How to Speak and Think Nonprofit
Date conversion 26.04.2017 Size 11,6 Kb.
Nonprofit sector and Not-for-Profit Sector 12. Social sector, Social Economy 3. Charitable sector / Eleemosynary Institutions 6. Voluntary sector, PVOs 4. Benevolent Institutions A legal term Non-distribution of profits A term of intent An economic construct Nongovernmental occasionally used in Britain in 19th Century Wider international usage with creation of League of Nations and UN Suggests autonomy in determining mission and strategy But NGOs often rely on government funds First meeting of the League of Nations Assembly, 1920 3. Charitable Sector / Eleemosynary Sandro Boticelli, Three Graces Greek word origin, meaning love of humankind Seneca, Cicero and other Stoics wrote about gift relationships Entered English usage in 17th Century In late 19th Century American usage suggested efforts to be more scientific in giving, seeking root causes of social ills Branches of Knowledge, woodcut, 1535 5. Voluntary Sector, PVOs Evokes oldest traditions of self-help, volunteer activity, and Tocquevillian habits of free association About freely chosen membership, thus distinct historically from family and clan Include fraternal associations, ethnic self-help groups Gained prominence with 1973-74 Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs (Filer Commission) Term originally coined by Amitai Etizioni Suggests interaction within a mixed society, business or market (the first sector) and government (second sector) Independent Sector founded in 1980 merging the National Council on Philanthropy and the Coalition of National Voluntary Organizations Suggests that sector is privately organized (true) and autonomous (mostly false) U.S. tax code defines 501 (c) 3’s in terms of both the exemption from taxes and the deductibility of donations A general assumption that these organizations provide public benefits that government does not, cannot or will not 501(c)(1) : Corporations organized under an act of Congress 501(c)(2) : Title-holding companies 501(c)(3) : Religious, charitable and similar organizations 501(c)(4) : Social welfare organizations 501(c)(5) : Labor and agricultural organizations 501(c)(6) : Business leagues 501(c)(7) : Social and recreational clubs 501(c)(8) : Fraternal beneficiary societies 501(c)(9) : Voluntary employees’ beneficiary societies 501(c)(10) : Domestic fraternal beneficiary societies 501(c)(11) : Teachers’ retirement fund 501(c)(12) : Benevolent life insurance associations 501(c)(13) : Cemetery companies 14. 501(c)(14) : Credit Unions 15. 501(c)(15) : Mutual insurance companies 16. 501(c)(16) : Corporations to finance crop operation 17. 501(c)(17) : Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts 18. 501(c)(18) : Employee-funded pension trusts 19. 501(c)(19) : War veterans’ organizations 20. 501(c)(20) : Legal services organizations 21. 501(c)(21) : Black lung trusts 501(c)(23) : Veterans’ associations founded prior to 1880 501(c)(24) : Trusts described In section 4049 of ERISA (c) 501(c)(25) : Holding companies for pensions and so on 501(d) : Religious and apostolic organizations 501(e) : Cooperative hospital service organizations 501(f) : Operating educational organizations 521 : Farmers’ cooperatives Scottish Enlightenment heritage, Adam Ferguson’s 1767 volume An Essay on the History of Civil Society Adopted by those trying to build democratic institutions in Eastern Europe and Latin America in 1960s and 70s As civil society has grown globally, term has become more common in US Sector concerned with social capital Private Organizations – structurally and institutionally separate from government Self-governing – clearly established internal governance procedures Voluntary Organizations – membership and participation is noncompulsory Nonprofit distributing to owners, members, trustees or directors Pursuing a public purpose Prototypical Operating Foundation: Russell Sage Foundation (1907) Philanthropic Founding Fathers and Mothers Prototypical Community Foundation: Cleveland Foundation (1916) Prototypical Large Grant-Making Foundation: Carnegie Corporation of New York (1911) Rockefeller Foundation (1913) Addressing problems of industrialization, immigration and the underdeveloped South Charity Organization Movement Trustees of the General Education Board Early 19th Century Legal Innovations Painting by Robert Clayton Burns depicting Daniel Webster and the Dartmouth College Case The Statute of Charitable Uses Act (1601) An Acte to redresse the Misemployment of Landes Goodes and Stockes of Money heretofore given to Charitable Uses Whereas Landes Tenementes Rentes Annuities Profittes Hereditamentes, Goodes, Chattels Money and Stockes of Money, have bene heretofore given limitted appointed and assigned, as well by the Queenes most excellent Majestie and her moste noble Progenitors, as by sondrie other well disposed persons, some for Releife of aged impotent and poore people, some for Maintenance of sicke and maymed Souldiers and Marriners, Schooles of Learninge, Free Schooles and Schollers in Universities, some for Repaire of Bridges Portes Havens Causwaies Churches Seabankes and Highwaies, some for Educacion and prefermente of Orphans, some for or towardes Reliefe Stocke or Maintenance of Howses of Correccion, some for Mariages of poore Maides, some for Supportacion Ayde and Helpe of younge tradesmen Handicraftesmen and persons decayed, and others for reliefe or redemption of Prisoners or Captives, and for aide or ease of any poore Inhabitantes concerninge paymente of Fifteenes, setting out of Souldiers and other Taxes… Leper hospital in Chichester, founded 1118 Medieval Origins of the Charitable Sector Representative of the interior of a medieval hospital Medieval Origins of the Charitable Sector Medieval Origins of the Charitable Sector Primate Social Relationships
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