Hindu superiority: An Attempt to Determine the Position of the Hindu Race in the Scale of Nations By Har Bilas Sarda, B. A., F. R. S. L



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HINDU SUPERIORITY: An Attempt to Determine the Position of the Hindu Race in the Scale of Nations

By Har Bilas Sarda, B.A., F.R.S.L.,

MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND; FELLOW OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; AND MEMBER OF THE STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION OF BOSTON, UNITED STATES, AMERICA.

AJMER:

CONTENTS


PREFACE. 4

INTRODUCTION. 16

CONSTITUTION. 21

I ANTIQUITY. 22

II GOVERNMENT. 27

III SOCIAL SYSTEM. 35

IV.—CHARACTER. 38

V—CHIVALRY. 51

VI. PATRIOTISM. 58

VII VALOUR. 65

VIII.—THE POSITION OF WOMEN. 72

IX—FOREIGN RELATIONS. 87

X CAUSE OF INDIA’S FALL. 91

HINDU COLONIZATION. 105

I.—EGYPT AND ETHIOPIA. 105

II—PERSIA. 108

III.—ASIA MINOR. 111

IV. GREECE. 112

V. ROME. 114

VII. GERMANY. 117

VIII. SCANDINAVIA. 118

THE HYPERBOREANS. 119

GREAT BRITAIN. 120

EASTERN ASIA. 122

AMERICA. 126

LITERATURE. 135

SANSKRIT LANGUAGE. 137

ART OF WRITING. 140

THE VEDIC LITERATURE. 143

I.-THE VEDIC LITERATURE. 143

II. POETRY. 150

III. EPIC POETRY. 151

THE PURANAS. 177

PHILOSOPHY. 180

NYAYA. 185

VEISHESHIK. 187

SANKHYA. 189

YOGA, 190

MIMANSA. 193

BHAGWAT GITA. 196

SCIENCE. 196

I.—MEDICINE. 196

II.—MATHEMATICS. 207

ARITHMETIC. 208

GEOMETRY. 209

ALGEBRA. 211

III.—ASTRONOMY. 215

IV.—MILITARY SCIENCE. 224

V.—MUSIC. 235

OTHER SCIENCES. 241

ARTS. 249

I.—ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE, 249

IL—WEAVING. 253

III.—OTHER ARTS. 256

COMMERCE AND WEALTH. 259

I.—COMMERCE. 259

CEYLON. 267

LAND TRADE. 269

II.—WEALTH. 273

RELIGION. 275




PREFACE.


Tins book has grown out of a pamphlet written years ago and put aside at the time. The object of the book is, by presenting a bird’s eye view of the achievements of the ancient Hindus, to invite the attention of thoughtful people to the leading features of the civilization which enabled the inhabitants of this country to contribute so much to the material and moral well-being of mankind. And if this attempt succeeds in any way in stimulating interest in the study of the leading institutions of Hinduism and a proper appreciation of their merits I shall be amply repaid for my labour.

I must take this opportunity of expressing my gratitude to Mr. J. Inglis, Superintendent, Scottish Mission Industries, Ajmer, for his valuable assistance in seeing the book through the Press.

HAR BILAS SARDA.

AJMER :


November 1906.

CONTENTS.

CONSTITUTION.

The leading principle of Indian Constitution.—Turning point of Indian history.—Hindu decay beginning with the Kaliyug 1

I.-ANTIQUITY.

Wonderful antiquity of the Hindu civilization.—Opinions of Count Bjornstjerna, Dr. Stiles, Halhed, Pliny and Abul Fazal.—The Hindu King Dionysius reigned 7,000 B.C., or 1,000 years before the oldest king on Manetho’s tables,—Dynasties, not individuals, as units of calculation.—Rock temples as proofs of antiquity,—The Bactrian document Dabistan.—Hindu civilization before 6,000 B.C.—The Sankalp —Brahma Din and Ratri.— Age of the earth according to the Hindus

II.-GOVERNMENT.

