Human, Animal and Plant in the Poetry of D. H. Lawrence



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7 Conclusion

The topic of 'Human, Animal and Plant in the Poetry of D. H. Lawrence' is a meadow of poems blooming like flowers all at the same time, yet with different colours. These individual flowers are Lawrence's poems thematically connected to the element of human versus living organisms. The following paragraphs will shortly conclude the outcome of the thesis and offer a brief comparing and contrasting of some of the poems analysed in the previous chapters.

The poems selected from the rich collection of Birds, Beasts and Flowers seem to be of the greatest relevance to the topic of this thesis, as they take into consideration a living organism within a frame of events and continually develop the idea that the author wants to announce. Contextually, they either celebrate simple beauty in nature, or show human and animal in the contrasting light. As Williams points out, "nothing is more characteristic of Lawrence than this reverence for material things that spring directly from the Life Urge – that is, for every aspect of nature." (91)105 This is what all the collections have in common, directing attention onto natural aspects of life, as Williams adds: "All the aspects of nature fill the volume of poems called Birds, Beasts and Flowers, and they appear again and again in all the other volumes." However, in comparison with the other two volumes, Birds are more inquiring and demanding in terms of context, while Pansies and More Pansies come out simpler, much shorter, and clearer in the utterance of the main ideas. However, these two collections introduce the critical Lawrence more than the first collection does, directing attention not only to animals in contrast to humans, but also pointing finger at society, expressing what is and what is not right. In the last collection, there also appears the tendency to ponder and philosophise, like in the Gods poems, yet Lawrence never fails to present his opinion on the topic, even if approached by questioning.

Regarding the stylistic point of view concerning selected poetry, free verse is what Lawrence adopts in the collection Birds, Beasts and Flowers and this freedom of rhyming accompanies the reader until the very end of Last Poems. Lawrence's style is that of being influenced and inspired by Whitman, yet even though the poems are in free verse, they are read in a continuous fluent rhythm, and written in a repetitive style in order to convey the importance of some of the utterances, as well as to accentuate the happening in the poem, often by changing from short abrupt verses to long rich despriptions. The previous stylistic characterisation applies to pieces from the collection of Birds, Beasts and Flowers, such as Fish, Snake, The Mosquito or Almond Blossom. In contrast, Pansies were written as short independent thoughts, some of which are only sentence-long utterances that survive as poems only thanks to free verse and a poetic form. Last Poems are stylistically closer to Pansies, as the bodies of the poems are much shorter than in the first collection and the repetitive and meditative passages are less frequent. The main difference between the collections may lie in the fact that poems from the Birds collection are narrated stories developing the final idea, while in the other two collections the pieces explicitly convey the idea to the reader and often without any story-telling or narration.

The purpose of this thesis was to demonstrate Lawrence's view of nature and the view of humans through the analysis of selected poetry, which has well been achieved in the practical part of the thesis. It is doubtless that the author sees good in nature and evil in society turning their heads in the direction of development and industrialisation, which to Lawrence slowly leads to the fall of humanking. His philosophy lies in the core of the universe, in the flow of life, the Life Force, that miraculously accompanies all living creatures and organisms on their way. It is enriching to adopt some of the author's ideas and understand his intention of bringing happiness to people and other living organisms by bringing them closer together in their life essence. As Williams would put it, "society cannot and will not need Lawrence. Indeed, Lawrence never thought it would. His answers are those of an individualist writing for individuals. And any individual can find in Lawrence's poetry a philosophical system that is original, consistent, complex, and stimulating."106 (Williams 91)
8 Bibliography
Primary Sources
Lawrence, David Herbert. Complete Poems. Ed. Vivian de Sola Pinto and Warren Roberts. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. Print.
Secondary Sources
Aldington, Richard. "D. H. Lawrence as Poet." The Saturday Review of Literature 11.40 (1926): 749-750. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.

Becket, Fiona. The Complete Critical Guide to D. H. Lawrence. London: Routledge, 2002.

Print.

