Global patterns of production, consumption and trade/movements of energy.
Sources of energy, both primary and secondary.
Relationship of energy supply (volume and quality) to key aspects of physical geography – climate, geology and drainage.
Energy supplies in a globalising world: competing national interests
Components of demand and energy mixes in contrasting settings.
The geopolitics of energy distribution, trade and management.
The role of transnational corporations in energy production, processing and distribution.
Environmental impacts of a major energy resource development such as an oil, coal or gas field and associated distribution networks.
Strategies to increase energy supply (oil and gas exploration, nuclear power and development of renewable sources).
Strategies to manage energy consumption (including reducing demand).
Sustainability issues associated with energy production, trade and consumption:
enhanced greenhouse effect,
Interpret a variety of charts, data, graphs and maps (especially atlas maps).
Develop extended writing skills to explore issues.
Analyse and present geographical data employing a variety of graphical techniques and descriptive statistics. (See skills checklist.)
Develop understanding of the distribution of energy resources on Earth, and understand how energy is available for human use from:
biomass, including fuelwood
fossil fuels including:
natural gas (including shale gas)
wave and tidal power
wind power (on-shore and off-shore)
solar power (photo-voltaic cells and concentrated solar heating)
Develop an understanding of the way energy supplies are influenced by physical factors including:
climate and weather.
Develop an understanding of different levels of stock energy reserve:
measured and indicated reserves
inferred and possible reserves
proven and probable reserves
Understand that human and economic factors will affect the viability of any reserve and understand how supply, demand, price, level of technological development and production are inter-related.
Understand the factors that influence the energy mix of different countries, and develop detailed knowledge of one country's mix.
Understand the importance of geopolitics in influencing the world trade in oil and gas.
Develop knowledge of one energy TNC and an understanding of the way that TNCs influence the whole world energy market.
Develop knowledge and understanding of the impact of oil and gas exploitation on the environment and on the people living in the area of exploitation.
Develop knowledge and understanding of each of these topics.
Develop knowledge of energy conservation techniques, both in the home and in the wider world.
Understand the causes of acid rain, but also are aware that much has been done to reduce or control the problems.
Understand the links between the energy security topic and the carbon cycle and to other aspects of the spec.
Understand the nature of nuclear waste and the issues involved in its management and storage.
Understand how energy can be conserved, in the home, in transport and in industry.
Introductory discussion/Q&A to establish what students know about classifications of energy sources and about their comparative advantages and disadvantages.
Group research activity, with each student given a source to study (reserves, trade patterns, consumption) and then feedback shared with the group.
Engage with a range of charts, diagrams, graphs and maps to be able to describe the characteristics of different energy sources, using the BP Statistical Review, and/or other sources.
Students select a country and research its energy mix using IEA Statistics search as a starter.
Students then use their results as a starting point to consider reasons for the energy mixes of different countries.
Students to research the importance of Russia in the international trade in oil and gas, and the importance of that trade to Russia. This can be considered in terms of the geopolitics of energy.
Students to research the role of one major TNC in all stages of the oil and/or gas industries. Shell is suggested as an example, but most other big TNCs have useful websites.
Review the impacts of the industry, and of the TNC under the headings:
human or physical
social, economic, environmental, demographic, political, etc.
The basics will be covered in the text books but up-to-date details of the strategies for developing each of these can be found from industry sources:
oil and gas
Research the causes, effects and solutions to the acid rain issue.
Complete a mind map of the links between different specification areas, with the enhanced greenhouse effect at the centre.
BP Statistical review of world energy - June 2016
Global energy statistical yearbook 2017
Glossary of terms
National Academy of Sciences - what you need to know about energy
International Energy Agency statistics search
Russia's oil and gas production
Russia's key energy statistics
Wikipedia - energy in Russia
Shell - natural gas in particular go to:
About us, Who we are, What we do, Our major projects, Energy and innovation
Shell in Nigeria - what are the issues?
BBC - Shell 'failing to clean up Nigeria oil spills'
Greenpeace - 8 reasons why Shell can't be trusted
For a detailed and up-to-date but accessible account of exploration for and production of natural gas go to:
Exploration of natural gas
Extraction of natural gas
Extraction of natural gas - onshore drilling
Extraction of gas - offshore drilling
History of nuclear energy
Skim the early sections – up to 'nuclear revival'. Then go to 'a new generation' and to 'China'
Comparison of sustainable energy
Descriptions of different energy sources
Acid rain factsheet
Joint Nature Conservation Committee - the greenhouse effect
Nuclear wastes - what are they?
Greenpeace - nuclear power
Energy saving trust