Tests of good government.—Populousness of ancient India.—Views of Greek writers.—Hindus as numerous as all the other nations put together,—India renowned for wealth,—No thieves in ancient India.—Form of Government immaterial.—Spirit dependent on the ethical character of a people.—Mistaken identification of democratic institutions with freedom.—Mr. Herbert Spencer’s views.—Over—Government. —Republican institutions in ancient India.—Law, a test of good government.—Origin of the Greek, Roman and English laws.—Laws of Manu.—Hindu code will bear comparison with the systems of jurisprudence in nations most highly civilized.—Fallacies in Mill’s reasoning.—His prejudice.—His History of India most mischievous according to Max Muller.—Sir Thomas Strange on Hindu Law of Evidence.—Sir W. Jones on Capita’s Commentary on Mann ... 13

III.--SOCIAL SYSTEM.

Hindu social organization based on scientific principles — Varnashrama.—Different from the caste system.—Brahmans and Sudras not. by birth but by actions and character.—Mahabharata on the Varnaskrama.-11 egasthenes and Col. Tod on the system.—Sir H. Cotton and Mr. Sidney Low on the present Caste system 27

IV.-CHARACTER.

Love of truth—Arrian, Strabo, Hioventhsang and other Chinese writers; Marco Polo, Idrisi, Shamsuddin and other Mohamedan writers; Sir J. Malcolm, Col. Sleeman, Professor Max Muller on the truthfulness of the Hindus.—Absence of slavery.—Hindu valour.—The most tolerant nation.—Character of Yudhishthra.— Views of Neibubr, Monier Williams, Elphinstone, Mercer, Sydenham, Abbe Dubois, and Sir T. Munro.—No race more to be trusted than the Hindus.—If civilization to be an article of trade between England and India, England will gain by the import cargo.—Commercial honour stands higher in India than in any other country.—Views of Warren Hastings, Heber and Wilson.—Hindu children more intelligent than European.—Hindu cleanliness.—Diet of the Hindus.Physical

Hindu as the wisest of nations.—Hindu origin of the game of Chess,—Wisdom of Solomon inferior to that of the Hindus.— Chivalrous conduct of Humayun.—A Mohamedan saves the Rahtore dynasty from extinction . ... 34

V.-CHIVALRY.

Innate chivalry of Hindu character,—Chivalry of Sadoo.—Raja of Duttea.—The Ralrhi.--Rawal Chachick of Jaisalmer.— Chivalry of Rana Raj Singh.—Ill-judged humanity of the Hindus.—Its unfortunate political results,—Cases of Shahabuddin Ghori and. Aurangzeb. ,54

VI.-PATRIOTISM.

Love of Country.—Rana Pratap and Thakur Durga Das.—Their exploits.--Their patriotism.—Pratap and Hamilcar.—Durga Das the Anwlac.—Aurangzeb’s dread of Durga Das.—Gar-kaBandi.—The heir of Mehtri.—Patriotism of Raj Singh of Jaisalnier.—Soortan Singh of Sirohin—His heroic conduct at Delhi,—Col. Tod on Rajput chivalry and heroism ... 6h

The Hindus were the bravest nation the Greeks ever came in contact with,—Their character shines brightest in adversity,—They know not what it is to ,flee from the battle-field.—Kesrian Kasurnal.—Rao Sooju of Bundi.—The mother of the Rao.— Mukand.as faces a tiger; the tiger retires.—Mohabat Khan’s exploit.—Rajput charges at Tonga and Patunn—Soningdeo breaks the iron bow at Delhi.—Homer’s heroes compared to Kurus.—Lakh Talvar Rahtorcin.—Recourse to poison by Moghal kings.—Deaths of Jaswant Singh, Prithi Singh and Jai Singh. Th e cause of Akbar’s death.—The murder of Ajit Singh of Jodhpur.—Singularity of Rajput character.—Its tenacity and strength.—Hercules was a Hindu.— Views of Prof. Heeren, Diodorus, Megasthenes, Col. Tod and Pococke,—Proofs of the identity of Balram and Hercules 79

VIII.-POSITION OF WOMEN.

