The Old Catholic Bishop Reinkens and Bishop Herzog
, Drs. Döllinger, Friederich, Reusch, and Langen, remained single after their excommunication in 1870. But Père Loyson-Hyacinthe, who occupies a similar position of Tridentine or rather Gallican Romanism versus Vatican Romanism, followed the example of the Reformers, and married an American widow, whom he had converted to the Roman Church by his eloquent sermons in Notre Dame, before she converted him to herself. They were joined together by Dean Stanley in Westminster Abbey. It is reported that Pope Pius IX., on being informed of the fact, and asked to excommunicate the ex-monk, wittily replied, "It is not necessary, since he has taken the punishment into his own arms." A Pope’s view of the blessed estate of matrimony!
We may mention the saintly Archbishop Leighton, Dr. Samuel Hopkins, the missionary Zeisberger, Dr. William Augustus Mühlenberg (the founder of St. Luke’s Hospital In New York and of St. Johnland, and the singer of "I would not live alway"), the model pastor Ludwig Harms of Hermannsburg
, the historian Neander and his sister, and the nurses or deaconesses of Kaiserswerth and similar institutions.
4614 C. Schmidt, Philipp Melanchthon, pp. 47 sqq., 617, 710 sqq.
5615 Stähelin, Johannes Calvin, vol. I. 272 sqq.
616 R. Christoffel, Huldreich Zwingli, pp. 336-339, 413. The slanderous exaggerations of Janssen have been refuted by Ebrard, Usteri, and Schweizer.
7617 Hagenbach (Oekolampad, p. 108, note) gives this date, and refers to the Reformations-Almanach, 1821.
8618 Herzog, Leben Joh. Oekolampadius, vol. II. 70 sqq.; Hagenbach, Joh. Oekolampad und Oswald Myconius, p. 107. Hagenbach says that the names of his children were the pillars of his home: godliness, truth, and peace.
In a letter to Adrianus Arivulus: "Nuper Oecolampadius duxit uxorem, puellam non inelegantem. Vult opinor affligere carnem. Quidam appellant Lutheranam tragaediam, mihi videtur esse comaedia. Semper enim in nuptias exeunt tumultus
." He afterwards apologized to Oecolampadius, and disclaimed any intention to satirize him. See his letter to Oecolampadius in Drummond’s Erasmus, II. 319. Archbishop Spalding (l.c.
I. 176) thus repeats the joke: "The gospel light seems to have first beamed upon Oecolampadius from the eye of a beautiful young lady, whom, in violation of his solemn vows plighted to Heaven
, he espoused, probably, as Erasmus wittily remarked, to mortify himself." He says nothing of the apology of Erasmus to his friend and associate.
0620 Strype’s Memorials of Cranmer (Bk. I., chs. 1, 4, 19; Bk. III., chs. 8 and 38); Hook’s Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury (vols. VI. and VII.); Hardwick’s History of the Reformation, ed. W. Stubbs (1873), p. 179; and art. Cranmer in Leslie Stephen’s "Dictionary of National Biogr.," vol. XIII.
1621 Dr. M’Crie’s Life of John Knox, Philad. ed., pp. 269 and 477 (Append. Note HHH); and Dav. Laing’s Preface to the 6th vol. of his ed. of Works of John Knox, pp. LXV. sqq.
2622 Ranke states this fact.
Among distinguished sons of clergymen may be named Linné, the botanist; Berzelius, the chemist; Pufendorf, the lawyer; Schelling, the philosopher; Buxtorff, the Orientalist
; Euler, the mathematician; Agassiz, the scientist; Edward and Ottfried Müller, the classical philologists; John von Müller, Spittler, Heeren, Mommsen, Bancroft, among historians; Henry Clay, Senator Evarts, and two Presidents of the United States, Arthur and Cleveland, among statesmen; Charles Wesley, Gellert, Wieland, Lessing, the brothers Schlegel, Jean Paul, Emanuel Geibel, Emerson (also the female writers Meta Heusser
, Elizabeth Prentiss, Mrs. Stowe), among poets; John Wesley, Monod, Krummacher, Spurgeon, H. W. Beecher, R. S. Storrs, among preachers; Jonathan Edwards, Schleiermacher, Hengstenberg, Nitzsch, Julius Müller, Dorner, Dean Stanley, among divines; Swedenborg, the seer; with a large number of prominent and useful clergymen, lawyers, and physicians, in all Protestant countries.