Caudwell, Christopher. "D. H. Lawrence: A Study of the Burgeois Artist." Studies in a Dying Culture. London: Bodley Head, 1938. Marxists.org. Web. 12 Sept. 2013.



Gates, Barrington. Rev. of Pansies, by D. H. Lawrence. Nation and Athenaeum 27 July 1929: 572.

Granofsky, Ronald. "Lawrence and Darwin." D. H. Lawrence and Survival: Darwinism in the Fiction of the Transitional Period. Montreal: McGill Queen's UP, 2003. 12-42. Print.

Holderness, Graham. D.H. Lawrence, History, Ideology, and Fiction. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1982. Print.

Hyde, Virginia. "D. H. Lawrence, W. B. Yeats, and Rosa Mundi." The South Carolina Review: 68-82. Web. 10 Sept. 2013.



Jansohn, Christa, and Dieter Mehl. Reception of Writers in Europe. London: Continuum, 2007. Print.

Keese, Andrew. "Pansies: Lawrence's Search for the Animal Other in Humans." D. H. Lawrence Studies (2012): 135-152. Web. 5 July 2013.

Lawrence, David Herbert. Fantasia of the unconscious and Psychoanalysis of the Unconscious. Harmondsworth and London: Penguin, 1971. Print.

---. "Introduction to Pansies." Complete Poems. By D. H. Lawrence. Ed. Vivian De Sola Pinto and Warren Roberts. New York: Viking, 1993. 417-21. Print.

---. "The Poetry of the Present." Complete Poems. By D. H. Lawrence. Ed. Vivian De Sola Pinto and Warren Roberts. New York: Viking, 1964. 181-186. Print.

---. Reflections on the Death of a Porcupine and Other Essays. Ed. Michael Herbert. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. Print.

Millet, Kate. Sexual Politics. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 2000. Print.



Oates, Joyce Carol. The Hostile Sun: The Poetry of D. H. Lawrence. Los Angeles: Black

Sparrow Press, 1973.University of San Francisco. Web. 20 June 2013.



Pinto, Vivian De Sola. "D. H. Lawrence: Poet without a Mask." Complete Poems. By D. H. Lawrence. Ed. Vivian De Sola Pinto and Warren Roberts. New York: Viking, 1993. 1-21. Print.

Presley, John W. "D. H. Lawrence and the Resources of Poetry." Language and Style 12.1 (1979): 3-12. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.

Rexroth, Kenneth. Poetry, Regeneration, and D. H. Lawrence. New York: New Directions, 1947. Bureau of Public Secrets. Web. 10 Sept. 2013.

Rich, Adrienne. "Reflections on Lawrence." Poetry 106.3 (1965): 218-225. Web. 22 Sept. 2013.

Rohman, Carrie. Stalking the subject: Modernism and the Animal. New York: Columbia UP, 2009. Print.

Rylance, Rick. "'I Must Go Away': The Reception of Lawrence's Englishness in an International Perspective." Reception of Writers in Europe. Ed. Dieter Mehl and Jansohn Christa. London: Continuum, 2007. Print.



Sagar, Keith. "D. H. Lawrence: Poet." Googlebooks. Humanities-Ebooks LLP, 2007. Web. 10 October 2013.

Sheehan, Paul. "The Lawrentian Transcendent: After the Fall." Modernism, Narrative and Humanism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. 87-120. Print.



Steinberg, Erwin Ray. "D. H. Lawrence: Mythographer." Journal of Modern Literature 25.1 (2001): 91-108. Print.

Wareham, John. Birds, Beasts, Flowers: Poems of D. H. Lawrence. Leicester: The English Association, 1998. Print.



Williams, George G. "D. H. Lawrence's Philosophy as Expressed in His Poetry." The Rice Institute Pamphlet 38.1 (1951): 73-94. Print.