Position of women a test of civilization.—Chivalrous treatment of women by the Hindus.—Views of Mann and other sages.— Jai Singh and his queen, Hariji.—Status of wife.—Her equal rights with her husband according to the Sastras.—Woman, ardhangini, or half of man,—Conaparison in this respect of the Hindu and the European women.—Ideals of Hindu women.— Maitreye, Gargya, Savitri, Damyanti, Avvayar and Kekayi.— Purdah system unknown in ancient India,—The rights of women to property,—Peculiar position of Hindu women.—Influence of Hindu, women on society,—Female loyalty.— Dewalde and her sons, Ala and Udila.—Tarabai of Bednore.— Rani Durgavati, another Boadecea.—The heroism of Korumdevi and Jawahir Bai.—The matchless valour of the mother of Fattah of Kailwa during Akbar’s siege of Chitor.—Sanjogta.—Bernier’s testimony to the courage of Rajput women.—Retreat of Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur after his defeat at Fatehabad,—The Rani refuses to see him and shuts the gate of the castle ... 92

IX.-FOREIGN RELATIONS.

The conquest of the world by the Hindu Emperor, Sudas.—Opinions of Mr. Townsend and General Sir Ian Hamilton.—The conquests of Pururawa and of King Sagara,—Persia, Afghanistan and Turkistan parts of the Indian Empire. —Greek embassies to India.—Megasthenes, Deimachus and Basilis.—Antioehus the Great becomes an ally of Sobhag Sen.—Seleucus gives his daughter in marriage to Chandergupta —The Persian king, Nausherwan, gives his daughter to the Maharana of Chitor.— Indian embassies to Greece.—The Assyrian Queen, Semiramis, invades India,—Her defeat.—Gaj Sing, the founder of Ghazni, defeats Shah Secunder Roomi and Shah Mamraiz ... 120

X. CAUSE OF INDIA’S FALL.

Alexander’s invasion of India.—Hindu disunion, the cause of Alexander’s victory.—The brilliancy of the court of Vicramaditya.—The treacherous conduct of Alexander.— Prithvi Raj of Ajmer.—His victories over Shahabud-din Ghori.—Disunion between Prithvi Raj and Jai Chand,—The kings of Kanauj and Annhalwara Patun and Hamir join the enemy.—Prithvi Raj kills Shahabud-din with the help of Chund,—Baber’s invasion.—Hindus under Rana Sanga.—Treachery in his camp.—Rayseen, the `friar leader, goes over to Baber,—India not conquered by a foreign invader but betrayed by her own sons. 127

HINDU COLONIZATION.

Destruction and emigration the chief features of the period when the Mahab!iarata took place.—Whole races and tribes emigrated from India.—India’s loss was the world’s gain.—Emigration a necessary feature of a thickly-populated country.—Scarcity of historical records.—Destruction of Hindu libraries.—Dr. Dow, Profs. Wilson, Heeren and Col. Tod on Hindu works on history.— The date of the Mahabharata.--Views of the Hindu astronomers.— Traditions,—The Hindu theory of emigration.—The Central Asian theory of emigration.—Hindu civilization. originated and developed in India.--It spread to Ethiopia, Egypt, Phoenicia, Persia. Greece; Rome, to the abode of the Hyperboreans, to Siam, China and Japan.—Col. Olcott, Sir W. Jones and Mr. Pococke...135

I.-EGYPT AND ETHIOPIA.

Egypt colonized by Hindus about 8,000 years ago.—Views of B rugsch Bey, Pi ofessor Heeren and. Mr.Pococke.—The testimony of Philostratus, Eusebius and Julius Africanus, Cuvier and Col. Tod. to the Hindu colonization of Ethiopia ... ... 149

IL-PERSIA.

The ancient Persians were colonists from India.—Prof. Max Muller’s opinion,—Zind derived from the Sanskrit,—Prof. Heeren and Sir W. Jones and Prof, Haug–Mann on the origin of the Persians,—Testimony of Vendidad ... 156

III.----ASIA MINOR.

The Chaldeans and the Assyrians were originally Hindus,—Views

of Mr. Pococke and Prof, Maurice ...

IV.-GREECE.

