9749 He called such printers thieves and highway robbers, and their work Bubenstück, den gemeinen Mann zu betrügen"(September, 1525).
0750 Kapp (I. 318) mentions that the electors of Saxony from 1571-1670 received no less than a hundred and ninety-two "most humble" (alleruntherthänigste) dedications from various authors, and that the magistrate of Zürich received thirty-eight from 1670-1685.
1751 On the history of the book censorship (Büchercensur) and press persecutions, compare the ninth and tenth chapters of Kapp, I. 522 sqq.
2752 The bull is not given in the Bullarium, but by Raynaldus ad a. 1501, No. 36, Zaccaria, and Reusch (I. 54), in part also by Kapp (l.c. p. 530).
3753 The bull "Inter solicitudines" was promulgated in the fifth Lateran Council. Labbe, XIV. 257, and Reusch, I. 55 sq.
4754 The bull "Exurge, Domine," is printed in full, p. 235 sqq.
, p. 536 sqq., shows that the Edict of Worms, drawn up by the papal legate Aleander
, is the beginning of the German book-censorship, and not, as usually supposed, the recess of the Nürnberg Diet of 1524. "Wie Rom,
" he says (539), "die Wiege der Büchercensur für die ganze Welt, so ist Worms ihre Geburtsstätte für Deutschland
." The restriction of the press, however, was begun in Germany, as we have seen, already in 1486, by Elector Berthold of Mainz.
6756 "Derselbe Luther," says Kapp, p. 552, "welcher das Papstthum für noch lange nicht genug zerscholten, zerschrieben, zersungen, zerdichtet Und zermalet hielt, rief schon 1525 die Censur für seinen nunmehrigen Standpunkt zur Hilfe." He refers to his attempt to secure a prohibition of Carlstadt’s writings in Saxony.
Fr. Heinrich Reusch (old catholic Prof. at Bonn): Der Index der verbotenen Bücher,
Bonn, 1883-85, 2 vols. Of older works we mention
, Fr. Zaccaria, Storia polemica delle proibizioni de’ libri
, Rom., 1777; and Jos. Mendham, The Literary Policy of the Church of Rome exhibited in an account of her damnatory Catalogues or indexes, both prohibitory and expurgatory
, London, 1826, 3d ed. 1844.
8758 One of them, Johann Herrgott, was executed in Leipzig, 1527 (not 1524) for selling Lutheran books, or rather for complicity with the Peasants’ War, and for agrarian socialistic doctrines. See A. Kirchhoff, Johann Herrgott, Buchführer von Nürnberg, und sein tragisches Ende, 1527, and Kapp, l.c., I. 438 sq. and 594.
9759 After George’s death Luther said: "I would rather that he lived and be converted now he has gone into the eternal fire [!], if the gospel is true." Köstlin, II. 424.
0760 See § 74, p. 434 sqq.
1761 On Jacob Sturm see the monograph of H. Baumgarten, Strassburg. 1876. Of John Sturm (who died 1589, in his eighty-second year), there are several biographies, by C. Schmidt (in French, 1855), Rieth (1864), Kückelhahn (1872), and Zaar (1872).
3763 "Wir sind Christgläubig, nicht kirchgläubig."
4764 Seckendorf, I. 246. Wolter, Gesch. der Stadt Magdeburg (1845); Hoffmann, Chronik der Stadt Magdeb. (1850, 3 vols.); Rathmann, Gesch. Magdeb.; Preger, Matth. Flacius Illyricus und seine Zeit (Erlangen, 1859-1861).
5765 Of this disputation Luther reported to Spalatin, May 11, 1524 (De Wette, II. 511): "Vratislaviæ disputatio Joannis Hess processit feliciter, frustra resistentibus tot legatis regum et technis episcopi."
6766 Professor Hartranft, D. D., of Hartford, Conn., a descendant of the Pennsylvania Schwenkfelders, has investigated the Schwenkfeld literature at Breslau, and issued a prospectus for its publication (1887).
Köstlin, biography of Hess in the "Zeitschrift des schlesischen Geschichtsvereins," vol. VI. Gilett, Crato von Crafftheim und seine Freunde
, Frankfurt-a.-M. 1860, 2 parts. A very learned work. To Ursinus we shall return in the history of the Reformation in the Palatinate. In the cities of the Hanseatic League the Reformation was introduced at an early period.
