How to Speak and Think Nonprofit



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  • James A. Smith
  • Nonprofit sector and Not-for-Profit Sector
  • 2. NGOs, QUANGOs, INGOs
  • 12. Social sector, Social Economy
  • 11. Civil society, CSOs
  • 10. Tax-exempt entities
  • 3. Charitable sector / Eleemosynary Institutions
  • 5. Philanthropic sector
  • 9. 501(c)3 organizations
  • 8. Independent sector
  • 6. Voluntary sector, PVOs
  • Naming the sector
  • 4. Benevolent Institutions
  • A legal term
    • Non-distribution of profits
  • A term of intent
    • No profit-seeking
  • An economic construct
  • 2. NGOs, QUANGOs, INGOs
  • Nongovernmental occasionally used in Britain in 19th Century
  • Wider international usage with creation of League of Nations and UN
  • Suggests autonomy in determining mission and strategy
  • But NGOs often rely on government funds
  • First meeting of the League of Nations Assembly, 1920
  • 3. Charitable Sector / Eleemosynary
  • Sandro Boticelli, Three Graces
  • 4. Philanthropic Sector
  • Greek word origin, meaning love of humankind
  • Seneca, Cicero and other Stoics wrote about gift relationships
  • Entered English usage in 17th Century
  • In late 19th Century American usage suggested efforts to be more scientific in giving, seeking root causes of social ills
  • Branches of Knowledge, woodcut, 1535
  • 5. Voluntary Sector, PVOs
  • Evokes oldest traditions of self-help, volunteer activity, and Tocquevillian habits of free association
  • About freely chosen membership, thus distinct historically from family and clan
  • Include fraternal associations, ethnic self-help groups
  • 6. Third Sector
  • Gained prominence with 1973-74 Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs (Filer Commission)
  • Term originally coined by Amitai Etizioni
  • Suggests interaction within a mixed society, business or market (the first sector) and government (second sector)
  • Independent Sector founded in 1980 merging the National Council on Philanthropy and the Coalition of National Voluntary Organizations
  • Suggests that sector is privately organized (true) and autonomous (mostly false)
  • 8. 501(c) Organizations
  • U.S. tax code defines 501 (c) 3’s in terms of both the exemption from taxes and the deductibility of donations
  • A general assumption that these organizations provide public benefits that government does not, cannot or will not
  • 9. Tax Exempt Entities
  • 501(c)(1) : Corporations organized under an act of Congress
  • 501(c)(2) : Title-holding companies
  • 501(c)(3) : Religious, charitable and similar organizations
  • 501(c)(4) : Social welfare organizations
  • 501(c)(5) : Labor and agricultural organizations
  • 501(c)(6) : Business leagues
  • 501(c)(7) : Social and recreational clubs
  • 501(c)(8) : Fraternal beneficiary societies
  • 501(c)(9) : Voluntary employees’ beneficiary societies
  • 501(c)(10) : Domestic fraternal beneficiary societies
  • 501(c)(11) : Teachers’ retirement fund
  • 501(c)(12) : Benevolent life insurance associations
  • 501(c)(13) : Cemetery companies
  • 14. 501(c)(14) : Credit Unions
  • 15. 501(c)(15) : Mutual insurance companies
  • 9. Tax Exempt Entities
  • 16. 501(c)(16) : Corporations to finance crop operation
  • 17. 501(c)(17) : Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts
  • 18. 501(c)(18) : Employee-funded pension trusts
  • 19. 501(c)(19) : War veterans’ organizations
  • 20. 501(c)(20) : Legal services organizations
  • 21. 501(c)(21) : Black lung trusts
  • 501(c)(23) : Veterans’ associations founded prior to 1880
  • 501(c)(24) : Trusts described In section 4049 of ERISA (c)
  • 501(c)(25) : Holding companies for pensions and so on
  • 501(d) : Religious and apostolic organizations
  • 501(e) : Cooperative hospital service organizations
  • 501(f) : Operating educational organizations
  • 521 : Farmers’ cooperatives
  • Scottish Enlightenment heritage, Adam Ferguson’s 1767 volume An Essay on the History of Civil Society
  • Adopted by those trying to build democratic institutions in Eastern Europe and Latin America in 1960s and 70s
  • As civil society has grown globally, term has become more common in US
  • Sector concerned with social capital
  • A Working Definition
  • Private Organizations – structurally and institutionally separate from government
  • Self-governing – clearly established internal governance procedures
  • Voluntary Organizations – membership and participation is noncompulsory
  • Nonprofit distributing to owners, members, trustees or directors
  • Pursuing a public purpose
  • Prototypical
  • Operating
  • Foundation:
  • Russell Sage
  • Foundation
  • (1907)
  • Philanthropic Founding Fathers and Mothers
  • Prototypical
  • Community
  • Foundation:
  • Cleveland
  • Foundation
  • (1916)
  • John D. Rockefeller
  • Prototypical
  • Large Grant-Making
  • Foundation:
  • Carnegie Corporation
  • of New York (1911)
  • Rockefeller
  • Foundation (1913)
  • Margaret Olivia Sage
  • Frederick Goff
  • Addressing problems of industrialization,
  • immigration and the underdeveloped South
  • Charity Organization Movement
  • Scientific Philanthropy
  • Trustees of the General Education Board
  • Reconstruction school
  • Early 19th Century Legal Innovations
  • Painting by Robert Clayton Burns depicting Daniel Webster and the Dartmouth College Case
  • Colonial Self-help
  • Tocqueville’s Journey
  • The Statute of Charitable Uses Act (1601)
  • An Acte to redresse the Misemployment of Landes Goodes and Stockes of Money
  • heretofore given to Charitable Uses Whereas Landes Tenementes Rentes Annuities Profittes Hereditamentes, Goodes, Chattels Money and Stockes of Money, have bene heretofore given limitted appointed and assigned, as well by the Queenes most excellent Majestie and her moste noble Progenitors, as by sondrie other well disposed persons, some for Releife of aged impotent and poore people, some for Maintenance of sicke and maymed Souldiers and Marriners, Schooles of Learninge, Free Schooles and Schollers in Universities, some for Repaire of Bridges Portes Havens Causwaies Churches Seabankes and Highwaies, some for Educacion and prefermente of Orphans, some for or towardes Reliefe Stocke or Maintenance of Howses of Correccion, some for Mariages of poore Maides, some for Supportacion Ayde and Helpe of younge tradesmen Handicraftesmen and persons decayed, and others for reliefe or redemption of Prisoners or Captives, and for aide or ease of any poore Inhabitantes concerninge paymente of Fifteenes, setting out of Souldiers and other Taxes…
  • Medieval Origins
  • Leper hospital in Chichester, founded 1118
  • Medieval Origins of the Charitable Sector
  • Medieval Origins
  • Representative of the interior of a medieval hospital
  • Medieval Origins of the Charitable Sector
  • Medieval Origins of the Charitable Sector
  • The Hospices de Beaune
  • Byzantine mosaic
  • The Potlatch
  • Primate Social Relationships
  • Animal Instincts


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