The 11 indu origin of the ancient Greeks.—Greek society essentially Hindu.—Origin of the names Greek, Pelasgi and Macedonians.—Hellados,—TheHellas.—Achilles sprung from a Rajput stock . ... 162

V.-ROME.

The Romans were the descendants of colonists from India.—Rome derived from Rama.—The Etruscans were settlers from India... 167

VI.-TURKISTAN AND NORTHERN ASIA.

Turkistan peopled by the Hindus.—Turanians were Hindus.— Ottorocnrm of the Greek writers were Ootooru Cooru, or Northern Coorns, sons of Cooru.—Khata inhabited_ by Hindus.— Bajrapur in Siberia founded by Hindus.—Succession of the sons of Sri Krishna to the throne.—Chaglitaes were Yadus.—Origin of the Afghans.—Seestan.—Origin of the name Asia.Samoyedes and Tehoudes of Siberia and Finland were the Yadus of India.„ 168

VII. GERMANY.

German .Mensch same as Sanskrit Manush.—Morning ablutions.—Origin of the name Germans.—The Hungarians.—Sculpture of Saxon cathedrals . . .., 171

VIII. SCANDINAVIA.

Scandinavians descended from the warrior class of the Hindus.— Asigard or fortress of the Asi.—Colonized about 500 B.C.—The Scandinavian Edda derived from the Vedas.—Days of the week.—Origin of the Scandiravian myths .. 173,

IX.-HY PERBO RE AN S.

Their Hindu Origin.—Emigrants from Khyberpur.—Passaron ... 175

X.-GREAT BRITAIN.

The Druids were Buddhistic Brahmans.—Alexander and Napier conquer the descendants of their forefathers.—Derivation of “ Hurrah.”—The Stonehenge.—The Isle of Saints or Mona’_— The Celtic Druids . . .. 176

XI.--EASTERN ASIA.

Transgangetic Peninsula a part of India.—Influence of China over it.—The name Burmah.—Canaboja or Cambodia —The Chinese assert their Hindu origin —They were emigrants from northern and north-western India.--Culture and religion of China.— Hindu colonization of the isles of the Indian archipelago.—Java. — Views of Col. Tod, Mr. El phinstone, Sir Stamford Raffles, and Mr. Sewell.–.-Testimony of Chinese pilgrims.—Java peopled entirely by the Hindus.—Borneo, Celebes, Sumatra and Australia 179

X II.-AMERICA.

High civilization of the ancient Americans.—Hindu remains still found there.— Testimony of Mr. Pococke, Mr. Hardy, Mr. Square and Dr. Zurfu.—Hindu mythology the parent of the American mythology. —Proofs of the Hindu colonization of America.— Worship of Ramachandra and Sita.–Arjuna’s conquest of America and marriage with the daughter of the King.—Routes to America 186

The question of Hindus visiting foreign lands.—The Vedas enjoin it.--Testimony of Sastras.—Manu and the Mahabharata –Travels of Vyasji and Sukhdeoji.—The expeditions of the Pandavas,— Emperor Sagarji.—The god of the sea.—Marriages of Hindu kings with foreign princesses.—Hindus in Turkistan,Persia and Russia,—Origin of the different nations of Asia and Europe.— Testimony of the Puraiias and the Mahabharata,—The seven Dwipas.--The deluge.—Mon. Delbos on Hindu civilization ... 191

LITERATURE.

Literature a test of the greatness of a nation.—W. C. Taylor on Sanskrit literature.—Bjornstjerna, Brown, General Cunningham, Prof. Heeren, Sir W, Jones, Max Muller and Ward.—The Hindu had the widest range of mind of which man is capable ... 201

SANSKRIT LANGUAGE.

Sanskrit language of wonderful structure.----Compared with Greek, Latin and Hebrew.—More perfect and refined than any.—Profs, Wilson, Max Muller and Schlegel.—Modern philology dates from the study of Sanskrit.—Alphabets of ,Western Asia derived from the Deonagri.—Sanskrit is the basis of all Indo-European languages.—Greek and Zind derived from the Sanskrit.—Connection of Sanskrit with the ancient languages

Europe.—High antiquity of the Sanskrit literature ... 204

ART OF WRITING.