8768 Vom Bruder Heinrich in Ditmar verbrannt
, 1525, in the Erl. ed. XXVI. 313-337; in Walch, XXI. 94 sqq. Comp. Paul Crocius, Das grosse Martyrbuch
, Bremen, 1682. Klaus Harms, Heinrich von Zütphen
, in Piper’s "Evang. Kalender," 1852.
Printed in Richter, Die evang. Kirchenordnungen
, vol. I. C. Bertheau, Bugenhagen’s Kirchenordnung für die Stadt Hamburg vom J. 1529
, 1885. L. Hänselmann, B.’s Kirchenordnung f. d. Stadt Braunschweig
, 1885. Frantz, Die evangelische Kirchenverfassung in den deutschen Städten des 16. Jahrh
., Halle, 1876. Vogt, Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus
, Elberfeld, 1867. The year 1885, the fourth centennial of Bugenhagen’s birth, called out several popular sketches of his life by Knauth
, Petrich, Zitzlaff, and Hering (1888). See also O. Vogt, Bugenhagen’s Briefwechsel
, Stettin, 1888.
0770 So he spells his name (Rieger in German), not Regius (König).
1771 Rhegius, Opera latine edita, Norimb. 1561; Deutsche Bücher und Schriften, Nürnb. 1562, and again Frankf. 1577. Döllinger, Die Reform. II. 58 sqq. Uhlhorn, Urbanus Rhegius, Elberfeld, 1862, and his sketch in Herzog2, XIII. 147-155.
2772 Friedrich Roth, Augsburgs Reformationsgeschichte, 1517-1527. München, 1881.
3773 See the description of the congregation of the "Apostolic Brethren," as the Anabaptists called themselves, in Ludwig Keller, Ein Apostel der Wiedertäufer (i.e., Hans Denck), Leipzig, 1882, ch. VI. 94-119.
Römer, Kirchliche Geschichte Württembergs
, Stuttg. 1848. Keim, Schwäbische Reformationsgeschichte
. Tübingen, 1855. Schneider, Württemb. Reformationsgesch
5775 Ranke, II. 121.
See pp. 308 and 481; Seckendorf’s Excursus on the bigamy, III. 277-281; Ranke, IV. 186 sqq.; Köstlin, Bk. VIII., ch. 1. (II. 533 sqq.); and Janssen III. 57, 439 sqq. This nasty subject lies beyond our period, but may be disposed of here in a few remarks. Philip was a man of powerful sensuality, and married very young a daughter of Duke George of Saxony. As she was unattractive, and gave him little satisfaction, he indulged freely and long before his bigamy in his carnal passions to the injury of his health; and for this reason his conscience would not allow him to partake of the holy communion more than once in fifteen years (from 1525 to 1540), as he confessed himself in a letter to Luther, April 5, 1540 (Lenz, Briefwechsel Philipp’s mit Bucer
, I. 361, and Ranke, IV. 186, note). If Fräulein Margaretha von der Sale, who captivated his passions, had consented to become his mistress, he would not have fallen upon the extraordinary device of bigamy. The worst feature in this shameful affair is the weak connivance of the Reformers, which furnished the Romanists a keen weapon of attack. See Janssen. But Protestantism is no more responsible for the sins of Philip of Hesse
, than Romanism is for the sins of Louis XIV.
777 In Kurhessen (which in 1866 was annexed to Prussia). Homberg must not be confounded with the better-known watering-place Homburg near Frankfort on the Main.
8778 He mentions him under the assumed name of Johannes Serranus in letters to Spalatin, Dec. 20 and 26, 1522, and Jan. 12 and 23, 1523 (in De Wette, II. 263, 272, 299, 302). In the last letter, after he had made his personal acquaintance, he writes, "AdestJohannes ille Serranus, vero nomine Franciscus Lambertus … De integritate viri nulla est dubitatio: testes sunt apud nos, qui illum et in Francia et in Basilea audierunt. … Mihi per omnia placet vir, et satis spectatus mihi est ... ut dignus sit quem in exilio paululum feramus et juvemus." Then he asks Spalatin to secure for him from the Elector a contribution of twenty or thirty guilders for his support. In a letter of Feb. 25, 1523 (De Wette, II. 308), he repeats this request as a beggar for a poor exile of Christ. A last request he made Aug. 14, 1523 (II. 387).