4624 From the tenth book of his Wahrheit und Dichtung
. Herder directed his attention to the "Vicar," while they studied at Strassburg, and read it to him aloud in German translation. In the same book Goethe describes in fascinating style his visits to the parsonage of Sesenheim.
5625 i e., all spirit, nothing but spirit, (without the article, as in the margin of the Revised Version), according to the Greek: pneu'ma(emphatically put first) oJQeov", in opposition to all materialistic conceptions and local limitations. Compare the parallel expressions: " God is love" (1 John 4:8), " God is light" (1 John 1:5), where neither the definite nor the indefinite article is admissible.
626 logikh; latreiva, Rom. 12:1; comp. the "spiritual sacrifices" (pneumatikai; qusivai), 1 Pet. 2:5
7627 Missae de sanctis, missae votivae missae pro defunctis. Melanchthon, in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, art. XXIV., says: "The fact that we hold only public or common mass is no offense against the Catholic Church. For in the Greek churches even to-day private masses are not held; but there is only a public mass, and that on the Lord’s Day and festivals." Masses for the dead, which date from Pope Gregory I., imply, of course, the doctrine of purgatory, and were among the crying abuses of the church.
"Wenn ichs vermöchte
," he says in his tract on the German Mass
, January, 1526, "und die griechische und ebräische Sprache wäre uns so gemein als die lateinischen und hätte so vielfeiner Musica und Gesangs als die lateinische hat, so sollte man einen Sonntag um den andern in alten vier Sprachen, deutsch, lateinisch, griechisch und ebräisch, Messe halten, singen, und lesen
." Such a polyglot service was never even attempted except at the Propaganda in Rome. Melanchthon (Apol. Conf. Aug
., art. XXIV.) defends the use of a Latin along with German hymns in public worship.
9629 The canon missae ("Te igitur," etc.), embraces five or six prayers bearing upon the consecration and the offering of Christ’s body. It begins with an intercession for the Pope and all orthodox Catholics. Janssen says (III. 64): "In der Messe liess Luther den Canon, den Kern und das Wesen der katholischen Messe, fort," and unfairly adds: "Das Volk jedoch sollte dieses nicht wissen." As if Luther were the man to deceive the people!
0630 Deutsche Messe und Ordnung des Gottesdiensts, with musical notes for the parts to be sung.
1631 Part II. art. III. Comp. his "Apology of the Conf.," art. XXIV., De missa.
2632 The Augsburg Confession, Part II. art. IV., says: "Confession is not abolished in our churches. For it is not usual to communicate the body of our Lord, except to those who have been previously examined and absolved. ... Men are taught that they should highly regard absolution, inasmuch as it is God’s voice, and pronounced by God’s commsand."
3633 His sermons fill 16 vols. in the Erl. ed. of his Works.
4634 They were taken down in short-hand, and first published by his companion Aurifaber. In the Erl. ed., XVI. 209 sqq.
"Tritt frisch auf; Mach’s Maul auf; Hör’ bald auf
." Literally: Get up freshly; Open your mouth widely; Be done quickly. Comp. E. Jonas, Die Kanzelberedtsamkeit Luthers
, Berlin, 1852; Beste, Die bedeutendsten Kanzelredner der älteren luth. Kirche
, 1856 (pp. 30-36); G. Garnier, Sur la predication de Luther
, Montauban, 1876; Thomas S. Hastings, Luther as a Preacher
, In the "Luther Symposiac" by the Professors of the Union Theological Seminary, New York, 1883.
636 "Propter necessitatem Verbi Dei" and "propter infirmos."
7637 On Luther’s views of Sunday, see his explanation of the third (fourth) commandment in his catechisms, and Köstlin, Luthers Theologie, II. 82 sqq.