Alphabetical writing known in India from the earliest times.—Its use extended to every purpose of common life.—Views of I3jornstjerna, Goldstucker, Roth and Shyamji Krishnavarma.—Sanskrit was the spoken vernacular of the ancient Hindus 213

L-VEDIC LITERATURE.

Max Muller on Vedic Literature.—The Vedas the greatest work in all literature.--Views of Voltaire, Guigault and Delbos regarding the Vedas.—Vedas the most precious gift for which the West

is indebted to the East.--The study of Vedic Literature indispensable to all.—The Vedas the oldest books in the world.—Vedas the fountain of knowledge.—Vedic teaching regarding the composition of air.—Brahmanas not a part of the Vedas.— Sittras.—Pratisalehyas.—” Study of Language “ by the Greeks and the Hindus.—Plato, Aristotle,Zenodotus and others compared with the ancient Hindus in this respect.—Consonantal division of the Sanskrit language unique in the history of literature.—Inferiority of modern Europeans in this respect.—In philology the Hindus excel the Ancients and the Moderns,—Grammatical science of the Hindus.—Grammar of Panini stands supreme amongst the grammars of the world,—One of the most splendid achievements of human invention and industry.—Hindu achievements still unsurpassed.—” No other country can produce any grammatical system at all comparable to Panini “ .. 219

IL-POETRY.

Treasures of poetry in India are inexhaustible.—The Hindus were a poetical people ...230

III.-EPIC POETRY.

Ramayana and Mahahharata compared to Iliad and Odyssey,Ramayana the noblest of epics and far superior to the work of Nonnus.-One of the most beautiful compositions that have appeared at any period or in any country.—Rama and Sita, perfect characters.—Maliabliarata is the grandest of the epics.— Views of Mary Scott, Jeremiah Curtin, St. Hilaire Bartholemy, Sir Edwin Arnold. Mr. T. M. Coan and A, Barth.—Indian epics compared with the Greek epics,—Hindu and Greek mythologies compared. Iliad and Odyssey are founded on the Ramayana and the Mahabharata 231

INT.-DRAMA.

Causes of the excellence of Hindu drama.—Hindu theatre will fill as many volumes as that of any nation of modern Europe.— Hindu comedy no way inferior to the ancient Greek,—Snperiority of Hindu drama over the Greek explained and illustrated.— The higher purpose of the dramatic art never lost sight of in Hindu dramatic. literature.—” Nowhere is love expressed with greater force or pathos than in the poetry of India.”—Kalidas “one of the greatest dramatists the world ever produced.”“ He has done honour to all civilized mankind.”—Salcuntala an astonishing literary performance.—Views of Schlegel, Humboldt and Goethe.—Language nowhere else so beautifully musical or so magnificently grand as that of the Hindu drama.—Vicrama and Urvasi,—Explanations of the scientific myth.--Uttra Ram Charitra.—May be compared advantageously with like compositions of Europe.—M adhava Mal a ti.—Mudra Rak s h asa.—M rich hliati compared with the Merchant of Venice and the Two Noble Kinsmen.—Prabodh Chandroclya.—There is nothing like it in the literature of other countries ... 247

V.-LYRIC POETRY.

Gita Govind.—Views of Schlegel and Sir W. Jones.—Its luxuriant imagery and voluptuous softness.—Ritu Sangrah.—Impossible of translation.—Megh Duta “will bear advantageous comparison with best specimens of uniform verse in the poetry of any language, living or dead “ . OI 0*. 258

VI.-ETHICO-DIDACTIC POETRY.

