Houghton mifflin boston 2 Program Authors William Badders



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HOUGHTON MIFFLIN Science

[Image: A tiger.]

***

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN BOSTON

2

Program Authors



William Badders

Elementary Science Teacher

Cleveland Public Schools

Cleveland, Ohio



Douglas Carnine, Ph.D.

Professor of Education

University of Oregon

Eugene, Oregon



James Feliciani

Supervisor of Instructional

Media and Technology

Land O' Lakes, Florida



Bobby Jeanpierre, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, Science Education

University of Central Florida

Orlando, Florida



Carolyn Sumners, Ph.D.

Director of Astronomy and Physical Sciences

Houston Museum of Natural Science

Houston, Texas



Catherine Valentino

Author-in-Residence

Houghton Mifflin

West Kingston, Rhode Island



Content Consultants

Dr. Robert Arnold

Professor of Biology

Colgate University

Hamilton, New York



Dr. Carl D. Barrentine

Associate Professor Humanities and Biology

University of North Dakota

Grand Forks, North Dakota



Dr. Steven L. Bernasek

Department of Chemistry

Princeton University

Princeton, New Jersey



Dennis W. Cheek

Senior Manager

Science Applications International

Corporation

Exton, Pennsylvania

Dr. Jung Choi

School of Biology

Georgia Tech

Atlanta, Georgia



Prof. John Conway

Department of Physics

University of California

Davis, California

Copyright © 2007 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without prior written permission of Houghton Mifflin Company unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Address inquiries to School Permissions, 222 Berkeley St., Boston, MA 02116

Printed in the U.S. A.

ISBN 0-618-49227-5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9-DW-14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05

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Content Consultants



Dr. Robert Dailey

Division of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

West Virginia University

Morgantown, West Virginia



Dr. Thomas Davies

IODP/USIO Science Services

Texas A & M University

College Station, Texas



Dr. Ron Dubreuil

Department of Biological Sciences

University of Illinois at Chicago

Chicago, Illinois



Dr. Orin G. Gelderloos

Professor of Biology

University of Michigan - Dearborn

Dearborn, Michigan



Dr. Michael R. Geller

Associate Professor, Department of Physics

University of Georgia

Athens, Georgia



Dr. Erika Gibb

Department of Physics

Notre Dame University

South Bend, Indiana



Dr. Fern Gotfried

Pediatrician

Hanover Township, New Jersey

Dr. Michael Haaf

Chemistry Department

Ithaca College

Ithaca, New York



Professor Melissa A. Hines

Department of Chemistry

Cornell University

Ithaca, New York



Dr. Jonathan M. Lincoln

Assistant Provost & Dean of Undergraduate Education

Bloomsburg University

Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania



Donald Lisowy

Wildlife Conservation Society

Bronx Zoo

Bronx, New York



Dr. Marc L. Mansfield

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

Stevens Institute of Technology

Hoboken, New Jersey



Dr. Scott Nuismer

Department of Biological Sciences

University of Idaho

Moscow, Idaho



Dr. Suzanne O'Connell

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences

Wesleyan University

Middletown, Connecticut



Dr. Kenneth Parsons

Assistant Professor of Meteorology

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Prescott, Arizona



Betty Preece

Engineer and Physicist

Indialantic, Florida

Dr. Chantal Reid

Department of Biology

Duke University

Durham, North Carolina



Dr. Todd V. Royer

Department of Biological Sciences

Kent State University

Kent, Ohio



Dr. Kate Scholberg

Physics Department

Duke University

Durham, North Carolina



Dr. Jeffery Scott

Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cambridge, Massachusetts



Dr. Ron Stoner

Professor Emeritus, Physics and Astronomy Department

Bowling Green State University

Bowling Green, Ohio



Dr. Dominic Valentino, Ph.D.

