I.—EGYPT AND ETHIOPIA.
In the afternoon they came unto a land, In which it seemed always afternoon.
-TENNYSON: Lotus Eaters.
EGYPT was originally a colony of the Hindus. It appears that about seven or eight thousand years ago a body of colonists from India settled in Egypt, where they established one of the mightiest empires of the old world. Colonel Olcott says: “We have a right to more than suspect that India, eight thousand years ago, sent a colony of emigrants who carried their arts and high civilization into what is now known to us as Egypt. This is what Brugsch Bey, the most modern as well as the most trusted Egyptologer and antiquarian, says on the origin of the old Egyptians. Regarding these as a branch of the Caucasian family having a close affinity with the Indo-Germanic races, he insists that they ‘ migrated from India long before historic memory, and crossed that bridge of nations, the Isthmus of Suez, to find a new fatherland on the banks of the Nile.’ The Egyptians came, according to their own records, from a mysterious land (now shown to lie on the shore of the Indian ocean), the sacred Punt; the original home of their gods who followed thence. after their people who had abandoned them to the valley of the Nile, led by Amon, Hor and Hathor. This region was the Egyptian ‘ Land of the Gods;’ Pa-Nuter, in old Egyptian, or Holyland, and now proved beyond any doubt to have been quite a different place from the Holyland of Sinai. By the pictorial hieroglyphic inscription found (and interpreted) on the walls of the temple of the Queen Haslitop at Der-el-babri, we see that this Punt can be no other than India. For many ages the Egyptians traded with their old homes, and the reference here made by them to the names of the Princes of Punt and its fauna and flora, especially the nomenclature of various precious woods to be found but in India, leave us scarcely room for the smallest doubt that the old civilization of Egypt is the direct outcome of that of the older India.”‘
Mr. Pococke says: “At the mouths of the Indus dwell a seafaring people, active, ingenious, and enterprising as when, ages subsequent to this great movement, they themselves, with the warlike denizens of the Punjab, were driven from their native land to seek the far distant climes of Greece. The commercial people dwelling along the coast that stretches from the mouth of the Indus to the Coree, are embarking on that emigration whose magnificent results to civilization, and whose gigantic monuments of art, fill the mind with minoled emotions of admiration and awe. These people coast along the shores of Mekran, traverse the mouth of the Persian Gulf, and again adhering to the sea-board of Oman, Hadramant, and Yeman (the Eastern Arabia), they sail up the Red Sea; and again ascending the mighty stream that fertilises a land of wonders, found the kingdoms of Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia. These are the same stock that, centuries subsequently to this colonization, spread the blessings of civilization over Hellas and her islancls.”2
‘See the Theosophist for March 1881, p,123. 2India in Greece, p. 42.
Mr. Pococke thus summarises his researches: “I would now briefly recapitubte the leading evidences, of the colonization of Africa from North-western India and the Himalaya provinces. First, from the provinces or rivers deriving their names from the great rivers of India; secondly, from the towns and provinces of India or its northern frontiers; thirdly, from the Ruling Chiefs styled Ramas (Rameses), &c. ;, fourthly, similarity in the objects of sepulture; fifthly, architectural skill and its grand and gigantic character; and sixthly, the power of translating words, imagined to be Egyptian, through the medium of a modified Sanskrit.”‘
Mr. Pococke then proceeds to subjoin “the opinions of men of sound judgment in connection with the Indian colonization of Egypt.”
The name “ Nile “ was given to the great river of Egypt by the Indian settlers there. “ For about 10 miles below the Attock,” says a critic, “the Indus has a clean, deep and rapid current, but for above a hundred miles further down to Kalabagh it becomes an enormous torrent. The water here has a (lark lead colour, and hence the name Nilab or Blue river given as well to the Indus as to a town on its banks, about 12 miles below Attock.” As Aboasin (a classical name for the Indus) gave its name to Abusinia (Abyssinia) in Africa, so here “ we now observe the Nilab (the blue water) bestowing an appelation on the farfamed “Nile” of Egypt. This is one of those facts which prove the colonization of Egypt to have taken place from the coast of Scinde.”
‘India in Greece, p. 201.
