1History 141: Examination 1.
*Locate/Circle the following places on the map:
The development of civilization led to greater intensity of patriarchal practices.
Islam did not give spiritual equality to both men and women.
The Neolithic Age is older than the Paleolithic Age.
Mansur and Shabnam are cousins.
Some of Bibi Gul’s daughters include: Feroza, Mariam, and Bulbula.
Farid and Sultan are brothers that do not get along.
Yunus wants to marry Belqisa.
Elias ‘Red Cap’ Ball had three wives during his lifetime.
Angola Amy and John Coming were married.
Michael Goodson and Steven Smalls were both cousins and good friends.
Identify five of the ten terms and explain their significance for the history of the family and sex roles in the past:
1) Oppian Law
3) Herodotus on the Amazons
5) resource polygyny
8) lex talionis
9) agnatic lineage
*Pick one of the following two questions and answer in a complete essay using information from the readings, lectures and discussions. Make sure your essay contains an introduction, body, and conclusion paragraph, and use evidence to back up your argument.
1) Stearns argues that all ancient and post classical civilizations were patriarchal, but he also suggests there were differences among them in terms of the particular practices of patriarchy. Write an essay that compares three civilizations in terms of the severity of patriarchy.
2) Read the following two passages. The first is Julius Ceasar describing the agricultural practices of the Germans (e.g., barbarians). The second is from Columella’s advice manual to Roman farmers. What can you say from reading these two passages about the differences between Roman and barbarian agricultural practices, about the knowledge and skills required to farm in the two societies, and hence the upbringing of youngsters to their adult roles?
Julius Caesar on The Germans, c. 51 BCE
22. They are not devoted to agriculture, and the greater portion of their food consists of milk, cheese, and flesh. No one owns a particular piece of land, with fixed limits, but each year the magistrates and the chiefs assign to the clans and the bands of kinsmen who have assembled together as much land as they think proper, and in whatever place they desire, and the next year compel them to move to some other place. They give many reasons for this custom---that the people may not lose their zeal for war through habits established by prolonged attention to the cultivation of the soil; that they may not be eager to acquire large possessions, and that the stronger may not drive the weaker from their property; that they may not build too carefully, in order to avoid cold and heat; that the love of money may not spring up, from which arise quarrels and dissensions; and, finally, that the common people may live in contentment, since each person sees that his wealth is kept equal to that of the most powerful.
23. It is a matter of the greatest glory to the tribes to lay waste, as widely as possible, the lands bordering their territory, thus making them uninhabitable. They regard it as the best proof of their valor that their neighbors are forced to withdraw from those lands and hardly any one dares set foot there; at the same time they think that they will thus be more secure, since the fear of a sudden invasion is removed....
Columella: Advice to Roman Farmers:
One who devotes himself to agriculture should understand that he must call to his assistance these most fundamental resources: knowledge of the subject, means for defraying the expenses
, and the will to do the work. For in the end, as Tremelius remarks, he will have the best-tilled lands who has the knowledge
, the wherewithal, and the will to cultivate them. For the knowledge and willingness will not suffice anyone without the means which the tasks require; on the other hand
, the will to do or the ability to make the outlay will be of no use without knowledge of the art, since the main thing in every enterprise is to know what has to be done — and especially so in agriculture, where willingness and means
, without knowledge, frequently bring great loss to owners when work which has been done in ignorance brings to naught the expense incurred. Accordingly, an attentive head of a household
, whose heart is set on pursuing a sure method of increasing his fortune from the tillage of his land, will take especial pains to consult on every point the most experienced farmers of his own time; he should study zealously the manuals of the ancients
, gauging the opinions and teachings of each of them, to see whether the records handed down by his forefathers are suited in their entirety to the husbandry of his day or are out of keeping in some respects.