Professor, Department of Psychology

University of Rhode Island

Kingston, Rhode Island



Dr. Sidney White

Professor Emeritus of Geology

Ohio State University

Columbus, Ohio



Dr. Scott Wissink

Professor, Department of Physics

Indiana University

Bloomington, Indiana



Dr. David Wright

Department of Chemistry

Vanderbilt University

Nashville, Tennessee



iii

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Contents



UNIT A

The Life Processes

Chapter 1 Cells A2

Lesson 1 What Are the Parts of a Cell? A4

Lesson 2 How Do Single-Celled Organisms Live? A12

Focus On: History of Science A20

Lesson 3 How Do the Cells of Organisms Compare? A22

Lesson 4 How Are Cells Organized? A30

Extreme Science A42

Review and Test Prep A44

Chapter 2

Plant Systems A46

Lesson 1 How Do Plants Produce Food? A48

Focus On: Readers' Theater A56

Lesson 2 How Do Plants Move Materials? A60

Lesson 3 How Do Plants Reproduce? A66

Extreme Science A76

Review and Test Prep A78

Chapter 3

Traits of Living Things A80

Lesson 1 How Are Traits Inherited? A82

Focus On: Biography A92

Lesson 1 Why Are Some Traits Very Common? A94

Careers A105

Extreme Science A106

Review and Test Prep A108

Unit Test Prep A110

Unit Wrap-up A112

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UNIT B



Interactions Among Living Things

Chapter 4 Ecosystems, Communities, and Biomes B2

Lesson 1 How Do Living Things Form Communities? B4

Lesson 2 What Are Biomes? B10

Focus On: Literature B20

Lesson 3 What Is a Food Web? B22

Extreme Science B30

Review and Test Prep B32

Chapter 5

Life In Ecosystems B34

Lesson 1 What Are Habitats and Niches? B36

Lesson 1 What Factors Affect Ecosystems? B44

Focus On: Primary Source B54

Lesson 1 How Can Humans Change Ecosystems? B56

Careers B65

Extreme Science B66

Review and Test Prep B68

Unit Test Prep B70

Unit Wrap-up B72

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UNIT C



Earth Systems

Chapter 6

Earth's Changing Surface C2

Lesson 1 What Makes Up Earth's Surface? C4

Lesson 2 How Is Earth's Surface Worn Down? C12

Focus On: Primary Source C20

Lesson 3 How Is Earth's Surface Built Up?