Hindu achievements in. this branch of literature establish their intellectual superiority.—Constitutes practical ethics.—Its use and cultivation peculiar to the Bindus.—Panchtantra is the source of the whole fabulous literature of the world.—” Hindus are the instructors of the rest of mankind in the composition of tales and fables.”—YEsop’s fables derived from India.—Ancient fables of India are at the present day the nursery stories of England and America,—Translations by Barzoi under the orders of Nansherawan.—..krabian Nights Entertainments also of Hindu origin. —Internal evidence to support the Hindu origin of the fabulons literature of the world.—The hook of Sindehad, the Hebrew Parables of Sendebar, the Greek Romance of Syntipas, and Seven Sages of Rome, all of Indian origin.—Testimony of Al Masudi.— Causes of extraordinary development of this branch of literature in India .. . . 262

VII. PURANAS.

Puranas are semi-religious books. They are the treasuries of universal information like the Encyclopaedia Britannica.—Their origin.—Causes which assigned them their present position.– Th ree classes.—Their number.—They contain 16,00,000 lines.—Summaries of the Sri Bhagwat and Agni Puranas.—The names of the Hp-Puranas.—The character of the Puranas 269

PHILOSOPHY.

Philosophers arise in highly-civilized countries, and they are even then few in number.---” The Hindus were a nation of philosophers.”—Views of Profs. Max Muller, Schlegel, Manning, Weber and Sir W. Hunter.—Hindu philosophy exhausted the possible solutions of problems which have since perplexed the Greeks and Romans, Schoolmen and modern men of science.—Hindu philosophy contains counterparts of all systems of European philosophy.—Greek philosophy derived from India.—Pythagoras, Pyrrho, ‘Tales, Anaxarchus, Democritus, Empedocles and others went to India to learn philosophy and imported doctrines from there into Greece.—Origin of Philosophy,—The six schools of Hindu philosophy ... 275

NYAYA.

Classes of substances.—The soul and body affect each other through the mind.—Transmigration of souls.—Vedas are the Revelation.—Material cause of the universe.—Not a system of logic only.—European logic compared with that of Nyaya.—” The logical researches of the Hindus are scarcely behind the similar works of modern times “ , ... 283

VEISHESHIK.

it is a fuller development of Nyaya.—Summary of its contents.—Difference between Nyaya and Veisheshik.—K anada’s doctrine of atoms superior to that of Democritus.—Theory of sound.— Syllogism.—Difference between Greek and Hindu syllogism 285

SANKHYA.

The oldest system of philosophy.—Points of difference from Nyaya.Opinion of Mrs. Manning and others.—Views of modern physiologists are a return to the evolution theory of Kapila ... 289

YOGA.

The importance of Yoga philosophy.-Its practinal character.Eight stages of Yoga.—Testimonies of Prof. Wilson, Dr, Mittra, Dr. McGregor and others to the powers of a Yogi.—The system is peculiar to the Hindus. , 2DI

MIMANSAS.

Utara and Purva Mimansas. —Vedanta a grand system of philosophy.—” No one can read it without feeling a richer and a wiser man. “--Difference of opinion regarding the Vedanta.—Views of Ramannja, Shanker and Dayanand.— Sir W. Jones’ explanation of the Vedanta.—The Mimansa method.—The Upanishads.—The sublime character of their teachings.—Views of Prof. Deussen and of the philosopher Sehopenbauer.—Greeks and Hindus compared 294

BHAGWAT GITA.

Views of Mrs, Manning, Prof. Heeren and Mr. Elphinstone ... 299

SCIENCE.

I. MEDICINE.

Hindu sanitary code.—Manu one of the greatest sanitary reformers of the world.—Views of Prof. Wilson, Sir W. Hunter, Weber.—Dhanwantari, Charaka and Susrnta.—Hind.u. surgery.—” European surgeons might perhaps even at the present day still learn something from the Hindu science of surgery.—Surgical instruments of the Hindus.—Veterinary science.–Translation of Sanskrit works into Persian and Arabic.— Anatomy.—Origin of the science of medicine.—Arab medicine founded on Hindu medicine.—Alberuni.--Hindu physicians at the courts of the I(halifs.—Barzoubyeh.—Almansur, Rhazes, Serapion, Avecinna, Abu Osaiba and others.—Hindu physicians in charge of hospitals in Baghdad.—Influence on GreekMedicine.Cureof snakebite,—Hindu chemistry.—Preparation of caustic alkali.—Mercurial preparations first administered internally by the Hindus.—Medicinal virtues of mercury unknown in Europe till after the time of Pliny.—Vaccination known to the ancient Hindus.—Dhanwantari describes vaccination ... 301

II.-MATHEMATICS.

