History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism



Download 3,23 Mb.
Page37/39
Date conversion23.10.2016
Size3,23 Mb.
1   ...   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39

First Great Awakening and, 429

foreign aid during, 88, 94, 96

impact on rest of world, 100

Minutemen in, 75–76, 431

surrender of British in, 97

Treaty of Paris ending, 100

American Slavery As It Is (Weld), 451

American System, Clay’s, 178

Amnesty Act of 1872, 331

Anaconda Plan, 308

Angel Island, 378

Anglican Church, 39, 43, 44

annexation, of Texas, 203

Anthony, Susan B., 240, 250, 445–446

Antietam, Battle of, 310–311

Anti-Federalists, opposition to the Constitution, 116

Antislavery movement. See abolitionists

Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World (Walker), 451–452

appellate courts, 124–125

Appomattox, 319, 320

architecture, southwest Spanish-style, 236

arms, right to bear, 138

Arnold, Benjamin, 81

arsenal, 105

art, early American, 180

See also literature; music

Articles of Confederation, 103, 104, 116

revising, 105, 108, 109, 110

Asia


American expansion into, 400–401

land bridge from, 2

assembly, elected, in the colonies, 38, 42

assembly, right to peaceful, 137

Audubon, John James, 180

Austin, Moses, 201

Austin, Stephen, 201

Aztecs, 20


B

Baltimore, Lord, 44

Bank of the United States, 142, 153, 178

established by Congress, 151

Jackson’s battle against, 191

Barbary States, piracy, 166–167

Barton, Clara, 309

Bear Flag Republic, 207

Bedford, Gunning, 110

Bell, Alexander Graham, 357

Beringia, land bridge, 2

Berkeley, Lord John, 42

Bessemer, Henry, 356

bicameral legislature, 121

Biddle, Nicholas, 191

Bidwell, Annie, 221–222

bill, 122

Bill of Rights, 127, 133–134

English, 52

U.S., text of, 482–483

Bingham, George Caleb, 183

Black Americans. See African Americans

black codes, 325

See also Jim Crow laws

Black Hawk, 192–193

Blackwell, Elizabeth, 249

Blaine, James G., 329

blue laws, 53

Bolívar, Simón, 171

Booth, John Wilkes, 323

Boston (Massachusetts) 51, 63

British retreat from, 81

Boston Massacre, 69–70

Boston Tea Party, 70–72

boycott, of British goods, 69

Braddock, Edward, 65

Bradford, William, 39

Brandeis, Justice Louis, 139

Breed’s Hill, 80

British East India Company, 71

Brook Farm, 243

Brooks, Preston, 295, 296

Brown, John, 294–295, 298–299



Brown v. Board of Education, 421

Bryan, William Jennings, 387, 400

buffalo, 12, 221, 342, 345

Buffalo Soldiers, 334

Bull Run, Battle of, 308–309

Bunker Hill, Battle of, 80

Burgoyne, General John, 93, 94

Burr, Aaron, 157

business, growth of big, 354–355, 359–360, 388–389

Butler, Andrew P., 295


C

cabinet, president’s, 146

Cabot, John, 27

Calhoun, John C., 169

debate with Daniel Webster, 453–454

nullification crisis and, 190

California

America’s claim of, 206–207

building of Central Pacific railroad in, 342–343

Californios’ legacy in, 217

Chinese immigration to, 225–226

gold rush, 224–225

mid-19th century travel to, 441–442

Native American cultural region, 3, 4–5, 8

Spanish missions, 216

statehood and slavery issue, 290

Californios, 216–217

Calvert, Cecil, Leonard, and Sir George, 44

Canada

British control of, 163, 169



British troops’ capture of, 65

early explorers in, 25, 26, 27

Loyalists settling in, 100

Nez Percé flight to, 339

and Oregon country, 205

runaway slaves and, 292

canals, building of, 260

Canyons of the Colorado (Powell), 444–445

Cape Horn, sailing around, 441

capital, location of nation’s, 150–151, 156

capitalism, 178

Caribbean

early explorers, 18, 19, 22

slave trade in, 20, 84

Carnegie, Andrew, 356, 367, 388–389

carpetbaggers, 328

Carteret, Sir George, 42

Cartier, Jacques, 25

Carver, George Washington, 460–461

cash crops, 38, 55, 201, 255, 272

Cather, Willa, 459

Catlin, George, 180

cattle ranching, 216, 231

Cayuse people, 219–220

