ethnicities living in the district. In addition the State Television - Channel 1, local and regional television representatives were conducting the full coverage of the event.


The following activities have been conducted under the event:

1. Sale-exhibition of the traditional handicrafts and products;

2. Presentation of the traditional housing and cuisine of different ethnicities living in the district;

3. Traditional sport competitions in Wrestling, Arm-wrestling and Lakhti (ancient game with belts);

4. Exhibition of the local painters;

5. Presentation of the local folklore;

6. Presentation of the area potential and constraints accompanied by the discussion.

7. Horse tours to the historical places.

For more information please contact:´Georgian Mountain Federation (GMF)

Executive Director Levan Dadiani

4v Mazniashvili Street, Tbilisi-380002, Georgia

Tel/Fax: 995 32 958420 / mob: 995 77 730489

E-mail: gmf@gol.ge

III International Conference of REC Caucasus "Sustainable Development of Mountainous Regions of the Caucasus"
About the Conference

The Regional Environmental Centre for the Caucasus - REC Caucasus - announces Call for Papers for the International Conference on "Sustainable Development of Mountainous Regions of the Caucasus". Conference is sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of Germany and organised in partnership with the Regional Environmental Centre for Russia. Overall objective of the Conference is to identify ways to overcome existing problems, collect information on all priority directions influencing sustainable development of the mountainous regions of Caucasus.

Also it aims to:

  • Be a forum of all stakeholders from the five countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Turkey) working on the sustainable development of mountainous regions of Caucasus

  • Promote exchange of information and experience within and beyond the region

  • Support awareness rising of target groups

  • Facilitate development of long term action plan on sustainable development of the mountainous regions of the Caucasus for the five countries.

Working languages of the Conference shall be English and Russian.
Papers are solicited in the following areas:

  • Legal, economic, and compensation mechanisms in support of sustainable mountain development

  • Sustainable livelihoods and poverty alleviation

  • Tourism and the conservation and maintenance of biological and cultural diversity

  • Institutions for democratic and decentralized sustainable mountain development

  • Conflicts and peace in mountain areas

  • Mountain infrastructure: access, communications, energy

  • The role of education, science and culture for sustainable mountain development

  • Water, natural resources, hazards, desertification and the implications of climate change

  • High altitude physiology and medicine

Papers may cover any of these themes, merging or separation of topics is not restricted.
Papers should be original and not submitted to or accepted by any other conference or journal. Papers should be provided in electronic form to the address bellow in English or Russian, Word template, in Times New Roman, font size-12 and include following:

1. Title of the report

2. Name of the author

3. Contents

4. Summary (200-250 words in Russian and English)

5. The report (4-5 pages, A4 format, margins: top/bottom 2,5 cm and sides 2,2 cm)

6. List of references Papers should be sent to nina.shatberashvili@rec-caucasus.org
Deadline for submission is March 10, 2003 The best papers of the conference will be proposed for publication (after revision and additional refereeing) in a special issue of conference materials. An accepted paper must be presented by one person, cost of the participation, including accommodation and travel will be covered by the organisers, while other authors, if any, must register in the Conference. For more information please, visit us at www.rec-caucasus.org or contact:

Nina Shatberashvili,

Administrative Assistant to the Executive Director REC Caucasus

74, Chavchavadze Ave., Suite 901

380062 Tbilisi, Georgia

Tel/Fax: +995 32 253649 / 253648

E-Mail: nina.shatberashvili@rec-caucasus.org
EMF Caucasus Node office:

Barnova Street 39, I floor, 380008 Tbilisi, Georgia

Tel/Fax: (995 32) 995332; e-mail: stc@gol.ge

3 Announcement
Announcing a new medal to be awarded for "remarkable service in conservation of culture and nature in remote mountainous regions" and presented in conjunction with the Namche Conference ("People, Park, and Mountain Ecotourism") at Namche Bazar, Khumbu, Nepal, May 24-26, 2003 (http://www.namche.info)

The Sir Edmund Hillary Mountain Legacy Medal

In 2003 the entire world is celebrating the 50th anniversary of an an event that captured the imagination as few adventures have before or since: an expedition led by Sir John Hunt culminated in the first ascent of Mt. Everest by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay.

Surprisingly, an event that has been etched in our collective consciousness as the nec plus ultra of human endeavor gave rise to an achievement of far greater importance. Sir Edmund found in his Himalayan adventure and his subsequent celebrity the inspiration and the opportunity to "return the favor" by assisting the people who were his comrades on that climb, and by helping to protect their beautiful homeland. Through his personal efforts, and through the foundations that he helped found in New Zealand, Canada, the United States, and Germany, Sir Edmund built some 30 schools, two airstrips, two hospitals, and 11 village clinics. He has assisted in the restoration of monasteries, instituted scholarship and teacher training programs, and established re-forestation projects in Khumbu, Mustang, and the Annapurna region. In every case, Sir Edmund has undertaken projects at the specific request of the local residents.

