The topic of 'Human, Animal and Plant in the Poetry of D. H. Lawrence' is a meadow of poems blooming like flowers all at the same time, yet with different colours. These individual flowers are Lawrence's poems thematically connected to the element of human versus living organisms. The following paragraphs will shortly conclude the outcome of the thesis and offer a brief comparing and contrasting of some of the poems analysed in the previous chapters.
The poems selected from the rich collection of Birds, Beasts and Flowers seem to be of the greatest relevance to the topic of this thesis, as they take into consideration a living organism within a frame of events and continually develop the idea that the author wants to announce. Contextually, they either celebrate simple beauty in nature, or show human and animal in the contrasting light. As Williams points out, "nothing is more characteristic of Lawrence than this reverence for material things that spring directly from the Life Urge – that is, for every aspect of nature." (91)105 This is what all the collections have in common, directing attention onto natural aspects of life, as Williams adds: "All the aspects of nature fill the volume of poems called Birds, Beasts and Flowers, and they appear again and again in all the other volumes." However, in comparison with the other two volumes, Birds are more inquiring and demanding in terms of context, while Pansies and More Pansies come out simpler, much shorter, and clearer in the utterance of the main ideas. However, these two collections introduce the critical Lawrence more than the first collection does, directing attention not only to animals in contrast to humans, but also pointing finger at society, expressing what is and what is not right. In the last collection, there also appears the tendency to ponder and philosophise, like in the Gods poems, yet Lawrence never fails to present his opinion on the topic, even if approached by questioning.
Regarding the stylistic point of view concerning selected poetry, free verse is what Lawrence adopts in the collection Birds, Beasts and Flowers and this freedom of rhyming accompanies the reader until the very end of Last Poems. Lawrence's style is that of being influenced and inspired by Whitman, yet even though the poems are in free verse, they are read in a continuous fluent rhythm, and written in a repetitive style in order to convey the importance of some of the utterances, as well as to accentuate the happening in the poem, often by changing from short abrupt verses to long rich despriptions. The previous stylistic characterisation applies to pieces from the collection of Birds, Beasts and Flowers, such as Fish, Snake, The Mosquito or Almond Blossom. In contrast, Pansies were written as short independent thoughts, some of which are only sentence-long utterances that survive as poems only thanks to free verse and a poetic form. Last Poems are stylistically closer to Pansies, as the bodies of the poems are much shorter than in the first collection and the repetitive and meditative passages are less frequent. The main difference between the collections may lie in the fact that poems from the Birds collection are narrated stories developing the final idea, while in the other two collections the pieces explicitly convey the idea to the reader and often without any story-telling or narration.
The purpose of this thesis was to demonstrate Lawrence's view of nature and the view of humans through the analysis of selected poetry, which has well been achieved in the practical part of the thesis. It is doubtless that the author sees good in nature and evil in society turning their heads in the direction of development and industrialisation, which to Lawrence slowly leads to the fall of humanking. His philosophy lies in the core of the universe, in the flow of life, the Life Force, that miraculously accompanies all living creatures and organisms on their way. It is enriching to adopt some of the author's ideas and understand his intention of bringing happiness to people and other living organisms by bringing them closer together in their life essence. As Williams would put it, "society cannot and will not need Lawrence. Indeed, Lawrence never thought it would. His answers are those of an individualist writing for individuals. And any individual can find in Lawrence's poetry a philosophical system that is original, consistent, complex, and stimulating."106 (Williams 91)
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9 Resumé (English)
Apart from his diverse prosaic works, David Herbert Lawrence became well-known also thanks to his extensive collections of poems, many of which cover the themes of human, nature, and living organisms, which are interlocked with the author's philosophy. The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate Lawrence's view of the world and man through the analysis of selected poems, which comply with the elements of living organisms and a critique of contemporary civilization's character. The first part of the thesis offers a theoretical basis for the analysis and refers to the specific themes and motifs in Lawrence's thinking that appear in his poetical work. These themes are communicated in the second part of the thesis – in the analysis of selected poems aimed at the elements of animal, plant, and human in connection with the author's ideas. The outcome of this thesis tries to articulate the clear reflection of D. H. Lawrence's life philosophies in his later poetry, as well as his perception of nature and the human race.
10 Resumé (Czech)
David Herbert Lawrence se kromě svých různorodých prozaických děl proslavil i rozsáhlými kolekcemi básní, které se zabývají tématikou člověka, přírody a živých organismů a jsou propojené s autorovou filozofií. Cílem této práce je přiblížit a objasnit Lawrencův pohled na svět a člověka prostřednictvím analýzy vybraných básní, které se věnují živým organismům a kritice charakteru dobové civilizace. První část této práce poskytuje teoretický základ pro danou analýzu a odkazuje na konkrétní témata a motivy Lawrencova myšlení, které se objevují v jeho poezii. Na danou tématiku navazuje v druhé části práce rozbor vybraných básní, které se zaměřují na motiv zvířat, rostlin a člověka ve spojitosti s autorovým myšlením. Účelem této práce je poukázat na jasný odraz životních filosofií D. H. Lawrence v jeho pozdní poezii, stejně jako na jeho vnímání přírody a lidské rasy.