On the history of Sunday observance, see Hessey, Sunday; its Origin, History,
etc. (Oxford, 1860); Gilfillan, The Sabbath (Edinb. 1861); and the author’s essay on the Christian Sabbath
in "Christ and Christianity" (New York and London, 1885, pp. 213-291).
9639 On Greek and Latin hymnology and the literature, see Schaff, Church History, III. 575 sqq., and IV. 402 sqq. and 416 sqq.
0640 Comp. Ozanam, Les poetes Franciscains en Italie au 13mesiècle. Paris, 1852.
1641 Bouterweck, Caedmon’s des Angelsachsen biblische Dichtungen, Elberfeld, 1849-54. Bosanquet, The Fall of Man, or Paradise Lost of Caedmon, translated in verse from the Anglo-Saxon, London, 1860.
2642 E. Sievers, Der Heliand und die angelsächsische Genesis. Halle, 1875.
3643 Flacius first edited Otfrid’s Evangelienbuch (Evangeliorum liber), Bas. 1571. Recent editions by Graff, under the title Krist, Königsberg, 1831; and Kelle, Otfrid’s Evang.-buch, Regensb. 1856 and 1859, 2 vols. Specimens in Wackernagel’s D. Kirchenlied (the large work), vol. ii. 3-21. A translation into modern German by G. Rapp, Gotha, 1858.
Comp. Hammerich, Aelteste christliche Epik der Angelsachsen, Deutschen und Nordländer
. Translated from the Danish by Michelsen, 1874.
5645 Wackernagel, II. 22, published the whole hymn from a manuscript in Munich.
Wackernagel, II. 43 sq., gives several forms. They were afterwards much enlarged. In a Munich manuscript of the fifteenth century, a Latin verse is coupled with the German:—
mala nostra texit,
et quos hic dilexit
hos ad coelum vexit
7647 See specimens in Koch, I. 194 sq., and in Wackernagel, II. 333 sqq.
8648 Several forms in Wackernagel, II.
9649 Wackernagel (II. 409 sqq.) gives forty-three of his hymns from several manuscripts in the libraries at Munich and Vienna.
0650 Wackernagel, II. 302 sqq.; Koch, I. 191.
1651 Meister and Bäumker, in the Katholische deutsche Kirchenlied in seinen Singweisen, give a collection of these catholic tunes, partly from unpublished manuscript sources. They acknowledge, however, the great merit of the Protestant hymnologists who have done the pioneer work in mediaeval church poetry and music, especially Winterfeld and Wackernagel.
2652 Wackernagel, in his Biblogr., p. 454 sqq., gives extracts from an edition printed at Nürnberg, 1521.
3653 II p. xiii.; compare Nos. 222, 226, 728, 870, 876.
I allude, of course, to the mystic conclusion of the second part of Goethe’s Faust
"Das Ewig-Weibliche zieht uns hinan."
656 According to Koch (I. 470), Luther is certainly the author of the tunes to "Ein feste Burg," and to "Jesaja dem Propheten das geschah," and probably of six more; the tunes to the other Luther-hymns are of older or of uncertain origin.
7657 Wackernagel, III. 1-31, gives fifty-four Luther-poems, including the variations, and some which cannot be called hymns, as the praise of "Frau Musica," and "Wider Herzog Heinrich von Braunschweig."
"A safe stronghold our God is still,"
is upon the whole the best because of its rugged vigor and martial ring. Heine called this hymn the Marseillaise of the Reformation; but it differs as widely from the Marseillaise as the German Reformation differs from the godless French Revolution.