9779 Farrago omnium fere rerum theologicarum. It was translated into English, 1536. This book and his De Fidelium vocatione in Regnum Christi contain the views which he defended in Homberg.
Hase says (p. 387): "Die Mönche und Prälaten verstummten vor der glühenden Beredtsamkeit des landflüchtigen Minoriten
." But he was opposed by Ferber
, the guardian of the Marburg Franciscans, who denounced him as a "runaway monk," and denied the legal competency of the synod. Lambert in turn called him a champion of Antichrist and a blasphemer, and exclaimed, "Expellatur ex provincia!
" which Ferber misunderstood, "Occidatur bestia!
" He confessed afterwards that he lost his temper. Hassencamp, Fr. Lambert
, p. 39 sq., and Hencke, l.c.
I. 103 sq.
1781 See above, pp. 518 and 538. Ritschl and Meier assert that Lambert borrowed his church ideal from his own order of the Minorites.
2782 The Latin original of the constitution is lost, but two copies are extant from which the printed editions of Schminke, Richter, and Credner are derived. Janssen (III. 54) calls it, not quite accurately, "ein vollständig ausgebildetes, rein demokratisches Presbyterialsystem."
3783 Letter to the Landgrave
, Monday after Epiphany, 1527 (in the Erl. ed., vol. LVI. 170 sq.). He was reluctant to give an answer, from fear that nonapproval might be construed as proceeding from Wittenberg jealousy of any rivalry. He does not mention Lambert, but cautions against rash proceedings. "Fürschreiben und Nachthun ist weit von einander
" (theory and practice are wide apart). Köstlin (II. 50) says: "Gegen die Principien des Entwurfs an sich wandte Luther nichts ein. Der Grund, weshalb er ihn ablehnte, war das Bedürfniss allmählicher Entwicklung im Gegensatz zur plötzlichen gesetzlichen Durchführung umfassender Ideen, für welche die Gegenwart nicht vorbereitet sei
See his letter to Myconius in Hassencamp, Lamb. v. A
., p. 50 sq., and Döllinger, Die Reform
. II. 18 sq. The latter quotes the Latin (from Strieder, Hessische Gelehrtengesch
. VII. 386): "Dolens et gemens vivo, quod paucissimos videam recte uti evangelii libertate, et quod caritas ferme nulla sit, sed plena sint omnia obtrectationibus mendaciis, maledicentia, invidia
." In a letter to Bucer, Lambert says, "Horreo mores populi hujus ita ut putem me frustra in eis laborare
." Herminjard (II. 242) adds in a note an extract from the letter of a student of Zürich, Rudolph Walther, who wrote to Bullinger from Marburg, June 17, 1540 (the year of the bigamy of the Landgrave): "Mores
] omnium corruptissimi. Nullum in hac Germaniae parte inter Papistas et Evangelicae doctrinae professores discrimen cernas, si morum et vitae censuram instituas
Dr. Vilmar of Marburg (originally Reformed) tried to prove that the Hessians were Lutherans, but did not know it. His colleague, Dr. Heppe, with equal learning tried to prove the opposite. A German proverb speaks of the "blind Hessians," and this applies at least to those unfortunate twenty thousand soldiers who allowed themselves to be sold by their contemptible tyrant (Frederick II., a convert to the Church of Rome
, d. 1785), like so many heads of cattle, for twenty-one million thalers, to the king of England to be used as powder against the American colonies. Hence the ugly meaning of the term "Hessians" in America, which does great injustice to their innocent countrymen and descendants.
6786 De Symbolo Foederis, etc., published at Strassburg after his death, 1530. He says in the preface: "Volo ut mundus sciat me sententiam circa Coenam Domini demutasse." Herminjard, II. 240.