In recognition of Sir Edmund's heroic efforts and in the hope of encouraging others to follow his example, we are establishing the "Sir Edmund Hillary Mountain Legacy Medal," to be awarded "for remarkable service in conservation of culture and nature in remote mountainous regions."

Nominations (or self-nominations) for the Hillary Medal will be accepted until March 15, 2003. In addition to a succinct statement of the nominee's achievements, please send us any contacts or other resources that might assist the Hillary Medal Selection Committee in their evaluation. The identities of nominators will be held confidential, as will those of all candidates other than the recipient of the medal.

Nominations should be sent by email to:


4 Institutions

At this place, we intend to inform you about particular organizations. If you want your institution to be mentioned, please send us the information you want to be distributed.

4.1 Mountain Wilderness France
Mountain Wilderness France se préoccupe depuis de nombreuses années des nuisances générées en montagne par les loisirs motorisés, légaux ou non. Ceci s’est traduit lors de l’année 2002, désignée par l’ONU comme « Année internationale des Montagnes », mais aussi « Année internationale de l’Ecotourisme », par le lancement de notre campagne « Silence! », qui vise à sensibiliser le grand public, mais aussi et surtout élus et administrations, sur la nécessaire préservation de l’une des qualités essentielles de notre environnement montagnard: le silence, tragiquement compromis par l’expansion préoccupante des loisirs motorisés.

Ainsi, depuis maintenant quelques années, au mois de janvier, en triste écho à l’indécent spectacle du Paris-Dakar, le Champsaur est livré aux rodéos dévastateurs de la «Croisière Blanche ». Cette année, du mardi 21 au vendredi 24 janvier, trois cent « équipages » en 4x4, quads et trials, ont payé 1800 F le droit scandaleux de mettre à sac dans le plus grand vacarme les chemins ruraux et les pistes forestières du Valgaudemar et du Champsaur jusqu’à 2200 m

d’altitude, en zone périphérique du Parc National des Ecrins.

Cette manifestation ponctuelle, autorisée par le Préfet des Hautes-Alpes, est pourtant responsable d’une dégradation spectaculaire des itinéraires fréquentés et révolte un nombre croissant de personnes qui, de longue date, fréquentent ces montagnes à pied ou à ski, dans le plus grand respect des habitants et de leur environnement naturel. Ces désordres sont d’autant plus significatifs que l’hiver en accentue l’impact: les chemins enneigés sont transformés en bourbiers gelés, infréquentables par piétons, raquettistes ou randonneurs à ski; et la faune subit d’incontestables agressions dans une période de survie hivernale où son existence est déjà singulièrement fragilisée.

Au Livre Noir de la « Croisière Blanche », sont portées chaque année des dérives dûment constatées mais laissées sans suites: itinéraires empruntés non conformes à ceux pris en compte par l’autorisation préfectorale et circulation illégale de 4x4 sur des pistes à nouveau interdites des semaines après la clôture des ébats.

Mountain Wilderness France est intervenu auprès du Préfet des Hautes-Alpes, du Président du Conseil général des Hautes-Alpes et du Président du Conseil régional de la région PACA pour faire connaître son opposition déterminée à ce type de manifestation, encourager les autorités compétentes à résister aux pressions des organisateurs de ce carnaval bruyant, polluant et destructeur, et leur demander pour l’avenir d’interdire enfin la «Croisière Blanche ».

Retrouvez également toute l’actualité de Mountain Wilderness France sur:


Contact: Mountain Wilderness

5, Pl. Bir Hakeim

F - 38000 Grenoble

tél: +33 (0)4 76 01 89 08

fax: +33 (0)4 76 01 89 07

E-mail: Mountain.Wilderness@wanadoo.fr

Website: http://perso.wanadoo.fr/mountain.wilderness/index.htm

La Commission Internationale pour la Protection des Alpes (CIPRA) a été fondée en 1952. CIPRA-International est une organisation non-gouvernementale représentant une centaine d'associations et organisations dans les 7 pays alpins (Allemagne, Autriche, France, Italie, Liechtenstein, Slovénie, Suisse). Elle s'emploie à la préservation du patrimoine naturel et culturel sans oublier l'Homme et ainsi les aspects sociaux et économiques. Elle souhaite élaborer, soutenir et encourager les projets de développement durable et équitable dans l'intérêt des populations alpines et de leur environnement naturel. La CIPRA participe à l'amélioration de l'échange transfrontalier d'informations et d'expériences, au moyen de conférences, de publications, d'études et de la médiation de contacts. CIPRA-France, située à Grenoble, est l'une des 7 représentations nationales.

CIPRA-International a mis en place en 1997 le réseau de commune « Alliance dans les Alpes ». C'est un regroupement de près de 150 communes réparties sur l'ensemble de l'Arc alpin, depuis la France jusqu'à la Slovénie. Les communes membres du réseau se sont associées dans le but de mettre concrètement en application la Convention alpine afin d'instaurer un développement durable dans l'espace alpin. Les projets s'appliquent dans les domaines suivants: Agriculture de montagne, Population et culture, Aménagement du territoire, Régime des eaux, Energie, Protection de la nature et entretien des paysages, Forêts de montagne, Tourisme, Gestion des déchets, Transports.