Champlain, Samuel de, 25, 26

Charles II, king of England, 32, 41, 43

Chávez, César, 422

checks and balances system, 126

Cherokee people, 192, 193, 439–440

Cheyenne people, 350

Chickasaw people, 192

Chief Abraham (Seminole), 200

Chief Joseph (Nez Percé), 219, 338–339

child labor, 392, 448–449

China, 17

American trade with, 400–401

Chinese


at Angel Island, 378

in California gold rush, 225–226

as immigrants, 378–379

as railroad workers, 342–343

Choctaw people, 192

church


for free blacks, 271

for slaves, 281

position on slavery, 264

separation from state, 135, 435

Church of England, 39, 43, 44

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, 222–223

cities

in the colonies, 51



growth of, 265, 361–362

citizens, protection from government abuse, 138–139

Civil Rights Act of 1866, 326

Civil Rights Act of 1964, 421

civil rights movement, 418

Civil War

African American soldiers in, 317

costs of, 320

death toll of, 311, 320, 454

draft during, 312, 313–314

generals of, 454–455

letters from soldiers, 456–457

medical care during, 309, 311

secession leading to, 300

strengths/weaknesses, North vs. South, 304–305

surrender of Lee, 319–320

Union blockade during, 310

weaponry of, 311

women in, 308, 309

See also individual battles

Clark, William, 204, 212–215, 338

Clay, Henry

American System, 178

Bank of the United States, 191

Compromise of 1850, 291

and the Missouri Compromise, 288

presidential campaign (1824), 179, 188

on Texas annexation, 203

as War Hawk, 169

Clemenceau, Georges, 413

Cleveland, Grover, 401

Clinton, Hillary Rodham, 251

Clinton, Sir Henry, 95, 96

Cochrane, Josephine, 461

Cole, Thomas, 180

collective bargaining, 366

college


for African Americans, 334, 394, 460

for veterans, 419

for women, 246

colonies


African Americans in, 54, 55

city life in, 51

class differences in, 54

crime/punishment in, 53

farming in, 37–46, 50

formation of militias, 73

government in, 38, 39–46, 52

rights of colonists in, 52

See also individual colonies

Columbian Exchange, 19

Columbus, Christopher, 17, 18–19, 22, 27, 427

Command of the Army Act, 326

commerce clause, of Constitution, 128

Common Sense, (Paine), 82, 430

community property law, 237

Compromise of 1850, 291–292

Compromise of 1877, 331

computers, 417, 420

Concord (Massachusetts), 63, 75–76, 90

Confederacy, 303, 304, 305, 306, 308

See also Civil War

Confederate States of America, 303

Congress, U.S., 121

deadlock over the Tallmadge Amendment, 287

division and violence over slavery, 295

impeachment by, 124

and national bank, 151

passage of Force Bill, 190

passage of laws by, 122

powers of, 122

and Reconstruction, 324–327

refusal to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, 414

structure of, 121

Supreme Court and, 125

Connecticut, 37, 41

ratification of Constitution, 133

conquistadors, 20, 22–23

conservation movement, 393

Constitution

amending, 127

elastic clause of, 122, 151

Father of, 107

federal judges and, 125

Federalists’ support for, 116

as living document, 119, 421

preamble to, 120, 474

ratification of, 115

text of, 474–481

Constitutional Convention, 106–115

delegates to, 106–108, 473

issue of presidential selection, 113–114

issue of slave representation, 111–112

issue of state representation in the government, 109–110

system of checks and balances, 126

and three-fifths compromise, 112

views and beliefs of delegates, 107–108

constitutions, state, 108, 329, 433

Continental Army, 80, 87

defeat in New York, 91

end of the Revolutionary War and, 100

soldiers’ life in, 432

strengths/weaknesses, 88

victory in Trenton, 92

Continental Congress, 73, 80, 84

Cooper, James Fenimore, 438

copper mining, 230

Cornwallis, Lord Charles, 96, 97, 100

Coronado, Francisco Vásquez de, 22, 23, 24

corporations, set up of, 359

Cortés, Hernán, 20

cotton,


and slavery, 272–273