The hymn appears in Joseph Klug’s Gesangbuch
of 1529 (and in a hymn-book of Augsburg, 1529), and to that year it is assigned by Wackernagel (III. 20), Koch, and also by Köstlin in the first ed. of his large biography of M. Luther (1875, vol. II. 127), as a protest against the Diet of Speier held in that year. But since the discovery of an older print apparently from February
, 1528, Köstlin has changed his view in favor of 1527, the year of the pestilence and Luther’s severest spiritual and physical trials. He says (I.c
. II. 182, second and third ed.): "Aus jener schwersten Zeit, welche Luther bis Ende des Jahres 1527 durchzu-machen hatte, ist wohl das gewaltigste seiner Lieder, das ’Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott,’ hervorgegangen
." Schneider (1856) first fixed upon Nov. 1, 1527, as the birthday of this hymn from internal reasons, and Knaake (1881) added new ones. The deepest griefs and highest faith often meet. Justinus Kemer sings:—
"Poesie ist tiefes Schmerzen,
Und es kommt das schönste Lied
Nur aus einem Menschenherzen,
Das ein tiefes Leid durchglüht."
The third stanza of this resurrection hymn is very striking:—
"Es war ein wunderlicher Krieg,
Da Tod und Leben rungen:
Das Leben das behielt den Sieg,
Es hat den Tod verschlungen.
Die Schrift hat verkündet das,
Wie da ein Tod den andern frass,
Ein Spott aus dem Tod ist worden.
(That was a wondrous war, I trow,
When Life and Death together fought;
But Life hath triumphed o’er his foe.
Death is mocked and set at naught.
.’Tis even as the Scripture saith,
Christ through death hath conquered Death.)
2662 See the whole in Wackernagel, III. 3, 4. Thomas Fuller says of the ashes of Wiclif, that the brook Swift, into which they were cast (1428), "conveyed them into the Avon, the Avon into Severn, Severn into the narrow seas, they into the main ocean; and thus the ashes of Wiclif are the emblems of his doctrine, which now is dispersed all the world over."
3663 "Die wittenbergisch Nachtigall,
Die man jetzt höret überall."
4664 See Koch, I. 246 sqq., and Wackernagel’s Bibliographie, p. 66 sqq.
5665 It is characteristic of the voluminous Ultramontane work of Janssen, that it has not a word to say about the hymnological enrichment of public worship and Christian piety by Luther and his followers.
666 In his Kirchenlieder-Lexicon, 1878.
7667 Sacred Hymns from the German, London, 1841, new ed. with German text, 1865.
8668 Psalms and Hymns, partly original, partly selected, for the use of the Church of England
, Cambridge, 1851. Many of the pieces are from the German. He contributed most of the translations to Ernest Bunsen’s Hymns for Public Worship and Private Devotion
, London, 1848.
9669 Luther’s Spiritual Songs, London, 1854; and Lyra Domestica, translations from Spitta’s Psaltery and Harp, London, 1860; second series, 1864.
0670 Lyra Germanica
, first and second series, Lond. and N. Y., 1855 and 1858, in several editions. Also the beautiful Chorale Book for England
, London, 1863, which contains many hymns from the Lyra Germanica
, partly remodelled, with seventy-two others translated by the same lady
, together with the old tunes edited by Bennet and Goldschmidt. Several translations of Miss C. W., especially from Paul Gerhardt, have passed into hymn-books. Comp. Theo. Kübler, Historical Notices to the Lyra Germanica
(dedicated to Miss C. W.), London, 1865.
1671 Hymns from the Land of Luther, translated from the German by H. L. L
., Edinburgh and New York, in 4, parts, 1854; fifth ed., Edinb. 1884 (15th thousand), enlarged by the Alpine Lyrics
of Mrs. Meta Heusser. The translations of Miss Borthwick reproduce the spirit rather than the letter of the original. Several of them have become more widely known through hymnbooks and private collections: as Franck’s eucharistic hymn, "Schmücke dich, Oliebe Seele
.""Soul, arise, dispel thy sadness;" Gerhardt’s "Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden
.""A pilgrim and a stranger, I journey here below;" Tersteegen’s "Gott rufet noch
.""God calling yet;" Schmolck’s "Mein Jesu, wie Du willst, So lass mich allzeit wollen
" "My Jesus, as Thou wilt
;" Zinzendorf’s "Jesu, geh voran
.""Jesus, still lead on;" Spitta’s "Was macht ihr, dass ihr weinet
.""What mean ye by this wailing" and his "Angel of Patience" (Es zieht ein stiller Engel
."" A gentle angel walketh throughout this world of woe"); Lange’s "Was kein Auge hat gesehen
."" What no human eye hath seen; "Mrs. Heusser’s "Noch ein wenig Schweiss und Thränen,
" " A few more conflicts, toils and tears;" "O Jesu Christ, mein Leben
."" O Christ, my Life, my Saviour;" besides other religious lyrics which are not intended for hymns. Miss Borthwick has since published Lyra Christiana, a Treasury of Sacred Poetry, edited by H. L. L
., Edinb. 1888, which contains a few German poems, but is mostly selected from English sources.