Les membres du réseau travaillent en étroite collaboration avec les citoyens afin d'améliorer la situation écologique, sociale et économique de leurs communes. Pour ce faire, les communes échangent entre elles leurs expériences et leurs savoir-faire. Cela tient à des rencontres régulières, des conférences, des congrès ainsi que des excursions.

Ce réseau est ouvert à des communes, des communautés de communes et des parcs naturels régionaux pour leur apporter:

  • une aide dans la définition et la mise en place de projets mettant en ouvre la Convention alpine et ses protocoles d'application;

  • un partage d'expériences vécues, en bénéficiant notamment de l'appui du réseau international;

  • des outils de communication et d'échanges;

  • un soutien pour organiser, suivre et réaliser des rencontres thématiques, réunions-débats sur les problématiques environnementales de l'arc alpin;

  • une information sur les programmes de financements.


Emmanuelle Cleemann - Réseau de Commune « Alliance dans les Alpes »,


36, rue Nicolas Chorier, F-38000 Grenoble

tel/Fax 04 76 48 17 46

Mél alliance-france@wanadoo.fr ; Site Web www.cipra.org , www.alliancealpes.org

  1. Nature Protection, National Parks, Biosphere Reserves, Mountain Heritage

5.1 The Entlebuch

Communication by Lawrence S. Hamilton, Vice-Chair for Mountains World Commission on Protected Areas/IUCN (hamiltonx2@mindspring.com)
Entlebuch Biosphere Reserve - a First in Switzerland

Last October, during the Global Mountain Summit in Interlaken, a group of us had the opportunity to visit the first Biosphere Reserve in Switzerland, accepted by UNESCO only two weeks previously. Entlebuch had been five years however, in the grassroots process of planning and establishment, as we learned from the friendly and competent Project Manager Englebert Ruoss. It is composed of 39'000 ha of Cantonal and privately - owned land, with 1'200 contracts of specified use between the private owners and the Cantons, with 8 communes involved. The communes approved the BR proposal by majorities averaging 94%. This area, at the foot of the Alps, near Lake of Thun, consists of large areas of raised bogs and peat bogs and fens (27% of the area), the Napf area (only unglaciated area in Switzerland), forested ravines and the Kleine Emme River. Englebert showed us some of the 8% of protected core zone, the 42% buffer zone, and the remaining 50% periphery.

The conservation of mire wetlands is of national and regional significance and were given complete protection in 1987. This was a tremendous financial blow to the Entlebuch, one of the poorest areas in the country, leading to the "Mire War" protest, but then to vision planning, and the concept of regional ecomonic development based on land and water conservation, and then to a Biosphere Reserve. Governance is by 40-person BR Assembly (5 selected by each of the 8 communes) and they elect 9 person Council. Englebert says "The heavy focus of the BR on regional development must be understood from the farm viewpoint. And, only if we are successful in maintaining rural structures and historic cultural landscapes can we also be sure of maintaining the extensive bog and moorlands in the long term." Some of the things being promoted are ecotourism (especially agro-ecotourism), gastronomy (labelling restaurants), solar and wind energy, a wood forum, regional cheese and small cheese factories, farm diversification and niche products such as honey, crafts, bicycling, festivals and spelunking. We were very favourably impressed with everything we saw, except the military training use of part of the area. Congratulations to Englebert Ruoss.

Bits and Pieces : Martin Price and Thomas Schaaf have been involved in preparing a DC-ROM atlas and website for UNESCO that gives information on all mountain biosphere reserves and World Heritages Sites. The basic mountain map was produced by the UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

For information see www.unep-wcmc.org/habitats/mountains/region.html

5.2 Huayhuash (Peru)

Peru Ministerial Resolution No. 1173-2002-AG creates new Mountain Protected Area. The resolution was become official December 24, 2002, signed by the Minister of Agriculture to protect the extraordinary landscapes of Cordillera Huayhuash. Located south of Huascarán National Park, the range has Peru’s second tallest mountain peak Yerupajá (6634 msnm) together with 10 major peaks, six of these above 6000 masl. The Huayhuash range is considered among the best trekking routes because of its isolation. The ministerial resolution (below in Spanish) declares the area a “Reserved Zone” explicitly recognizing the rights and traditional land uses by the 8 peasant communities that hold lands in the new protected area. Although not mentioned in the government decree, government officials at the National Institute of Natural Resources (INRENA), charged with management of the national protected area system, indicate that the area was established considering that the most likely final category of the area will be that of a Protected Landscape (Reserva Paisajística), recognizing the importance of Andean farming and herding cultures for conservation of the area. All 8 communities were consulted as part of the creation process and a majority of votes Community Assembly votes approving intention to join the area was obtained.