9 Resumé (English)
Apart from his diverse prosaic works, David Herbert Lawrence became well-known also thanks to his extensive collections of poems, many of which cover the themes of human, nature, and living organisms, which are interlocked with the author's philosophy. The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate Lawrence's view of the world and man through the analysis of selected poems, which comply with the elements of living organisms and a critique of contemporary civilization's character. The first part of the thesis offers a theoretical basis for the analysis and refers to the specific themes and motifs in Lawrence's thinking that appear in his poetical work. These themes are communicated in the second part of the thesis – in the analysis of selected poems aimed at the elements of animal, plant, and human in connection with the author's ideas. The outcome of this thesis tries to articulate the clear reflection of D. H. Lawrence's life philosophies in his later poetry, as well as his perception of nature and the human race.

10 Resumé (Czech)
David Herbert Lawrence se kromě svých různorodých prozaických děl proslavil i rozsáhlými kolekcemi básní, které se zabývají tématikou člověka, přírody a živých organismů a jsou propojené s autorovou filozofií. Cílem této práce je přiblížit a objasnit Lawrencův pohled na svět a člověka prostřednictvím analýzy vybraných básní, které se věnují živým organismům a kritice charakteru dobové civilizace. První část této práce poskytuje teoretický základ pro danou analýzu a odkazuje na konkrétní témata a motivy Lawrencova myšlení, které se objevují v jeho poezii. Na danou tématiku navazuje v druhé části práce rozbor vybraných básní, které se zaměřují na motiv zvířat, rostlin a člověka ve spojitosti s autorovým myšlením. Účelem této práce je poukázat na jasný odraz životních filosofií D. H. Lawrence v jeho pozdní poezii, stejně jako na jeho vnímání přírody a lidské rasy.

1 Sagar, Keith. "D. H. Lawrence: Poet." Googlebooks. Humanities-Ebooks LLP, 2007. Web. 10 October 2013.

2 Williams, George G. "D. H. Lawrence's Philosophy as Expressed in His Poetry." The Rice Institute Pamphlet 38.1 (1951): 73-94. Print.

3 Keese, Andrew. "Pansies: Lawrence's Search for the Animal Other in Humans." D. H. Lawrence Studies (2012): 135-152. Web. 5 July 2013.

4 Wareham, John. Birds, Beasts, Flowers: Poems of D. H. Lawrence. Leicester: The English Association, 1998. Print.

5 Fiona Becket in The Complete Critical Guide to D. H. Lawrence published in 2002 offers an insight into Lawrence's life, work, and criticism, where the biographical data is factual, concise, and of great relevance to this chapter.

6 Becket, Fiona. The Complete Critical Guide to D. H. Lawrence. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.

7 Keese, Andrew. "Pansies: Lawrence's Search for the Animal Other in Humans." D. H. Lawrence Studies (2012): 135-152. Web. 5 July 2013.

8 Jansohn, Christa, and Dieter Mehl. Reception of Writers in Europe. London: Continuum, 2007. Print.

9 of which several poems are of interest to the subject of this thesis and will be consulted in chapters 3 to 5.

10 Jansohn, Christa, and Dieter Mehl. Reception of Writers in Europe. London: Continuum, 2007. Print.

11 Williams, George G. "D. H. Lawrence's Philosophy as Expressed in His Poetry." The Rice Institute Pamphlet 38.1 (1951): 73-94. Print.

12 Works such as St. Mawr, The Ladybird, and The Fox indicate his positive view on humans as part of a post-Darwinian natural world, where plants and animals are not regarded as inferior. This view will be studied in chapter 3 of the thesis.

13 What is more, Lawrence was also known as a painter and his visual art often represented the ideas contained in his poetry. Interesting information on this matter can be found in Virginia Hyde's article "D. H. Lawrence, W. B. Yeats, and Rosa Mundi".

14 Holderness, Graham. D.H. Lawrence, History, Ideology, and Fiction. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1982. Print.

15 Oates, Joyce Carol. The Hostile Sun: The Poetry of D. H. Lawrence. Los Angeles: Black Sparrow Press, 1973.University of San Francisco. Web. 20 June 2013.