Hindus invented decimal cyphers.—Views of Schlegel, Prof. Macdonell, Monier Williams, Manning, Sir W. Hunter, Weber and Wilson on the invention of numerical symbols. ... 319

ARITHMETIC.

High proficiency in arithmetic.—Professor Wallace on Hindu arithmetic ... 321

GEOMETRY.

Surya Siddhanta contains- an original system of trigonometry founded on a geometrical theorem not known to the geometrecians of Europe till about two hundred years ago,—Ratio of the diameter of a circle to its circumference.—Antiquity of Hindu geometry —The 47th Proposition of Book I known to the Hindus two centuries before Pythagoras, who learnt it from the Hindus.—Area of a triangle in the terms of its three sides.—Unknown even in Europe till modern times ... 322

ALGEBRA,

Professor Wallace on the high proficiency of the Hindus in Algebra.—Indeterminate problems and their solution.—Arabs recipients not inventors.—Invention of algebra and geometry due to Hindus.—Greek and Hindu mathematics compared.--History of two problems of Algebra.—The process Cattaca.—Problem solved by Buddha at his marriage is the basis of the Arenarius of Archimedes.—Differential calculus known to the Hindus ... 326

III.--ASTRONOMY.

Extraordinary ,proficiency of the ‘Hindus in astronomy.—Hindu astronomy disproves the chronology of the Hebrew Scriptures.— It is the remains rather than the elements of a science.—Hindu observations made more than three thousand years before Christ evince a very high degree of astronomical science.— Conjunction of the planets at the beginning of the Kaliyug.— Tables of Solar eclipses sent to Europe by Laubere and Patouillet—Brahmin calculations proved to be absolutely exact by the tables of Cassini and Meyer.— Annual variations of the moon.—Proofs of the great antiquity of Hindu astronomy.—More advanced than the Greek or the Arab astronomy.— Views of Sir W. Hunter, Mr. Elphinstone, Profs, Weber and Wilson. Originality of the Hindus.—Nakshatras or moon stations and the Chinese Sieu,—The Arabs were the disciples of the Hindus.—The nine Siddhantas.—The date of the Surya Siddlianta.—Age of Parasar Muni.—Aryabhatta Baramihira and Bhashkeraeharya.— Roundness of the earth.—The annual and diurnal motions of the earth.—The stars are stationary.—The Polar days and nights.—Circumference of the earth.—What keeps the earth in its place.—The moon is a dark body.—The atmosphere.— Eelipses.—Tides.—Jai Singh II.—Methods of the Hindus.— A peculiar theory of planetary motions.—To find the longitude of a place ... 3 32

INT.-MILITARY SCIENCE.

Hindu traditions all warlike.—Naval power of the Hindus.—Hindu science of war.—Divisions of the army.—Array of forces or Vyuhas.—Use of elephants.—Soldierly qualities of the modern Indians.—Their chivalrous conduet.—Their bravery.—Arehery of the Hindus.—Indian swordmen.—Classifieation of weapons.— Hindu weapons now extinct.— Firearms of the Hindus and their extensive employment. —Guns and cannons in mediwval India.— Vajra.--Gunpowder.—Greek writers on the firearms of the Hindus.--King Hal and the clay elephant.—Views of Carey, Marsh-man and Scholiast.—Firearms used by King Sagara.—The Brahmastra.—Ramayana mentions firearms.—The Shatagni and Agniaster.--Views of Halbed and Mr. II, H. Elliot.--Rockets a Hindu invention.—Other machines and contrivances to throw projectiles now extinct—The Greek fire.—The Ashtar Vidya of the Hindus .. .. 349

V.-MUSIC.