The area was created as new mining exploration was expanding in the area. One mine owned by Mitsui Mining and Smelting Peru at Pallca lies at the border of Cordillera Huayhuash Reserved Zone. INRENA’s challenge for the next 12 months will be to promote and support active participation by communities and other stakeholders to identify the most appropriate category for the area and final delimitation of its borders.

The main access to Huayhuash is via the town of Chiquian in Ancash through a 25 kilometers trek to the town of Llamac from where several alternative routes can be followed from 4 to 21 days. The range sits right at the confluence of Ancash, Huánuco and Lima Departments.
More about Huayhuash:

Kolff Adam and J. Bartle. 2000. Cordillera Huayhuash, Perú. Lima: Instituto de Montaña y Nuevas Imágenes (copies available at ).

El Peruano Normas Legales Martes 24 de diciembre de 2002 - pag. 235808. Declaran superficie ubicada en los departamentos de Ancash, Huánuco y Lima. como "Zona Reservada Cordillera Huayhuash". RESOLUCION MINISTERIAL No. 1173-2002-AG.


5.3 National Park of Georgia - National Park of Georgia - Path to Development of Tourism

Tourism Perspectives in Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park Discussing the problems of tourism development in Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park was the final stage of our press-trip to the Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park. Karin Steinmetzer, tourism coordinator from the WWF Caucasus Program Office briefly acquainted us with the tourism perspectives in the Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park. Today there are eight tourist tracks located within the park territory. These tracks can accept about 464 tourists each day. During only the four-month period tourist seasons, the National Park can accept 55,680 tourists.

"The situation may be improved in the near future"- said Karin Steinmetzer, tourism coordinator. "We can achieve the best results in the sphere of tourism in Georgia if we come up with a successful advertising campaign. In that case the Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park would receive 300,000 tourists in 5 years." Ms. Steinmetzer offers support of the tourism development in the Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park up to 2004. This is some kind of a program, which includes marketing and promotion activities, tourism training program, product improvement activities, and support of local tourism.

Due to realization of the aforesaid measures there will be chances to save the easy accessible hiking area, newly built infrastructure. It will also promote the National Park administration staff. "Tourism development of the Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park will bring about a lot of good to the local population. After developing the tourist infrastructure, the local population will get an opportunity to get jobs in the hotel business, the family hotels, the sanatoriums, the restaurants, and etc" – continued Karin Steinmetzer. Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park needs approximately 1,850 double rooms in order to accept tourists each season. It is required to have up to 2,780 attendants on service according to the international standards. The Borjomi-Kharagauli National park needs 5,550 personnel in case of the maximum overcrowding of the tourists.

Now if the entrance to the Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park will cost $5 dollar. The hotel accommodations (meals, transportation, cafes) will cost about $60 dollar. According to the calculations, based on these numbers, the National Park will accumulate approximately $1,950,000 dollar in the next 5 years. 1 to 2 % of this sum will go on restoration - rehabilitation of the damaged parts of the park.

Karin Steinmetzer also has noted that the tourism development becomes the priority in the region. But to make it a priority we will need to make small capital investments and deepen the experience that counts years by now. Some Travel Notes for Tourists: Georgia has a lot of tourism and recreation resources. Georgia has many resorts, national parks and historical monuments. Currently only 102 resorts function in Georgia out of 182. They all possess excellent prospect for tourism. Georgian resorts are located in different climatic zones. The sea coast located resorts are: Sukhumi, Gagra, Bichvinta, New Aten all located in Abkhazia. Adjara region has the following sea cost resorts: Batumi, Kobuleti, Green Cape. The region of Guria has Ureki. The Megrelian region possesses costal Maltakva. The bathing season in these regions usually lasts for four months. We also offer you a list of high-mountainous resorts. It includes Bakuriani, Shovi, Bakhmaro. We also would like to introduce the routes to Borjomi that go via Tchobiskhevi-Dabadzveli-Tori-Tsikhisjvari-Bakuriani, Andaziti-Bakuriani-Patara, Tsemi-Libani-Tba-Sadgeri-Borjomi. This route is circle-like and begins at the administrative building of the Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park, where a 13-km-long path runs to the plateau of Dabadzveli located to the south. Nearby are the most beautiful lakes: Kakhisi--1,752m above the sea level, Tsero-1,802m above the sea level and a bunch of other lakes as well. They all attract a great number of tourists. A 4-5 km-long path running to the east gets a tourist to a residence of Tori, which is located on the lands previously owned by one of the grand in the Middle Ages. There also are the ruins of churches and other buildings hidden by the virgin forests. Nowhere else can one see the ash-trees and fir-trees of that age wrapped in fluffy lichens.

The next point of the route is a mountain rezort Tsikhisjvari famous for its thermal waters. It is situated on the territory circled with the pine-trees (1,800m. above the sea level). It was one of the chief fortresses of the Tori domain in the Middle Ages. At a distance of 1 km from here, in a gorge grown with forests, there is a settlement that grew around the andezite mines. One can get to the Borjomi Park of mineral waters by a short road from Bakuriani via the village of Sadgeri and the Borjomi Plateau.

