I. Revival of Indian Ocean Trading System A. Indian Ocean Trade



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I. Revival of Indian Ocean Trading System

A. Indian Ocean Trade

  • 1. Afro-Eurasian trade revived in the Indian Ocean due to collapse of Mongol overland trade routes in C. Asia
  • 2. Indian Ocean trade items:
  • --precious metals & jewels
  • --rare spices (ginger, cinnamon,
  • pepper, nutmeg, cloves)
  • --horses
  • --timber

Indian Ocean dhow in Arabian Sea

  • Indian Ocean dhow in Arabian Sea
  • Chinese junk in Bay of Bengal & South China Sea
  • Afroeurasia

Indian Ocean trade decentralized & cooperative

  • Indian Ocean trade decentralized & cooperative
  • Commercial interests created regional trade networks
  • E. Africa: gold
  • Arabia: horses, slaves
  • coastal India: spices; received goods from east & west
  • Strait of Malacca: meeting point between China-Indian Ocean

B. The Swahili Coast & Great Zimbabwe

  • 1. Swahili Coast:
  • --1,800 miles long linking trade from Africa to Asia
  • --cultural diffusion from India, Arabia, & China
  • --spread of Islam
  • --gold from inland state of Great Zimbabwe
  • --creation of trade language: Swahili (“shores”)
  • 2. Great Zimbabwe (“house of stone”): 1250-1450 C.E.
  • --long distance trade mostly in gold
  • --ecological crisis from overgrazing & deforestation

C. Arabia: Aden & the Red Sea

D. India: Gujarat & the Malabar Coast

  • 1. Gujarat: prospered from trade of cotton & indigo
  • 2. Muslim rulers expanded into Hindu states
  • 3. Malabar Coast: spices

Gujarat

  • Gujarat
  • Strait of
  • Malaca
  • Aden
  • Swahili
  • Coast

E. The Rise of Malacca

  • Passage point to the S. China Sea
  • Allied with China
  • Malaccan conversion to Islam promoted trade
  • 4. Meeting point for all Indian Ocean traders

II. Social & Cultural Influences in the Indian Ocean

A. Architectural Diffusion

  • Local mosque building styles
  • --clay in Mali
  • --Hindu-influenced in India
  • --coral stone in Swahili Coast
  • 2. Ethiopian Christian churches

B. Spread of Religions

  • Spread of Islam throughout Indian Ocean region
  • Marriage spread Islam (up to 4 wives)
  • Islam pushed Buddhism out of India
  • 4. Coptic Christians in Egypt

The spread of universal religions from 300-1500 CE

  • Buddhism
  • Hinduism
  • Islam
  • Christianity

C. Social & Gender Effects

  • 1. Growth of slavery (Arab slave traders)
  • 2. Mali exported slaves across the Sahara
  • 3. Ethiopia sold slaves to Aden
  • 4. Swahili Coast to India
  • 5. Many female slaves sold as servants, entertainers, and concubines

CHANGE OVER TIME ESSAY

  •   Historical Background: Evidence of trade between cultures predates written records. Goods, people, and ideas have spread across the Afro-Eurasian land mass in varying amounts and regularity. A major change occurred between 100 BCE and 1000 CE which would usher in the Atlantic System and the modern global trading network.
  • Discuss change & continuities in the Afro-Eurasian trading systems, 100 BCE-1200 CE.
  • Pre-Write
  • Change
  • Continuity
  • 1. 3 facts
  • 2. analysis sentence
  • Global Context
  • 1. 3 facts
  • 2. analysis sentence


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