16 Williams, George G. "D. H. Lawrence's Philosophy as Expressed in His Poetry." The Rice Institute Pamphlet 38.1 (1951): 73-94. Print.

17 Presley, John W. "D. H. Lawrence and the Resources of Poetry." Language and Style 12.1 (1979): 3-12. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.

18 Oates, Joyce Carol. The Hostile Sun: The Poetry of D. H. Lawrence. Los Angeles: Black Sparrow Press, 1973.University of San Francisco. Web. 20 June 2013.

19 Williams, George G. "D. H. Lawrence's Philosophy as Expressed in His Poetry." The Rice Institute Pamphlet 38.1 (1951): 73-94. Print.

20 Christopher Caudwell studies Lawrence within the societal bonds of his era in contrast to his personal perception of society. However, it needs to be noted that Caudwell was among the first major Marxist literary critics in Britain and his view of Lawrence was influenced by this fact. In Caudwell, Christopher. "D. H. Lawrence: A Study of the Burgeois Artist." Studies in a Dying Culture. London: Bodley Head, 1938. Marxists.org. Web. 12 Sept. 2013.

21 This analytical writing by John Wareham provides the reader with a thorough study of poems from Lawrence's Birds, Beasts and Flowers and will be further referred to in chapter 4. In Wareham, John. Birds, Beasts, Flowers: Poems of D. H. Lawrence. Leicester: The English Association, 1998. Print.s

22 Steinberg, Erwin Ray. "D. H. Lawrence: Mythographer." Journal of Modern Literature 25.1 (2001): 91-108. Print.

23 Here, the term 'ego' should be replaced by the term 'self', since Lawrence did not like 'the ego' and was always referring to 'the soul' and 'the self' instead.

24 Oates, Joyce Carol. The Hostile Sun: The Poetry of D. H. Lawrence. Los Angeles: Black Sparrow Press, 1973.University of San Francisco. Web. 20 June 2013.

25 According to Ronald Granofsky, the author of "Lawrence and Darwin", Darwinism "reverses the hierarchical positioning of human and animal; it treats the biological world as the real; and it engages in 'animal gestures' in art. The founder of the tradition was Charles Darwin, who replaced the concept of Nature as a machine with his theory of natural selection, one that removes design and intelligence as the source of life and replaces them with organic forces working by chance over time." (21) In Granofsky, Ronald. "Lawrence and Darwin." D. H. Lawrence and Survival: Darwinism in the Fiction of the Transitional Period. Montreal: McGill Queen's UP, 2003. 12-42. Print.

26 Williams, George G. "D. H. Lawrence's Philosophy as Expressed in His Poetry." The Rice Institute Pamphlet 38.1 (1951): 73-94. Print.

27 See note 26.

28 D. H. Lawrence wrote an essay on poetry, explaining his poetical strategies and focus on 'the immediate present'. In Lawrence, David Herbert. "The Poetry of the Present." Complete Poems. By D. H. Lawrence. Ed. Vivian De Sola Pinto and Warren Roberts. New York: Viking, 1993. 181-186. Print.

29 Rohman, Carrie. Stalking the subject: Modernism and the Animal. New York: Columbia UP, 2009. Print.

30 Adrienne Rich reviews Lawrence's Complete Poems as being the most important in understanding Lawrence as a great poet. In Rich, Adrienne. "Reflections on Lawrence." Poetry 106.3 (1965): 218-225. Web. 22 Sept. 2013.

31 Williams, George G. "D. H. Lawrence's Philosophy as Expressed in His Poetry." The Rice Institute Pamphlet 38.1 (1951): 73-94. Print.

32 Williams, George G. "D. H. Lawrence's Philosophy as Expressed in His Poetry." The Rice Institute Pamphlet 38.1 (1951): 73-94. Print.

33 Keese, Andrew. "Pansies: Lawrence's Search for the Animal Other in Humans." D. H. Lawrence Studies (2012): 135-152. Web. 5 July 2013.