The Hindus are a, musical race.—Hindu music formed on. better principles than European music.—Hindu system of music the oldest in the world.=Sub-division of tones and number of sonal modifications too intricate to be appreciated by Europeans.—Europeans cannot imitate Hindu music.—Hindu airs cannot be set to music.--Cultivated on scientific principles.--European ignorance of Hindu music.—The Ragas and Ragnees.—The six principal Ragas.—Hindu notation introduced into European music in the eleventh century.—Derivation of Greek music front India.—Tansen and Naik Gopal . 366

VI. OTHER SCIENCES.

Engineering. --Mechanics,—Microscopes,--Telescopes.—Fi re-engines.—Botany.—Magnets.—Doctrine of Vacuum in Nature.— Vim an Vidya.—A complete sci ence.— S a rp a Vidya.—Electricity and Magnetism.—Philosophy of sleep.--Aureole round the heads of Hindu gods

ARTS.

I.-ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE.

Hindu architecture, wonderful and beautiful.—Views of Mahmud Ghazn avi.—Unequalled in elegance.--Cave temples shown surpasses description.—Ornamenting grottoes.—The Saracen arch of Hindu Origin.—” Remains of the Hindu architectural art might still furnish architects of Europe with new ideas of beauty and sublimity.”—English decorative art indebted to the Hindus.—Restoration of taste in England due to Hindus.—Art exhausted itself in India . 389

IL-WEAVING.

Unrivalled delicacy of sense of the Hindus.—Indian cotton finest in the world.—In fineness of texture the Indian cotton cloth is yet unapproached.—The products of the Indian loom yet unrivalled in beauty.—Europeans must not attempt to teach art to India— 39

III.-OTHER ARTS.

Art of dyeing.—Hindu colours the most brilliant in the world.—Hindus discovered the art of extracting colours from plants.—Ivory works.—Casting iron.—Hindu steel.—Damascus steel of Hindu origin.—The wrought-iron pillar near Kutab at Delhi.—The gun at Nurwar and the girders at Puri prove the marvellous skilil of the Hindus.—Export of iron from India.—System of rotation of crops, derived from India.—Use of glass in windows in ancient India.—Perfection of art in India 400

COMMERCE AND WEALTH.

I.-COMMERCE.

Hindus the masters of the sea-borne trade of the world.—India was “once the seat of commerce “.—Hindus were a commercial people.—Trade with Phoenicia.—The navy of Tarshish.— Peacocks.—The name of Hindu origin.—Trade with Syria.—Greeks first became acquainted with sugar in India.—Trade with Egypt.— Myos Hormos.—Trade with Greece and Rome.—Indian silk in Rome.—Pliny complains of the drain of gold from Rome to India.—Trade with Arabia and Africa.—E astern Trade.---Ceylon.—Its commercialimportanee.—Ports of Ceylon.—Emporium of trade.—Ceylon a part of India.—Commercial ports of India.—Land trade with China.—Desert of Gobi.— Trade with Palmyra.—Trade routes for the land trade with Europe.—Internal trade of India.—Trade roads.—Milestones and inns for travellers.—Indian fairs at Hardwar, Allahabad and other places, ... 405

II. WEALTH.

India was the richest country in the world.—Views of Prof. Heeren and Dr. Wise.—Spoils of Somnath, Mathura and Kanauj.--Gold first found in India.—An Indian port the only pearl market in the world.—The most famous stones and pearls all of Indian origin.—The Pitt and the Kohi-noor 427

RELIGION.

Religion a test of civilization.--What is the Hindu religion?—Knowledge of God.—The Shraddhas.—Hindu religion the only scientific religion in the world.—” Christianity has nothing to offer to those who are dissatisfied with Hinduism.”—Buddhism is only reformed Hinduism.—Majority of mankind still follow religions that emanated from India.—Origin of the Greek Church.—Origin of Christianity.—Buddhism and Hinduism.—Propagation of Buddhism.—Buddhism in Arabia and in Egypt,—The Hermes Scriptures.—Hindu origin of the religion of the Chaldeans, the Babylonians and the inhabitants of Colchis.—The Samaritans were Buddhists.—Buddhism in Britain.—The religion of the Scandinavians.—Edda derived from the Veda.—Scandinavian Mythology.—Egyptian and Greek religions derived from India, The Mosaic cosmogony.—Greek mythology derived from Hindu mythology.—Christian mythology.—The Hindu is the parent of the literature and theology of the world 431
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