The second route is that of Borjomi-Plateau-Sadgeri, Tba-Daba. The latter (850-900m above the sea level, 9 km away from Borjomi) is notable for its beautiful landscapes and is considered to be a good mountain resort. In the vicinity of Daba the remains of ancient settlement-dwellings built with cyclopic stone-work are preserved. On the other side of the river of Gujaretistskali, attached to the wall with many caves and covered with coniferous forests, there stands a church with fully clad with stones. It is built during the rule of the Georgian King George V.

The third route is that of Bakuriani-Tskhratsqaro Pass (2,462m above the sea level). From there can be seen an impressive panorama of 2/3rd of the Caucasian mountain range and its peaks. The mounts Elbrus, Ushba, Tetnuldi can also be observed.

Nearby a village Tabats kuri is situated, which is populated at present with the Armenians. There also is the Georgian church called "Tsiteli (Red) Church" which is preserved in the village. The church is situated amidst the volcanic mountains at the shore of the Lake Tabatskuri (14.2 sq.km; 40m in depth). The railway lines and motor-ways that run along the Mtkvari Gorge to the south-west of Borjomi lead visitors to Samtskhe. They are the continuation of long tourist routes.

6 Conferences, Workshops, Meetings in the past

6.1 Managing Mountain Ecosystems to Conserve Biodiversity and Meet Human Needs

- Steve Edwards and Elizabeth Byers

Mountains cover about 25% of the Earth's surface and are home to about 12% of the human population. They host a significant component of the world's biodiversity and many of the food staples on which humans depend originated in mountain ecosystems. Scientists and technical experts from around the world have gathered in Montreal Canada this week to prepare guidance to the 187 Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity on how to conserve these unique biodiversity resources and sustain the livelihoods of the people who live in these ecosystems.

IUCN's Ecosystem Management Programme in collaboration with the Mountain Forum hosted a roundtable, entitled "From Research to Action: Partnerships in Mountain Ecosystem Management" to explore how partnerships involving the scientific community, local communities and resource managers, and non-government organizations (NGOs) can be more influential at guiding global and national policies governing management of mountain ecosystems. Professor Christian Körner, Director of the Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment, located at the University of Basel, Switzerland, and a member of IUCN's Mountain Initiative Taskforce, chaired the roundtable. In his opening remarks Professor Körner highlighted the importance of targeting research to address key issues related to mountain biodiversity, noting the importance of involving local communities in such research. He also emphasized the need to effectively communicate research results to policy- and decision-makers. Mr. Satish Negi, representing the Himalayan community of Nanda Devi in northern India, described his experiences in living adjacent to a restricted national park. He highlighted the need for researchers to be sensi tive to local needs and to seek local peoples' advice and assistance. Elizabeth Byers of The Mountain Institute related her experiences in Rwanda and Nepal noting how important it was to engage with local people to achieve ownership of management.

A lively discussion followed the presentations, moderated by Steve Edwards of IUCN. Participants agreed that it is important to document cases of effective ecosystem management in mountains for the purpose of highlighting best practices and lessons learned. While pure research based solely on curiosity was seen as being important, the greater need today is for applied research specifically targeting management needs. In concert with research there is need to seek input from local peoples and for the international community to recognize the fundamental importance of such knowledge in crafting policy guidance. Where information is sparse or lacking and there is still need to take action, and managers are urged to be prepared to adapt to changing conditions.

7 Future Events: Conferences, Workshops ...

A regular service on forthcoming conferences and workshops is provided by the Mountain Forum. Please contact the website:


7.1  5th Annual Congress of ASAEC: Protected Areas and People

27 - 29 March 2003


Contact: aprot503@uncoma.edu.ar

7.2  26th Annual Appalachian Studies Conference: Building A Healthy Region: Environment, Culture, Community

28 - 30 March 2003

Richmond, Kentucky, USA

Contact: theresa.osborne@kctcs.net

(already announced)

URL: http://www.appalachianstudies.org/2003-conf/index.htm?1010729436

7.3  2003 PACLIM Workshop: Integrated Climate Research in Mountain Regions"

6 - 9 April 2003

Pacific Grove, CA, USA

Contact: mddettin@usgs.gov

URL: http://meteora.ucsd.edu/paclim/

7.4  People, Park and Mountain Tourism

April 2-18, 2003

a series of e- consultations co-organised by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and Bridges: Projects in Rational Tourism Development (Bridges-PRTD) in coordination with the Namche Conference, May 24-26, Namche Bazar, Khumbu, Nepal.]
1. Schedule

April 2-6: Session I: Cultural and ecological impact of tourism in remote mountainous destinations

April 7-11: Session II: Security issues related to tourism in remote mountainous destinations

April 11-15: Session III: Management systems: parks, protected areas, community- based development

April 16-20: Session IV: Shaping the future: achieving optimal results in the global market
2. Background note

People, Park, and Mountain Tourism

From April 2 to April 20, Mountain Forum Asia will hold a series of e-consultations sponsored by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and Bridges: Projects in Rational Tourism Development (Bridges-PRTD) in coordination with the

Namche Conference, May 24-26, Namche Bazar, Khumbu, Nepal.