787 Letter to Bucer, March 14, 1530, ib. II. 242.
8788 Dr. Döllinger, II. 18, uses his complaints of the prevailing immorality as a testimony against the Reformation, but judges favorably of his writings.
9789 His name is entered on the University Album of the year 1527, together with two other Scotchmen, John Hamilton and Gilbert Winram. See Jul. Cæsar, Catalogus Studiorum scholae Marpurgensis, Marb. 1875, p. 2. Comp. Lorimer, Patrick Hamilton, Edinb. 1857, and the careful sketch of Professor Mitchell of St. Andrews, in the Schaff-Herzog "Encycl." II. 935 sqq.
The fact of Tyndale’s sojourn in Marburg has been disputed without good reason by Mombert in the preface to his facsimile edition of Tyndale’s Pentateuch
, New York
, 1884 (p. XXIX.). He conjectures that "Marborow" is a fictitious name for Wittenberg. Tyndale’s name does not appear in the University Register, but he may not have entered it. Hans Luft was the well-known printer of Luther’s Bible in Wittenberg in Saxony, but he may have had an agent in Marburg "in the land of Hesse."
1791 "Bei weitem die merkwürdigste und durchgreifendste Veränderung fand in Preussen statt." Ranke, II. 326. Janssen can see in the Reformation of Prussia only a change for the worse. The best refutation of his view is the subsequent history and present condition of Prussia. The history of the past must be read in the light of the present. "By their fruits ye shall know them."
2792 Prussia proper is a division of the kingdom of Prussia, and comprises East or Ducal Prussia and West or Royal Prussia, with a total area of 24,114 square miles, and a population of about three millions and a half. East Prussia was united with Brandenburg by the Elector John Sigismund, 1618 West Prussia was severed from Poland by Frederick the Great in the first division of that kingdom, 1772.
3793 "Der deutsche Orden," says Ranke (II. 334), "und seine Herrschaft in Preussen war ohne Zweifel das eigenthümlichste Product des hierarchischritterlichen Geistes der letzen Jahrhunderte in der deutschen Nation; er hatte eine grossartige Weltenwirkung ausgeübt und ein unermessliches Verdienst um die Ausbreitung des deutschen Namens erworben; aber seine Zeit war vorüber."
4794 An die Herren deutsches Ordens, dass sie falsche Keuschheit meiden und zur rechten ehelichen Keuschheit greifen, Ermahnung. Wittenberg, den 28 März, 1523. In the Erl. ed. XXIX. l6-33. Walch, XIX. 2157 sqq.
5795 He published several sermons. Extracts in Seckendorf, I. 272. See the article "Briesmann" by Dr. Erdmann in Herzog2, II. 629-631, with literature.
6796 Letter to John Briesmann, July 4, 1524, in De Wette, II. 526 sq.
797 "At last," he wrote to Spalatin, Feb. 1, 1524, "even a bishop has given the glory to the name of Christ, and proclaims the gospel in Prussia, namely the bishop of Samland, encouraged and instructed by John Briesmann, whom I sent, so that Prussia also begins to give farewell to the kingdom of Satan." De Wette, II. 474.
8798 Erl. ed., Op. Lat. XIII. The dedicatory letter dated April, 1525, is printed also in De Wette, II. 647-651. In this letter occurs the notable passage (p. 649): "Vide mirabilia, ad Prussiam pleno cursu plenisque telis currit Evangelion." Comp. the passage quoted p. 539, note 2.
9799 Professor Tschackert
, his best biographer, says (l.c.
, p. 187): "The correspondence of Bishop Georg von Polentz, as far as known, contains not a syllable nor even an allusion to a letter of his to Luther. Even the name of Luther occurs after the reformatory mandate of 1524 only once, in a postscript to a letter to Paul Speratus, Aug. 22, 1535." In this letter he requested his colleague, Bishop Speratus of Pomesania, to give some noble students from Lithuania letters of introduction to Luther and Melanchthon ("literis tuis Martino et Philippo commendes
.") See the letter, l.c.
, p. 191.
" he said, "alienum officium, i.e., episcopate in nos sumere, ut omnia ordine, et decenter fierent
." Preface to the Articuli ceremoniarum
, published by a general synod at Königsberg, May 12, 1530.