Extreme Science C30

Review and Test Prep C32

Chapter 7

Earth's Structure C34

Lesson 1 What Is Earth's Structure? C36

Focus On: Readers' Theater C46

Lesson 2 What Are Earthquakes and Volcanoes? C50

Lesson 3 How Do Mountains Form? C60

Extreme Science C66

Review and Test Prep C68

Chapter 8

Using Resources Wisely C70

Lesson 1 How Do People Use Resources? C72

Focus On: Technology 80

Lesson 2 How Do People Use Soil? C82

Lesson 3 How Can People Use Resources Wisely? C90

Careers C97

Extreme Science C98

Review and Test Prep C100

Unit Test Prep C102

Unit Wrap-up C104

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UNIT D



Atmosphere and Solar System

Chapter 9

Weather and Climate D2

Lesson 1 What Factors Affect Climate? D4

Focus On: History of Science D12

Lesson 2 How Are Weather Forecasts Made? D14

Extreme Science D24

Review and Test Prep D26

Chapter 10

Earth and Its Moon D28

Lesson 1 What Causes Earth's Seasons? D30

Focus On: Primary Source D38

Lesson 2 Why Does the Moon Have Phases? D40

Extreme Science D48

Review and Test Prep D50

Chapter 11

Exploring Space D52

Lesson 1 What Orbits the Sun? D54

Lesson 2 What Are the Planets Like? D62

Focus On: Literature D70

Lesson 3 What Are Stars Like? D72

Careers D81

Extreme Science D82

Review and Test Prep D84

Unit Test Prep D86

Unit Wrap-up D88

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UNIT E



Kinds of Matter

Chapter 12

Structure of Matter E2

Lesson 1 What Are Elements? E4

Lesson 2 What Is the Periodic Table? E12

Focus On: Biography E22

Lesson 3 What Are Compounds? E24

Extreme Science E34

Review and Test Prep E36

Chapter 13

Characteristics of Matter E38

Lesson 1 How Can Materials Be Identified? E40

Focus On: Technology E48

Lesson 2 How Does Matter Change? E50

Lesson 3 What Are Solutions and Mixtures? E58

Extreme Science E66

Review and Test Prep E68

Chapter 14

Changes of State E70

Lesson 1 What Are Three States of Matter? E72

Focus On: Technology E80

Lesson 2 How Does Matter Change State? E82

Careers E89

Extreme Science E90

Review and Test Prep E92

Unit Test Prep E94

Unit Wrap-up E96

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UNIT F



Forms of Energy

Chapter 15 Forces, Motion, and Work F2

Lesson 1 What Can Change an Object's Motion? F4

Lesson 2 How Do We Use Simple Machines? F14

Focus On: History of Science F26

Lesson 3 What Forces Come from Magnets? F28

Extreme Science F36

Review and Test Prep F38

Chapter 16

Energy and Waves F40

Lesson 1 What Are Kinetic and Potential Energy? F42

Lesson 2 How Are Sounds Made? F50

Focus On: History of Science F60

Lesson 3 What Are Some Properties of Light? F62

Extreme Science F70

Review and Test Prep F72

Chapter 17

Temperature and Heat F74

Lesson 1 What Is Thermal Energy? F76

Focus On: Technology F84

Lesson 2 How Does Thermal Energy Spread? F86

Extreme Science F96

Review and Test Prep F98

Chapter 18

Electrical Energy F100

Lesson 1 How Is Electricity Produced? F102

Lesson 2 What Is An Electric Circuit? F110

Focus On: Readers' Theater F118

Lesson 3 How Do People Use Electricity? F122

Careers F129

Extreme Science F130

Review and Test Prep F132

Unit Test Prep F134

Unit Wrap-up F136

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Features



UNIT A

Investigate Activities

Get Closer! A5

Watch Yeast Feast! A13

Sort What You See A23

Exploring Tissues A31

Keeping Green A49

Losing Water A61

Inside a Flower A67

Trait Tabulation A83

Chromosome Combinations A95



Focus On

History of Science: Louis Pasteur A20

Readers' Theater:

The World of Plants A56

Biography: Rosalind Franklin and Lynn Margulis A92

Extreme Science

Cells in Glass Houses A42

Stuck On You A76

Check Out These Chickens A106

***

UNIT B

Investigate Activities

Look at Life B5

Compare Climates B11

Model Energy Flow B23

Worm and Fish Habitats B37

Limits to Growth B45

Rising Sea Level B57

Focus On

Literature: Everglades B20

Primary Source: Dinosaur Extinction B54

Extreme Science

Blushing Giants B30

Fastest Claw in the West B66

***


UNIT C

Investigate Activities

Model a Map C5

Rock Erosion C13

Set Up a Streaming Slope C23

A Model World C37

Picking a Pattern C51

Make a Mountain! C61

Just a Spoonful C75

A Mighty Wind! C85

Recycling! C93



Focus On

Primary Source: Cleopatra's Needle C20

Readers' Theater: Alfred Wegener and Pangaea C46

Technology: Hybrid Cars C80



Extreme Science

Masterpiece of Erosion C30

Sleeping Giant Erupts! C66

Tired! C98

***

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UNIT D



Investigate Activities

Lighten Up! D5



' The Pressure's On! D15

Reasons for Seasons D31

It's Just a Phase! D41

A Very Long Trip! D55

Scaling the Solar System D63

Star Search D73



Focus On

Biography: Luke Howard and June Bacon-Bercey D12

Primary Source: Midnight Sun D38

Literature: Earth Charged in Meteor's Fiery Death, and Meteors D70



Extreme Science

Twister! D24

Lunar Extremes D48

Out With a Bang! D82

***

UNIT E

Investigate Activities

Smash It! E5

Compare Elements E13

Splitting Water E25

Oil and Water E41

Milk and Vinegar E51

Sand, Salt, Solutions E59

Vanishing Volume E73

Making Rain E83

Focus On

Biography: People and the Periodic Table E22

Technology: Submarines E48

Technology: Glass E80



Extreme Science

Space Armor E34

Colossal Crystals E66

How Cool Is That? E90

***

UNIT F

Investigate Activities

Monster Trucks F5

Ramping It Up F15

Exploring Magnets F29

Rollerball F43

Getting in Tune F51

Bouncing Beam F63

Melting the Ice F77

The Melting Point F87

Store a Charge! F103

Light Bulb Circuit F111

Motorized Electricity F123



Focus On

History of Science: Transportation F26

History of Science:

The Sound Barrier F60

Technology: Cooling Off F84

Readers' Theater: Edison vs. Telsa F118



Extreme Science

Train or Plane? F36

Extreme Beam! E70

Almost Not There! F96

BIG Static! F130

***


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About Your Text book Using Your Textbook The Nature of Science

In this section in the front of your book, you will be introduced to scientists and to ways of investigating science.

Units

The major sections of your book are units.



Unit Title is what the unit is about.

Chapters are part of a unit.

Independent Reading are books you can read on your own.

Discover! Information in this unit will help you answer this interesting question.

Chapters

Chapter Title tells what the chapter is about.

Lesson Preview gives information about each lesson.

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Every lesson in your book has two parts. Lesson Part 1: Investigate Activity



Why it Matters tells why the science you will learn in each lesson is important.

Inquiry Skill tells about the main inquiry skill for the Investigate activity.

Materials lists what you will need to conduct your investigation.

Science And Math Toolbox references additional information in your book to help with your investigation.

Procedure lists the steps you will follow to conduct your Investigation.

Conclusion guides you in thinking about your investigation.

Visuals give more information about the investigation.

Investigate More! lets you take your investigation further.

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Lesson part 2: Learn by Reading



Vocabulary lists the new science words that you will learn.

Main Idea tells you what is important.

Visuals help you to understand the text.

Reading Skill helps you understand and organize information as you read.

Reading Skill Check helps you check your understanding of the text.

Lesson Wrap-Up

Visual Summary shows you different ways to summarize what you've read.

Links connects science to math and other subjects.

Review lets you to check your understanding after you read.

Test Prep helps you meet standards. Standards are important goals for your learning.

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Focus On lets you learn more about a key concept in a chapter.



Focus On types include: Biographies, History of Science, Technology, Primary Source, Literature, and Readers Theater.

Sharing Ideas

has you check your understanding and write and talk about what you have learned.



Extreme Science and Careers

Extreme Science

Compares and contrasts interesting science information.



Careers tells you about people that work with science.

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Chapter and Unit Review and Test Prep

These reviews help you to know you are on track with learning science and reading standards

Unit Wrap-Up

Learn more about the Discover! question that started the unit. Also find a link to a simulation on the EduPlace web site.



References

The back of your book includes sections you will refer to again and again.



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The Nature of Science

[Image: A tiger.]

Science is an adventure.

People all over the world do science. You can do science, too. You probably already do.

18

National Education Science Standards Science Content Standards Grades 5-8.A. ABILITIES NECESSARY TO DO SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

* Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations.

* Design and conduct a scientific investigation.

* Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

* Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.

* Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations.

* Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.

* Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

* Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.



GRADES 5-8.A. UNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

* Different kinds of questions suggest different kinds of scientific investigations. Some investigations involve observing and describing objects, organisms, or events; some involve collecting specimens; some involve experiments; some involve seeking more information; some involve discovery of new objects and phenomena; and some involve making models.

* Current scientific knowledge and understanding guide scientific investigations. Different scientific domains employ different methods, core theories, and standards to advance scientific knowledge and understanding.

* Mathematics is important in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

* Technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results of investigations.

* Scientific explanations emphasize evidence, have logically consistent arguments, and use scientific principles, models, and theories. The scientific community accepts and uses such explanations until displaced by better scientific ones. When such displacement occurs, science advances.

* Science advances through legitimate skepticism. Asking questions and querying other scientists' explanations is part of scientific inquiry. Scientists evaluate the explanations proposed by other scientists by examining evidence, comparing evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, pointing out statements that go beyond the evidence, and suggesting alternative explanations for the same observations.

* Scientific investigations sometimes result in new ideas and phenomena for study, generate new methods or procedures for an investigation, or develop new technologies to improve the collection of data. All of these results can lead to new investigations.


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