The Namche Conference coincides with the 50th anniversary ('Golden Jubilee') of the first ascent of Mt. Everest, as well as the first quarter century of Sagarmatha National Park. Sir John Hunt's 1953 expedition not only placed the first two summiters on top of the world's highest mountain, it also unleashed a development process that has radically transformed the Sherpa homeland. The conference venue, Namche Bazar (3450 m), at the gateway to Sagarmatha National Park, is a significant departure from the usual academic symposium on mountain issues: rather than simply reading papers to each other, the delegates and participants will have the opportunity to 'ground-truth' their ideas and to learn from local experts.

These e-consultations are conceived as a preliminary to the Namche Conference. Focusing specifically on issues that are of concern to the residents of remote mountain tourism destinations, we will compile a set of questions, generalisations, and suggestions to place before the conference participants (including members of the host community). In so doing, Mountain Forum subscribers around the world may participate by proxy, and the actual conference participants will have an opportunity to focus on and sharpen their ideas in advance.

3. E-Consultation Topics

[At the beginning of each session, the content moderator will present a lead-paper for e-discussions. Participants are encouraged to read the lead-paper and comment on it. Moreover, they are encouraged to contribute case studies, fill in 'knowledge gaps', suggest what have worked and what haven't and provide policy recommendations, among other things.]

a) Session I. Cultural and ecological impact of tourism in remote mountainous destinations and neighboring areas

  • How is tourism affecting traditional social structures and individual lives?

  • What changes are perceived as positive and negative?

  • How can cultural traditions function as tourism assets without undermining their value through commodification?

  • What economic and ecological risks does the tourism trade pose for the host community and for neighbouring areas?

b) Session II. Security issues related to tourism in remote mountainous destinations

  • Hosts and visitors are exposed to many hazards, including trail and bridge instability, medical emergencies, crime, armed conflict, and a variety of natural catastrophes. Trekkers sometimes get lost. What can be done to mitigate such hazards?

  • Whose responsibility is search and rescue?

  • What new hazards are created by tourism?

  • What steps should be taken to protect porters?

  • How can the public's need to be informed of potential hazards be reconciled with the economic interests of the tourism industry?

c) Session III. Management systems: parks, protected areas, community-based development

  • What roles do park managers, development agencies, local authorities, and private individuals play in cultural and natural conservation? In what ways have they been successful? What changes can be recommended?

  • What stakeholder conflicts arise within tourism destinations, and how can they be resolved? (e.g. claims that animal husbandry damages the environment; crop and livestock depredation by wild animals; exploitation of medical plants and other resources…)

  • What can be done to assure gender equity and to protect particularly vulnerable groups (for example, porters, children, subsistence farmer

  • What can be done to prevent cut-throat competition among service providers?

  • What can be done to mitigate negative impacts of development in tourist destinations and parks on neighbouring areas?

  • How do government regulations and restrictions on tourism impact economic opportunities? Where user fees are imposed, how should revenues be allocated?

d) Session IV (Wrap-Up). Shaping the future: achieving optimal results in the global market

  • Philosophical issues: Does the concept of 'carrying capacity' as applied to tourism have validity? If so, then what? Should a few natural areas be 'sacrificed' to mass use while most others are preserved unimpacted? Or is it best to distribute tourism as broadly as possible to minimize intensity of impact?

  • Tourism seems to be driven toward superlatives. How can destinations with more modest natural assets distinguish themselves and compete effectively?

  • What new 'cottage industries' can be developed in remote mountainous regions, and how can products be marketed?

  • How can impoverished and remote destinations tap into the global market?

  • How can the 'indigenous knowledge' of successful tourism destinations be shared with other prospective destinations and entrepreneurs?

4. Expected outcomes:

  • Syntheses of the e-consultations will feed into the Namche Conference; will be widely disseminated via email-lists and the Internet

  • An advocacy tool for bringing about change at policy level

5. How can you participate?

Participation in the e-consultations is open to all: no registration is required. If you are already subscribed to mf-asia email list and wish to participate, do nothing. However, owing to email traffic, if any current mf-asia subscriber wishes to be taken off the mf-asia email list for the period of e-consultations, please write to . You will be resubscribed back to the list once the e-consultations are over.

7.5  Journées de l’Alpage

organisées par les Sociétés d'Economie Alpestre de Haute-Savoie et de Savoie

25-26 et 27 avril 2003

Commune de Megève (Haute-Savoise, France).

(déjà annoncé)

7.6  The 5th ministerial conference of European environmental ministers on the Environment for Europe process

21 to 23 May 2003

Kiev (Ukraine)

Among the issues to be discussed concerning environmental co-operation against the backdrop of EU enlargement will be items such as the Carpathian Convention, the Central Asian Mountain Charter and the Mountain Challenge Statement.