1801 Arnoldt, Historie der königsberger Universität, 1746.
2802 See above, p. 570. Osiander’s son-in-law, Funke, Albrecht’s chaplain and confessor, continued the controversies, but was at last beheaded with two others, 1566, as "Ruhestörer, Landesverräther und Beförderer der osiandrischen Ketzerei."
3803 Several English translations; one by Miss Winkworth, "Jesus my Redeemer lives." The hymn has a long and interesting history. See A. F. W. Fischer, Kirchenlieder-Lexicon, I. 390-396.
For fuller information, see Schaff, Creeds of Christendom
, I. 554 sqq. To the literature there given should be added Ranke, Zwölf Bücher Preuss. Geschichte
, Leipz. 1874, I. 185-192; Kawerau in Herzog2
, XIV. 227-232; and Wangemann, Joh. Sigismund und Paul Gerhard
, Berlin, 1884. The literature on the Prussian Union refers to the history after 1817, and is very large. We mention Nitzsch, Urkundenbuch der evangelischen Union
, Berlin, 1853; Jul. Müller, Die evangel. Union, ihr Wesen und göttliches Recht
, Berlin, 1854; Brandes, Geschichte der kirchlichen Politik des Hauses Brandenburg
, 1872,’ 73, 2 vols.; Mücke, Preussen’s landeskirchliche Unionsentwicklung
, 1879; Wangemann, Die preussische Union in ihrem Verhältniss zur Una Sancta
, Berlin, 1884.
5805 The Cabinetsordre of Feb. 18, 1834, declares: "Die Union bezweckt und bedeutet kein Aufgeben des bisherigen Glaubensbekenntnisses; auch ist die Autorität, welche die Bekenntnisschriften der beiden evangelischen Confessionen bisher gehabt, durch sie nicht aufgehoben worden."
7807 See Schaff, Church Hist. II. 78.
808 See above, p. 505, and Ranke, II. 119.
9809 § 96, p. 574, sq.
0810 See their biography in Piper’s Evang. Kalender, VII. 408, and article "Klarenbach" by C. Krafft, in Herzog2, VIII. 20-33.
1811 Luther wrote a letter of comfort to the Christians at Halle on the death of their minister. Walch, X. 2260. See also his letter, April 28, 1528, in De Wette, III. 305.
2812 See § 93, p. 567, note.
3813 Ranke, II. 117 sq.
4814 Ibid. p. 117.
5815 Letter dated May 20, 1527, in De Wette, III. 179 sq. But Käser seems to have been an Anabaptist, which Luther did not know. See Cornelius, Gesch. des Münsterschen Aufruhrs, II. 56.
6816 Ranke, III. 369.
Claus Harms, a typical Lutheran of the nineteenth century
, published in 1817 Ninety-five Theses against Rationalism in the Lutheran Church, one of which reads thus (I quote from memory): "The Catholic Church is a glorious church; for it is built upon the Sacrament. The Reformed Church is a glorious church; for it is built upon the Word. But more glorious than either is the Lutheran Church; for it is built upon both the Word and the Sacrament."
818 "Vom Anbeten des Sacraments des heil. Leichnams Christi" (1523), addressed to the Bohemians (Erl. ed. XXVIII. 389, 404, 410); Kurzes Bekenntniss vom heil. Sacrament (1544), Erl. ed. XXXII. 420 sqq. In a letter to Buchholzer in Berlin, Dec. 4, 1539 (De Wette, V. 236), Luther reports that the elevation was given up at Wittenberg. But this must refer to the castle church, for in the parish church it continued till June 25, 1542 when Bugenhagen abolished it. See Köstlin, II. 588 and 683.
9819 See above § 45, p. 218, and the two editions of the Taufbüchlein in the Erl. ed. XXII. 157, 291. In both editions dipping is prescribed ("Da nehme er das Kind und tauche es in die Taufe"), and no mention is made of any other mode. The Reformed churches objected to the retention of exorcism as a species of superstition. The first English liturgy of Edward VI. (who was baptized by immersion) prescribes trine-immersion (dipping); the second liturgy of 1552 does the same, but gives (for the first time in England) permission to substitute pouring when the child is weak.