Apart from historical evidence there are ethnological grounds to support the fact that the ancient Egyptians were originally an Indian people. Professor Heeren is astonished at the “physical similarity in colour and in the conformation of the head “of the ancient Egyptians and the Hindus. As regards the latter point, he adds: “As to the form of the head, I have now before me the skulls of a mummy and a native of Bengal from the collections of M. Blumenbach; and it is impossible to conceive anything more striking than the resemblance between the two, both as respects the general form and the structure of the firm portions. Indeed the learned possessor himself considers them to be the most alike of any in his numerous collections.”‘
After showing the still more striking similarity between the manners and customs, in fact, between the whole, social, religious and political institutions of the two peoples,(crafessor Heeren says: “It is perfectly agreeable to Hindu manners that colonies from India, i.e., Banian families should have passed over into-
carried with them their industry, and perhaps also their religious worship.”2) He adds: “It is hardly possible to
maintain the opposite side of the question, vzz , that the Hindus were derived from the Egyptians, for it has been already ascertained that the country bordering on the Ganges was the cradle of Hindu civilization. Now, the Egyptians could not have established themselves in that neighbourhood, their probable settlement would rather have taken place on the Coast of Malgbar.”
I Heeren’s Asiatic Nations, Vol. II, p. 303. 21-leei en’s Historical Researches, Vol. II, p. 309,
The learned professor concludes: (Whatever weight may be attached to Indian tradition and the express testimony of .Eusebius confirming the report of migrations frOMigebiiiEOT the Indus into Egypt, there is certainly nothing improbable in the event itself, as a desire of gain would have formed a sufficient inducement.” ) Decisive evidence of the fact, however, may be foundln Philostratus and Nonnus. For further information on the subject, vide Religion.
After tracing the descent of Philippos of Macedon and his son, Alexander, from Bhili-Pos or Bhil-Prince and Hammon in Afghanistan, Mr. Pococke continues: “And these same Bhils, i.e., the Bhil Brahmans planted this same Oracle of Hammon in the deserts of Africa, whither I have already shown that they had sailed; where they founded Philai, i.e., Bhailai, the city of the Bhils, in lat. 24° North, long. 33° East.r
Mr, Pococke, who made the subject his life-long study, says: “The early civilization, then, the early arts, the indubitably early literature of India are equally the civilization, the arts and literature of Egypt and of Greece—for geographical evidences, conjoined to historical fact and religious practices, now prove beyond all dispute that the two latter countries are the colonies of the former.”
2 Ethiopia,3 as is universally admitted now, was colonised by the Hindus. Sir W. Jones says: “Ethiopia
‘India in Greece, p. 65. 2lndia in Greece, p. 74. .
a “The ancient geographers called by the name of Ethiopia all that part of Africa which now constitutes Nubia, Abyssinia, Sanaor, Darfur, and Dongala.”—Tizeogony of the Hindus, p. 14,
and Hindustan were possessed or colonised by the Same extraordinary race.
Philostratus introduces the Brahman Iarchus by stating to his auditor .that the Ethiopians were originally an Indian race compelled to leave India for the impurity contracted by slaying a certain monarch to whom they owed allegiance.” 2
Eusebius states that the Ethiopians emigrating from the River Indus settled in the vicinity of Egypt.’”
In Philostratus, an Egyptian is made to remark that he had heard from his father that the Indians were the wisest of men, and that the Ethiopians, a colony of the Indians, preserved the wisdom and usage of their fore4 fathers and acknowledged their ancient origin. We find the same assertion made at a later period, in the third century, by Julius Africanus, from whom it has been preserved by Eusebius and Syncellus.4
Cuvier, quoting Syncellus, even assigns the reign of Amenophis as the epoch of the colonization of Ethiopia from India.5
The ancient Abyssinians (Abusinians), as already remarked, were originally migrators to Africa from the banks of Abuisin, a classical name for the Indus.6
As will appear from the accounts of the commercial position of India in the ancient world, commerce on an extensive scale existed between ancient India and Abyssinia, and we find Hindus in large numbers settled in the
I Asiatic Researches, Vol. I, p. 42G.
2V. A, III, G. See “ India in Greece,” p. 200.
3 Lemp, Barkers’ edition; “ Meroe.”
4See “India in Greece,” p. 205. 5 P. 18 of his “Discours,” &c. 6lieeren’s Historical Researches, Vol. II, p. 310.
latter country, “ whence also,” says Colonel Tod, “ the Hindu names of towns at the estuaries of the Gambia and Senegal rivers, the Tamba Cunda and another Cundas.” He continues: “A writer in the Asiatic Journal (Vol. IV, p. 325) gives a curious list of the names cf places in the interior of Africa, mentioned in Park’s Second Journey, which are shown to be all Sanskrit, and most of them actually current in. India at the present day.”‘
‘See Tod Rajasthan, Vol. II, p. 309, footnote.