effect on soil, 256, 460–461

in Southern economy, 253, 256, 261, 262

and tariffs, 190

in Texas, 201

cotton gin, 256

coureurs de bois, 25

court system, federal, 124–125, 126

See also Supreme Court

Covey, Edward, 276, 277

cowboys, 231, 232, 238, 345–346, 444

Crandall, Prudence, 246, 248

Crawford, William, 188

Creek people, 192, 193

“Crime Against Kansas” (Sumner speech), 295

Crisis, The (Paine), 92

Crocker, Charles, 341, 342

Crockett, Davy, 182, 202

Crook, General George, 349

Crow people, 218

cruel and unusual punishment, 141

“Cry of Dolores” (Hidalgo speech), 171

Cuba, 402–403, 465

Custer, George, 350
D

D’Angelo, Pascal, 374, 375

Darwin, Charles, 389

Davis, Captain Isaac, 76

Davis, Jefferson, 304–306

Dawes, William, 75

de la Salle, Robert, 26

de Niza, Marcos, 23

death penalty, 141

Decatur, Stephen, 167

Declaration of Independence

drafting and adoption of, 83–84

text of, 470–472

and debate over slavery, 84

Declaration of Sentiments, 249

defendants, rights of, 139–140

deforestation, 254, 393

Delaware, 37

ratification of Constitution, 133

Delaware people, 43

democracy, 38, 153

Democracy in America (Tocqueville), 175, 177

Democratic Party

northern/southern split, 299

origins of, 188

and the Populists, 387

and Reconstruction, 328–333

vs. Republican Party, 188, 299, 328, 414

departments, executive, 124, 146

Dewey, Admiral George, 404

Dickens, Charles, 448

Dickinson, Charles, 187–188

Diné (Navajo) people, 426

discrimination

African Americans, 270–271, 317, 394, 418

Chinese, 226

immigrants, 266, 372, 382

Jews, 377, 463

Mexicanos, 229

religious minorities, 418

district courts, 124–125

District of Columbia, 151, 156

Dix, Dorothea, 244, 309

Dodge, Grenville, 341–342

Douglas, Stephen A., 293–295, 298, 299, 303

Lincoln’s debates with, 298

Douglass, Frederick, 247, 270, 271, 279

abolition movement and, 247

publisher of North Star, 247

and treatment of slaves, 275, 276, 277–278, 282

and voting rights, 250

“What the Black Man Wants,” 452

draft, 312, 313–314



Dred Scott decision, 296–297

DuBois, W. E. B., 269, 394

due process, 140

Dutch, in New World, 30–33


E

Eastern European immigrants, 372, 376–377, 382, 463

Eastern Woodlands, Native American cultural region, 3, 4–5, 13

economy, 50

affected by Constitution, 128

building of national, 178

changes in the 20th century, 467–469

Hamilton’s and Federalist party’s view of, 150

Jefferson’s and Republican party’s view of, 153

See also Capitalism

Edison, Thomas, 357

education

in the colonies, 57

for freedmen in the South, 325, 332

Horace Mann’s reform of, 245–246

improvement of opportunities through, 419

Jewish immigrants and, 377

in the West, 221–222

for women, 57, 246, 249

Edwards, Jonathan, 429

18-year-old vote, 127, 421, 488

Eighth Amendment, 141, 483

elastic clause of Constitution, 122, 151

election, presidential, 114

of 1796, 155

of 1800, 157–158, 436

of 1824, 179, 188

of 1828, 185, 188

of 1860, 299

of 1876, 331

of 1960, 418

of 2000, 114

Electoral College, 114, 155, 157, 158

electric power, 357

Ellis Island, 374, 376, 377

Emancipation Proclamation, 312

Embargo Act (1807), 167

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 243, 292

Enforcement Acts, 330

England


Hamilton and, 151

Jefferson and, 153

War of 1812, 169–170

See also Great Britain

English Bill of Rights, 52

English colonies

Middle Colonies, 37, 42–43

New England Colonies, 37, 39–41

Southern Colonies, 38, 44–46

Enlightenment philosophy, 108

environment

Native Americans and, 3, 6, 15, 426

protection of, 393

equality


civil rights and, 326, 418, 421

Fourteenth Amendment, 326, 329, 333, 421

Nineteenth Amendment, 127, 396, 421

Thirteenth Amendment, 127

Twenty-sixth Amendment, 127, 421

See also women’s rights

Erie Canal, 260

Europe, outbreak of World War I, 408

European exploration

Dutch, 30–32

English, 27–29