2672 Presbyterian minister in New York City, died 1859. He Is the best translator of Gerhardt’s "O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden" ("O sacred Head, now wounded"), and several other famous hymns, German and Latin. His translations were first published in Schaff’s "Kirchenfreund"or 1849-’51 (with the originals), then in the "Mercersburg Review" for 1869, pp. 304 sqq., 414 sqq., and have since passed into many American hymn-books.
3673 Horae Germanicae, Auburn and New York, 1845, 2d ed. 1856. Mills was professor of biblical criticism in the Presbyterian Theol. Seminary at Auburn, N. Y., and died 1867.
4674 Paul Gerhardt’s Spiritual Songs, London, 1867.
5675 e.g., for Schaff’s Christ in Song, New York, 1868, and London, 1870. In my German Hymn-book (Philad. 1859, revised and enlarged ed., 1874), I have noted the English translations as far as I knew them.
676 In Spain, once the richest and proudest monarchy of Europe, sixty per cent of the adult population could not read in 1877, according to the official census. Compare this with the educational statistics of Prussia, which in the sixteenth century was a poor, semi-barbarous principality. The contrast between North America and South America in point of popular education is still more striking.
7677 Letter to Spalatin
, March 30, 1529 (De Wette, III. 433): "Jura papistica legere incipimus et inspicere
8678 Comp. A. Kohler, Luther und die Juristen, Gotha, 1873; Köstlin, M. Luth., II. 476 sqq., 580 sq. In his Table Talk (Erl. ed., LXII., 214 sqq.), Luther has much to say against the lawyers, and thinks that few of them will be saved. "Ein frommer Jurist," he says, "ist ein seltsames Thier."
9679 Apol. Conf. Aug., Art. XIV. (Müller’s ed. of the Lutheran symbols, p. 205): "Nos summa voluntate cupere conservare politiam ecclesiasticam et gradus in ecclesia, factos etiam humana auctoritate." He subscribed the Smalcald Articles (1537), with a clause in favor of a limited papal supervision.
0680 See the Appendix to the Smalcald Articles, which have symbolical authority, on the Power and Primacy of the Pope (Müller’s ed., p. 341): "Quum jure divino non sint diversi gradus episcopi et pastoris manifestum est ordinationem a pastore in sua ecclesia factam jure divino ratam esse. Itaque cum episcopi ordinarii fiunt hostes ecclesia aut nolunt impartire ordinationem, ecclesiae retinent ius suum."
See his letters to Jonas, Lauterbach, Link, Probst, and others, in De Wette, vol. V. To Lauterbach he wrote
, Nov. 10, 1541 (V. 407), "Ego paene de Germania desperavi, postquam recepit inter parietes veros illos Turkas seu veros illos diabolos, avaritiam, usuram, tyrannidem, discordiam et totam illam Lernam perfidiae, malitiae, et nequitiae, in nobilitate, in aulis, in curiis, in oppidis, in villis, super haec autem contemtum verbi et ingratitudinem inauditam
." To Jonas he wrote, March 7, 1543 (V. 548), that the German nobility and princes were worse than the Turks, and bent upon enslaving Germany
, and exhausting the people. To the same he gives, June 18, 1543 (V. 570), an account of the immorality of Wittenberg, and the indifference of the magistrate, and concludes, "Es ist ein verdriesslich Ding um die Welt
." He thought that the end of the wicked world was near (Letter to Probst, Dec. 5, 1544, vol. V. 703).