Mountain-sector NGOs and social organisations essentially from countries acceding to the EU and from the Balkans are currently drafting the Mountain Challenge Statement, a joint declaration to be tabled in Kiev.

Based on practical experience, requirements and future recommendations the Statement is to present positions on the following issues: the sustainable use of natural resources and water; the sustainable planning of energy, telecommunications, infrastructure and transport; education in the sustainable development of mountain regions and their culture; sustainable development in mountain regions and the economy; and political measures to promote the participation of NGOs. Since 1991 conferences on the Environment for Europe have provided a framework for co-operation within which a joint environmental campaign programme has been agreed. The conferences were set up by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).

Source and information: European Mountain Forum :

http://www.mtnforum.org/europe/roadtokiev (en),

http://www.kyiv-2003.info (en)

http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/enlarg/kiev_en.htm (en/de/fr/it)

7.7  Annual Meeting of the German Working Group “High Mountain Geoecology”.


Freiburg, Germany

(already announced)

Die Jahrestagung des Arbeitskreises Hochgebirgsökologie findet in der Zeit vom 29.5. bis 31.5.2003 in Freiburg im Breisgau in Zusammenarbeit mit der IGU Commission „Diversity in Mountain Systems“ statt. Ausrichter der Tagung ist das Institut für Kulturgeographie der Universität Freiburg.
Ort: Geographische Institute der Universität Freiburg, Werderring 4, 79085 Freiburg
Im Mittelpunkt der Tagung steht die Thematik „Gebirge als politische Räume“. Mit dieser Thematik sollen verstärkt aktuelle humangeographische Frage-stellungen und Ansätze in die Arbeit des Arbeitskreises einbezogen werden. Im einzelnen ist geplant, Vortragssitzungen zu den folgenden Themenkreisen zu organisieren:

  1. Politische Ökologie von Gebirgsräumen

  2. Gebirgsräume und Sonderrechte (Nutzungseinschränkungen durch Aus-weisung von Schutzgebieten)

  3. Gebirgsräume als Zielräume strukturpolitischer Maßnahme (Förder-programme, Akteure, Effekte)

  4. Gebirgsräume in Herrschafts- und Verwaltungsstrukturen (Grenz-ziehungen in Gebirgsräumen, Abgren-zung von Verwaltungsräumen, Konflikte in Gebieten ethnischer Minderheiten)

Darüber hinaus ist eine Posterpräsentation auch zu anderen Themen möglich.

Für die Teilnahme wird ein Unkosten-beitrag in Höhe von voraussichtlich € 30,00 erhoben.

Anmeldungen zur Teilnahme und Angebote von Vorträgen / Postern werden ab sofort an die Organisatoren (s.u.) erbeten. Bei einer zu großen Zahl von Vortragsanmeldungen müssen wir uns eine Auswahl vorbehalten, die sich an den Kriterien Bezug zur Rahmenthematik, Förderung des wissenschaftlichen Nach-wuchses und Aktualität orientiert. Auf jeden Fall soll ausreichend Zeit für intensive Diskussionen zur Verfügung stehen. Freuen würden wir uns über Angebote für Impulsreferate zu jedem der vier Leitthemen.

Weitere Hinweise

Prof. Dr. Michael Richter

Institut für Geographie

Universität Erlangen

Rückfragen und Anmeldungen

Prof. Dr. Jörg Stadelbauer

Institut für Kulturgeographie der Universität Freiburg

D-79085 Freiburg


7.8  Geodynamics and Tectonic Evolution of the Carpathian Arc and its Foreland: The Fourth Stephan Mueller Conference of the European Geophysical Society

31 May - 5 June 2003

Cheile Butii, Romania

Contact: mocanu@gg.unibuc.ro

URL: http://www.gg.unibuc.ro/mueller2003

7.9  Sustainable Mountain Communities

June 14 - June 18, 2002

Banff, Alberta, Canada

Mountain Culture at the Banff Centre

Presented by:

The Town of Banff Parks Canada

Supported by:

North American Mountain Forum

7.10  Sustainable Development of Mountainous Regions of the Caucasus

11 - 12 July 2003

Tbilisi, Georgia

Contact: nina.shatberashvili@rec-caucasus.org

URL: http://www.rec-caucasus.org/conf_2003_eng.htm

7.11  International Conference “Society and Environment Interaction und Conditions of Global and Regional Changes“

International Geographical Union, National Committee of Geographers of Russia; Russian Geographical Society; Institute of Geography of Russian Academy of Sciences; Geographical Department of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University; Institute of Water and Ecological Problems of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences; Altai State University

The Conference will take place in Moscow and Barnaul (Altai) on July 20-30, 2003.
Scientific Program of the Conference

The Conference plans to consider a wide circle of problems of interaction between the society and environment under conditions of global and regional changes. The work of the Conference will be organized as plenary and section meetings and the meetings of IGU Commissions and Working Groups.