French, 25–26

Spanish, 18–24

Exclusion Act, Chinese, 378

executive branch of government, 109, 123–124, 126, 146

departments of, 124, 146

powers of, 124

expansionism, 399–400

Louisiana Purchase and, 198–199

manifest destiny and, 197

exploration

European, 18–32

Frémont, John C., 213

Lewis and Clark expedition, 212–215

Pike, Zebulon 213
F

factories, 257–259, 353

mass production in, 357

working conditions in, 364, 448–449

See also Triangle Shirtwaist Factory

famine, in Ireland, 266

Farmers’ Alliances, 387

farmers/farming

in the colonies, 37, 38, 45, 50

irrigation and, 234

Mexican, 234, 381

Native American 6, 11, 13, 14

protest against big business, 386–387

Farragut, Admiral David, 310, 315

Federal system, and state government, 128–129

Federalist Papers, 116

Federalist Party

Alexander Hamilton and, 149–151

division during 1800 presidential campaign, 157, 165

opposition to the War of 1812, 168, 170

preferred form of government, 150

Republican party vs., 147–148, 154

support for Constitution, 116, 133

view of French Revolution, 148, 153–154

Feminine Mystique, The (Friedan), 422

feminism, 419, 422

fiestas, 216, 238

Fifteenth Amendment, 328, 329, 332, 484–485

Fifth Amendment, 139–140, 297, 482

54th Massachusetts Infantry, 317

Finney, Charles G., 242

First Amendment, 135–137, 482

First Continental Congress, 73, 74

First Great Awakening, 56, 242, 429

Five Civilized Tribes, 192

Florida


Spanish control of, 22, 23, 163, 200

U.S. invasion and acquisition of, 200

folk art, 180

Force Bill, 190

Ford, Henry, 420, 461–462

foreign policy

of Adams (John), 164–165

of Adams (John Quincy), 437

in Asia and the Pacific, 400–401, 404–405

Congress and, 128

of Jefferson, 166–167

in Latin America (late 1800s), 402–403, 405–406

of Madison, 168–170

of Monroe, (Monroe Doctrine), 171–172

of Washington, 161, 163

in World War I, 408, 410, 411

Fort Duquesne, 64

Fort McHenry, 169, 175

Fort Sumter, 300, 303

Fort Ticonderoga, 81

Fort Wagner, 317

forty-niners, 224–225

Foster, Stephen, 181

Fourteen Points, 413, 414

Fourteenth Amendment, 326, 329, 333, 421, 484

Fourth Amendment, 139, 482

Fox people, 192

France


Adams and U.S. relations with, 164–165

ally of the Continental Army, 94

and American ships, 167

Canada, claim to, 25–26

in Florida, 23

influence of the Revolution on, 100

Louisiana, claim to, 26, 198

Ohio Valley conflict and, 164, 165

role in American Revolution, 88, 94, 96

role in World War I, 408, 409, 412

See also French Revolution

Franklin, Benjamin, 49, 55, 84, 88, 107

antislavery views, 111

at Constitutional Convention, 107, 113, 115

Franz Ferdinand, Archduke, 408

free blacks, 264, 269, 270–271

freedmen, 324–325, 326, 327, 328, 332

Freedmen’s Bureau, 324–325

and public schools, 325, 332

freedom of assembly, 135, 137

freedom to petition, 135, 137

freedom of the press, 136–137

freedom of religion, 135–136, 435

freedom of speech, 135, 136–137

free-soilers, 294

free states, 286

Frémont, John C., 206, 213

French and Indian War, 63, 65

French Revolution

Americans’ view of, 163

Hamilton and, 151

impact of American Revolution on, 100

Jefferson and, 147–148, 153–154

Frick, Henry Clay, 367

Friedan, Betty, 422

fugitive slave clause, of Constitution, 112

Fugitive Slave Law, 290, 291, 292, 300

Fuller, Margaret, 447

Fulton, Robert, 260

Fundamental Orders, 41

fur trade, 25, 26, 31, 217–218
G

Gadsden Purchase, 208

gag rule, 289, 290

Gage, General Thomas, 69, 74, 75

Garrison, William Lloyd, 247, 451

Genet, Edmond, 154, 155

George, David Lloyd, 413

George II, king of England, 46

George III, king of England, 66, 69, 72, 74

American Revolutionary War and, 89, 100

answer to the First Continental Congress, 74

crimes of, in Declaration of Independence, 83, 470–472

Georgia, 38, 46

opposition to ending slavery, 112

ratification of Constitution, 133

Sherman’s march through, 319