34 See note 32.

35 states Lawrence in his essay 'Democracy' published in Reflections on the Death of a Porcupine and Other Essays. In Lawrence, David Herbert. Reflections on the Death of a Porcupine and Other Essays. Ed. Michael Herbert. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. Print.

36 Williams, George G. "D. H. Lawrence's Philosophy as Expressed in His Poetry." The Rice Institute Pamphlet 38.1 (1951): 73-94. Print.

37 See note 36.

38 See note 36.

39 See note 36.

40 Paul Sheehan offers a profound analysis of the Lawrentian concept of the transcendent and the soul in contrast to Heideggerian philosophical concepts. In Sheehan, Paul. "The Lawrentian Transcendent: After the Fall." Modernism, Narrative and Humanism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. 87-120. Print.

41 Lawrence, David Herbert. Fantasia of the unconscious and Psychoanalysis of the Unconscious. Harmondsworth and London: Penguin, 1971. Print.

42 Hyde, Virginia. "D. H. Lawrence, W. B. Yeats, and Rosa Mundi." The South Carolina Review: 68-82. Web. 10 Sept. 2013.

43 Oates, Joyce Carol. The Hostile Sun: The Poetry of D. H. Lawrence. Los Angeles: Black Sparrow Press, 1973.University of San Francisco. Web. 20 June 2013.

44 Oates, Joyce Carol. The Hostile Sun: The Poetry of D. H. Lawrence. Los Angeles: Black Sparrow Press, 1973.University of San Francisco. Web. 20 June 2013.

45 Rexroth, Kenneth. Poetry, Regeneration, and D. H. Lawrence. New York: New Directions, 1947. Bureau of Public Secrets. Web. 10 Sept. 2013.

46 Kate Millet introduces Lawrence's sexual politics portrayed mainly in his fiction, but adds some useful observations quite related to his poetry as well. In Millet, Kate. Sexual Politics. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 2000. Print.

47 Williams, George G. "D. H. Lawrence's Philosophy as Expressed in His Poetry." The Rice Institute Pamphlet 38.1 (1951): 73-94. Print.

48 Caudwell, Christopher. "D. H. Lawrence: A Study of the Burgeois Artist." Studies in a Dying Culture. London: Bodley Head, 1938. Marxists.org. Web. 12 Sept. 2013.

49 Keese, Andrew. "Pansies: Lawrence's Search for the Animal Other in Humans." D. H. Lawrence Studies (2012): 135-152. Web. 5 July 2013.

50 Aldington, Richard. "D. H. Lawrence as Poet." The Saturday Review of Literature 11.40 (1926): 749-750. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.

51 Rylance, Rick. "'I Must Go Away': The Reception of Lawrence's Englishness in an International Perspective." Reception of Writers in Europe. Ed. Dieter Mehl and Jansohn Christa. London: Continuum, 2007. Print.


52 Becket, Fiona. The Complete Critical Guide to D. H. Lawrence. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.

53 Rexroth, Kenneth. Poetry, Regeneration, and D. H. Lawrence. New York: New Directions, 1947. Bureau of Public Secrets. Web. 10 Sept. 2013.

54 Pinto, Vivian De Sola. "D. H. Lawrence: Poet without a Mask." Complete Poems. By D. H. Lawrence. Ed. Vivian De Sola Pinto and Warren Roberts. New York: Viking, 1993. 1-21. Print.

55 See note 53.

56 Pinto, Vivian De Sola. "D. H. Lawrence: Poet without a Mask." Complete Poems. By D. H. Lawrence. Ed. Vivian De Sola Pinto and Warren Roberts. New York: Viking, 1993. 1-21. Print.

57 Lawrence, David Herbert. Complete Poems. Ed. Vivian de Sola Pinto and Warren Roberts. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. Print. All the following citations of poems from this book will be labelled as '(CP no.page)'.

58 Sagar, Keith. "D. H. Lawrence: Poet." Googlebooks. Humanities-Ebooks LLP, 2007. Web. 10 October 2013.

59 See note 58.

60 Lawrence, David Herbert.

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