The following problems are planned to be discussed at the Conference:

  • Biosphere stability under conditions of the anthropogenic effects and transformations of geographic environment

  • Regional geographic consequences of global climatic changes

  • Transformations of society and world economy as a result of global changes of climate and anthropogenic effect

  • Land Use and Land Cover Change

  • Integration and disintegration in modern world

  • Change of the role of geography in modern society

  • Geographical education under conditions of global and regional changes

  • Geographic problems of Inner Asia

Program of meetings of sections, IGU Commissions and Working Groups will be compiled on the basis of proposals made by Commissions and Working Groups. The Third Circular with program and indication of all Commissions and Working groups will be sent by February , 2003.

Two thematic excursions to Altai for 4 days each will be organized during the period of July 25-July 28. Each bus excursion will cover about 400 km. During the excursion guests will be offered accommodation in comfortable cottages.

Altai is the object of world natural heritage „Altai – Golden Mountains.“ It is the second in boreal latitudes center of biological and ethnic-cultural diversity. The Altai region draws an ever-growing attention of the largest international projects and WWF and INDP programs, devoted to biodiversity and sustainable regional development problems. The region is in the very center of Asia in the area of interaction of four largest states: Russia, China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. Three floristic provinces close up here defining unique biological diversity of the region. Here we see the sources of the largest Siberian rivers Ob’ and Irtysh rendering a conducting effect on the environment of the vast region. Altai is the place of interaction of several ethnic cultures (indigenous Altai people, Russians, Ukrainians and other) and a number of religions (pagan shamanism, Tibetian Buddhism, Old believers-kerzhaks, members of Orthodox church of modern orientation)
Excursion routes:
1. Teletsk lake

During the excursion the participants will be able to get acquainted with the capital of the Altai Republic -the city of Gorno-Altaisk , an oldest Siberian road and the future Siberian-Chinese bridge- Tchuisk high road, „Altai pearl“ – Teletsk Lake, and the Biya and Tchulyshman rivers.

The scientific theme of the excursion assumes a discussion of problems of protected territories, preservation of habitat of minor peoples, their spiritual and cultural traditions, development of recreation and transport networks, disturbance and contamination of natural landscapes, forest felling and poaching as well as the choice of the strategy of the region development and near-the-frontier cooperation.

  1. Aktru glaciers

The main objects of the excursion are Tchuisk high road, Seminsk pass, the Ursul river valley, the Katun’ river valley, Kuraisk steppe, the most ancient archeological monument - a stone statue on the Tchya river bank, Aktru glaciers, Tchuisk basin - the largest intra-mountain basin of Altai, Kosh-Agatch settlement - an important commercial point of the south of mountainous Altai, alpine cryo-arid landscapes.

The sphere of scientific interests: Altai glaciers, Quaternary mountain glaciations, moraines, glacier lakes, alpine forms of the relief, altitudinal belts and climatic differences of the western and eastern macro -slopes, alpine steppe phenomenon, protection of natural and archeological monuments, development of transport networks, recreation and mountain ski resorts, preservation of culture of minor peoples.

The cost of the excursions (including transport, accommodation, meals, excursion service and reference materials) is 400 $ USA.
Before the main Conference some Commissions of IGU plan to conduct workshops and preconference trips in Moscow. More detail information will be in Third Circular, February 2003.

For example:

The Workshop of the IGU Commission LUCC (Organizer Elena Milanova, email: EMilanova@iscmoscow.glasnet.ru) and Commission of Geographical Education (organizer Vladimir Gorbanyov, email: gorbanyov@mtu-net.ru

Two educational preconference trips will be organized during the period of July 19-21.

To be guest of medieval Russian artisan.

The main goal of the trip is to familiarize participants with daily life of Plyoss craftsman of the 12-13-th centuries. (350 Kms to the North-East of Moscow). His country estate was distroyed in 1238 by Tatar-Mongolian invasion. At the present time the estate is being reconstructed by students from different parts of Russia. Simultaneously they study culture, daily life, traditions, dress, food, craft of Russian people. The guests may kindle a stove, learn to spin, try on folk dress, taste national food and beverages and sit on wood bench at a samovar. Participants may visit the house where lived famous Russian painter Isaak Levitan and see his Art Gallery.

Field Training Camp.

During the trip guests will see a Field Training Camp, situated not far from Moscow. Students from different Moscow schools study hydrology, hydrobiology, geomorphology, geology, soil science. Participants may speak to students, acquaint with their work both in the field and in the treating placing. Then visiters wll have a lunch with pupils.

The cost of the two educational excursions is $ 150 and 25 accordingly. The number of participants of educational trips will be about 30.
Preliminary Conference Schedule

July 18 arrival of participants to Moscow who takes part in educational excursions

July 19-21 field educational excursions to Plyoss and Training Camp

July 20 arrival of participants to Moscow

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