slave owners’ issues with Florida, 200

Germain, Lord George, 89–90

Germany, 89, 266, 408–414

Gerry, Elbridge, 111, 115

Gettysburg, Battle of, 312–314

Gettysburg Address, 314



Giants in the Earth (Rolvaag), 459

Gibbons v. Ogden, 179

Gideon v. Wainwright, 421

Gilded Age, 355

Glorious Revolution, 52

gold mining, 19, 224–225, 230, 338, 343–344, 443

gold rush, California, 224–225

Gompers, Samuel, 366

Gooding, James Henry, 317

government

Articles of Confederation, 103, 105

branches of, 121–125

developed at Constitutional Convention, 109–110

popular participation in, 130, 391

separation of powers, 128–129, 142

grand jury hearing, right to, 139

Granges, organization of, 386–387

Grant, General Ulysses S.

in Civil War, 310, 316, 318, 319, 320, 455

presidential campaign (1868), 328, 455

Great American Desert, 213, 346

Great Awakening

First, 56, 429

Second, 242

Great Basin, Native American cultural region, 3, 4–5, 9

Great Britain

U.S. relations with, 151, 153, 163, 164

impressment of American sailors, 166, 168

In World War I, 408–410

Great Compromise, 110

Great Depression, 419

Great Law of 1682, 43

Great Plains, Native American cultural region, 3, 4–5, 12

Great Seal, of the United States, 160–161

Greeley, Horace, 211, 294

Greene, General Nathaniel, 96

Greenhow, Rose, 308, 309

Gregg v. Georgia, 141

Gregory v. Chicago, 137

Grenville, George, 67

Grimke, Angelina and Sarah, 247, 248

Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of, 208, 229

guerillas, 96
H

habeas corpus, 313

Hamilton, Alexander, 116, 145, 149

Federalist Party and, 149–151

presidential campaign (1800), 157

supporting Jefferson, 158

view of human nature, 149

Whiskey Rebellion and, 147

Hancock, John, 106, 133, 134

Harlan, Justice John Marshall, 333

Harrison, William Henry, 169, 170

Hartford (Connecticut), 41

Hawaii, annexation of, 401

Hay, John, 403

Hayes, Rutherford B., 331

Haynes, Lemuel, 271

Henry, Patrick, 73, 79, 106

Hidalgo, Miguel, 171

Hispanics. See Mexican Americans

Hitler, Adolf, 414

Homestead Act, 340

Homestead (Pennsylvania) strike, 367

homesteads, 220, 346–347, 444

Hooker, Thomas, 41

House of Burgesses, 45

House of Representatives, 109, 110, 121, 124

powers described in Constitution, 474–476

powers of impeachment, 124, 327

housing

economics of, in the 20th century, 468



in the Gilded Age, 354, 355

Native American, 5, 7, 8, 10

on the prairie, 347

for slaves, 275

in tenements, 361, 375, 377, 464–465

Houston, Sam, 203



How the Other Half Lives (Riis), 464–465

Howe, Elias, 258

Howe, General William, 80, 81, 90, 92, 95

occupation of Philadelphia, 93, 94

Hudson, Henry, 30

Hudson River School of painting, 180,182

Huron people, 26, 31

Hutchinson, Anne, 40


I

Ice Age, migration and, 2

“I Have a Dream” (King speech), 418

immigrants

assimilation of, 372, 382

Chinese, 225–226, 378–379

discrimination against, 226, 229, 266, 372, 377, 382, 463

Eastern European Jews, 371, 376–377, 463

Irish and German (1845–1860), 266

Italian, 374–375

as labor for industry, 353, 371, 372, 388

as labor for agriculture, 381

living conditions of, 361, 375, 377, 464–465

Mexican, 380–381

as refuges, 266, 372, 376, 380

religious diversity of, 372

Russian, 347, 463

undocumented, 420

in the West, 459

immigration

between 1820 and 1990, 373

restriction of, and quota system, 382

impeachment, of president, 124

of Andrew Johnson, 327

imperialism, 400

impressment, of American sailors, 166, 168

“Inaugural Address, First” (Jefferson), 436

inauguration

Jackson’s, 186

Washington’s, 146

Incas, 21

indentured servants, 35, 45, 54, 58

Independence Hall, 106, 120

Indians. See Native Americans

Indian Removal Act, 192, 349

Indian wars, 334, 339, 349–350, 439

Industrial Revolution, 257–259

industrialists, 257, 259, 388–389

1   ...   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page